Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: January 2017

Chapter 13 - Antepartum Haemorrhage

1.Bottomley, V. House of Commons Hansard Col 173 (1990).
2.McShane, PM, Heye, PS, Epstein, ME. Maternal and perinatal mortality resulting from placental praevia. Obstet Gynecol. 1985; 65: 176–82.
3.Knight, M, Kenyon, S, Brocklehurst, P, et al. (eds). Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care: Lessons Learned to Inform Future Maternity Care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009–2012. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford; 2014.
4.AbouZahr, C. Global burden of maternal death and disability. Br Med Bull. 2003; 67: 111.
5.Faiz, AS, Ananth, CV. Etiology and risk factors for placenta previa: an overview and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003; 13: 175–90.
6.Naeye, RL. Abruptio placenta and placenta previa: frequent, perinatal mortality and cigarette smoking. Obstet Gynecol. 1980; 55: 701–4.
7.Hershkowitz, R, Fraser, D, Mazor, M, Leiberman, JR. One or multiple cesarean sections are associated with similar increased frequency of placenta previa. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995; 62: 185–8.
8.Hibbard, BM. Bleeding in late pregnancy. In Hibbard, BM (ed.), Principles of Obstetrics (pp. 96104). London: Butterworths; 1988.
9.Cotton, DB, Read, JA, Paul, RH, et al. The conservative aggressive management of placenta previa. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980; 137: 687–95.
10.Papinniemi, M, Keski-Nisula, L, Heinonen, S. Placental ratio and risk of velamentous umbilical cord insertion are increased in women with placenta previa. Am J Perinatol. 2007; 24: 353–57.
11.Naeye, ER. Placenta previa: predisposing factors and effects on the fetus and the surviving infants. Obstet Gynecol. 1978; 52: 150–5.
12.Rasmussen, S, Irgrens, KM, Dalaker, K. The occurrence of placenta abruption in Norway 1967–1991. Acta Obstetrica et Scandinavica. 1996; 75: 222–8.
13.Navti, OB, Konje, JC. Bleeding in late pregnancy. In James, D, Steer, PJ, Weiner, CP, Gonik, B (eds), High-Risk Pregnancy: Management Options, 4th edition (pp. 1037–52). St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2011.
14.Taipale, P, Hiilesmaa, V, Ylostalo, P. Transvaginal ultrasonography at 18–23 weeks in predicting placenta previa at delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1998; 12: 422–5.
15.Becker, R, Vonk, R, Vollert, W, Entezami, M. Doppler sonography of uterine arteries at 20–23 weeks: risk assessment of adverse pregnancy outcome by quantification of impedance and notch. J Perinat Med. 2002; 30: 388–94.
16.Oppenheimer, L, Holmes, P, Simpson, N, et al. Diagnosis of low-lying placenta: can migration in the third trimester predict outcome? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 18: 100–2.
17.Ghourab, S. Third-trimester transvaginal ultrasonography in placenta previa: does the shape of the lower placental edge predict clinical outcome? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 18: 103–8.
18.Laing, FC. Placenta previa: avoiding false-negative diagnoses. J Clin Ultrasound. 1981; 9: 109–13.
19.Rosen, DMB, Peek, MJ. Do women with placenta previa without antepartum hemorrhage require hospitali-zation? A N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994; 34: 130–4.
20.RCOG. Antepartum Haemorrhage. London: RCOG Press; 2011.
21.Brenner, WE, Edelman, DA, Hendricks, CH. Characteristics of patients with placenta previa and results of ‘expectant management’. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978; 132: 180–91.
22.Towers, CV, Pircon, RA, Heppard, M. Is tocolysis safe in the management of third trimester bleeding? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 180: 1572–8.
23.Besinger, RE, Moniak, CW, Paskiewicz, LS et al. The effect of tocolytic use in the management of symptomatic placenta previa. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978; 172: 1770–5.
24.Bhide, A, Prefumo, F, Moore, J, et al. Placental edge to internal os distance in the late third trimester and mode of delivery in placenta praevia. BJOG 2003; 110: 860–4.
25.ACOG. Committee opinion no. 266: antepartum hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 99: 169–70.
26.Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Placenta acreta; 2014. (accessed 20 May 2016).
27.Myerscough, PR (ed.). Munro Kerr's Operative Obstetrics, 10th edition. London: Bailliere Tindall; 1982.
28.Kayem, G, Davy, C, Goffinet, F, et al. Conservative versus extirpative management in cases of placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104: 531–6.
29.Lee, W, Kirk, JS, Comstock, CH, et al. Vasa previa: prenatal detection by three-dimensional ultrasonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 16: 384–7.
