Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2021
  • Online publication date: June 2021

21 - Vertical and Horizontal Levels of Analysis in the Study of Human Intelligence

from Part V - Translating Research on the Neuroscience of Intelligence into Action


Neuroscientific theories of intelligence view intelligence as localized in the brain (e.g., Barbey, 2018; Duncan et al., 2000; Haier, 2016). It would be hard to disagree with the idea that intelligence is somehow localized in the brain. Aside from reflexes, intelligent human behavior emanates from the brain, which in turn is affected by a variety of bodily systems. But is intelligence 100% biological, as Haier (2016) at least claims, or is there some benefit in viewing intelligence through a larger lens? Is the argument over whether intelligence is 100% biological even worth having?