30.Derbala, Y, Grochal, F, Jeanty, P. Vasa previa. J Perinat Med. 2007; 1: 213.
31.RCOG Placenta Praevia, Placenta Praevia Accreta and Vasa Praevia: Diagnosis and Management. London: RCOG Press; 2011.
32.Oyelese, Y, Catanzarite, V, Prefumo, F, et al. Vasa previa: the impact of prenatal diagnosis on outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 103: 937–42.
33.Knight, M. Peripartum hysterectomy in the UK: management and outcomes of the associated haemorrhage. BJOG. 2007; 114: 1380–7.
34.Yang, JI, Lim, YK, Kim, HS, et al. Sonographic findings of placenta lacunae and the prediction of adherent placenta in women with placenta previa totalis and prior cesarean section. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 28: 178–2.
35.Chou, MM, Tseng, JJ, Ho, ES. The application of three-dimensional color power Doppler ultrasound in the depiction of abnormal uteroplacental angioarchitecture in placenta previa percreta. Ultrasound Obstet Gynaecol. 2002; 19: 625–7.
36.Confidential Enquries into Maternal and Child Health. Saving Mothers Lives: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to Make Motherhood Safer 2003–2005. London: CEMACH; 2007.
37.Warshak, CR, Eskander, R, Hull, AD, et al. Accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 108: 573–81.
38.Sheiner, E, Shoham-Vardi, I, Hallak, M, et al. Placental abruption in term pregnancies: clinical significance and obstetric risk factors. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003; 13: 45–9.
39.Ananth, CV, Berkowitz, GS, Savitz, DA, Lapinski, RH. Placental abruption and adverse perinatal outcomes. JAMA. 1999; 282: 1646–51.
40.Ananth, CV, Oyelese, Y, Yeo, L, Pradhan, A, Vintzileos, AM. Placental abruption in the United States, 1979 through 2001: temporal trends and potential determinants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 192: 191–8.
41.Tikkanen, M, Nuutila, M, Hiilesmaa, V, et al. Clinical presentation and risk factors of placental abruption. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006; 85: 700–5.
42.Fox, H (ed.), Pathology of the Placenta. London: Saunders; 1978.
43.Oyelese, Y, Ananth, CV. Placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 108: 1005–16.
44.Wicherek, L, Klimek, M, Dutsch-Wicherek, M, et al. The molecular changes during placental detachment. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reproduct Biol. 2006; 125: 171–5.
45.Harrington, K, Fayyad, A, Thakur, V, Aquilina, J. The value of uterine artery Doppler in the prediction of uteroplacental complications in multiparous women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 23: 50–5.
46.Toivonen, S, Heinonen, S, Anttila, M, Kosma, VM, Saarikoski, S. Obstetric prognosis after placental abruption. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2004; 19: 336–41.
47.Ananth, CV, Savitz, DA, Williams, MA. Placental abruption and its association with hypertension and prolonged rupture of membranes: a methodologic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 88: 309–18.
48.Ananth, CV, Demissie, K, Smulian, JC, Vintzileos, AM. Relationship among placenta previa, fetal growth restriction, and preterm delivery: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 98: 299306.
49.Gibbs, JM, Weindling, AM. Neonatal intracranial lesions following placental abruption. Eur J Pediatr. 1994; 153: 195–7.
50.Niswander, KR, Friedman, EA, Hooer, DB, et al. Fetal morbidity following potentially ataxigenic obstetric conditions: I, abruption placentae. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 95: 838–55.
51.Ananth, CV, Oyelese, Y, Srinivas, N, Yeo, L, Vintzileos, AM. Preterm premature rupture of membranes, intrauterine infection, and oligohydramnios: risk factors for placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104: 71–7.
52.Nyberg, DA, Cyr, DR, Mack, LA, et al. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption. Am J Roentgenol. 1987; 148: 161–4.
53.Besinger, RE, Niebyl, JR. The safety and efficacy of tocolytic agents for the treatment of preterm labor. Obstet and Gynecol Surv. 1990; 45: 415–40.
54.Towers, CV, Pircon, RA, Heppard, M. Is tocolysis safe in the management of third-trimester bleeding? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 180: 1572–8.
55.Kayani, SI, Walkinshaw, SA, Preston, C. Pregnancy outcome in severe placental abruption. BJOG. 2003; 110: 679–83.
56.Rasmussen, S, Irgens, LM, Dalaker, K. Outcome of pregnancies subsequent to placental abruption: a risk assessment. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000; 79: 496501.
57.Letsky, EA. Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2001; 15: 623–44.