Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2007
  • Online publication date: October 2009

21 - Working memory dysfunctions in stroke patients


Working memory and the Baddeley and Hitch multi-component model

Working memory refers to a system involved in the short-term maintenance and manipulation of information necessary for performing complex cognitive tasks. One of the most influential views of working memory has been put forth by Baddeley and Hitch (1974; see also Baddeley, 1986). The Baddeley and Hitch model comprises a modality-free controlling central executive that is aided by a number of subsidiary slave systems which ensure temporary maintenance of information. Two such systems have been more deeply explored: the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. The phonological loop system is specialized for processing acoustic and verbal material and is composed of two subsystems: a phonological store which can hold memory traces for a few seconds, and an articulatory rehearsal mechanism (analogous to subvocal speech) which permits memory traces to be refreshed. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data (Baddeley, 2003) suggest that the phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal mechanism are associated with the left inferior parietal region (BA 40) and the left inferior frontal cortex (Broca's area)/premotor cortex (BA 6/44), respectively. The visuospatial sketchpad system is assumed to be involved in temporarily maintaining and manipulating visuospatial information. It may actually be composed of two distinct systems, one for maintaining visual representations, and another for spatial ones. A fractionation of the visuospatial sketchpad, analogous to that of the phonological loop, has also been proposed: a visual storage component and a more dynamic retrieval and rehearsal mechanism.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Amberla, K., Wäljas, M., Tuominen, S., et al. (2004). Insidious cognitive decline in CADASIL. Stroke, 35, 1598–602.
Baddeley, A. (1966). Short-term memory for word sequences as a function of acoustic, semantic and formal similarity. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 18, 362–5.
Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory?Trends Cogn. Sci., 4, 417–23.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 4, 829–39.
Baddeley, A. D. and Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G., ed., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 8, New York: Academic Press, pp. 47–90.
Baddeley, A. D., Papagno, C. and Vallar, G. (1988). When long-term learning depends on short-term storage. J. Mem. Lang., 27, 586–95.
Bartha, B. and Benke, T. (2003). Acute conduction aphasia: An analysis of 20 cases. Brain Lang., 85, 93–108.
Basso, A., Spinnler, H., Vallar, G. and Zanobio, M. E. (1982). Left hemisphere damage and selective impairment of auditory verbal short-term memory. A case study. Neuropsychologia, 20, 263–74.
Belleville, S., Peretz, I. and Arguin, M. (1992). Contribution of articulatory rehearsal to short-term memory: Evidence from a case of selective disruption. Brain Lang., 43, 713–46.
Collette, F. and Linden, M. (2002). Brain imaging of the central executive component of working memory. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 26, 105–25.
Collette, F., Linden, M., Laureys, S., et al. (2005). Exploring the unity and diversity of the neural substrates of executive functioning. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 409–23.
Dagenbach, D., Kubat-Silman, A. K. and Absher, J. R. (2001). Human verbal working memory impairments associated with thalamic damage. Int. J. Neurosci., 111, 67–87.
Della Sala, S., Logie, R. H., Beschin, N. and Denis, M. (2004). Preserved visuo-spatial transformations in representational neglect. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1358–64.
Francis, D. R., Clark, N. and Humphreys, G. W. (2003). The treatment of an auditory working memory deficit and the implications for sentence comprehension abilities in mild “receptive” aphasia. Aphasiology, 17, 723–50.
Freedman, M. and Martin, R. C. (2001). Dissociable components of short-term memory and their relation to long-term learning. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 18, 193–226.
Kessels, R. P. C., Zandvoort, M. J. E., Postma, A., Kappelle, L. J. and Haan, E. H. F. (2000). The Corsi block-tapping task: Standardization and normative data. Appl. Neuropsychol., 7, 252–8.
Leskelä, M., Hietanen, M., Kalska, H.,et al. (1999). Executive functions and speed of mental processing in elderly patients with frontal or nonfrontal ischemic stroke. Eur. J. Neurol., 6, 653–61.
Majerus, S., Laureys, S., Collette, F., et al. (2003). Phonological STM networks after recovery of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Human Brain Mapping, 19, 133–44.
Majerus, S., Kaa, M. A., Renard, C., Linden, M. and Poncelet, M. (2005). Treating verbal short-term memory deficits by increasing the duration of temporary phonological representations: A case study. Brain Lang., 95(1), 174–75.
Majerus, S., Linden, M., Poncelet, M. and Metz-Lutz, M.-N. (2004). Can phonological and semantic STM be dissociated? Further evidence from Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 21, 491–512.
Malhotra, P., Jäger, H. R., Parton, A., et al. (2005). Spatial working memory capacity in unilateral neglect. Brain, 128, 424–35.
Malm, J., Kristensen, B., Karlsson, T., et al. (1998). Cognitive impairment in young adults with infratentorial infarcts. Neurology, 51, 433–40.
Malouin, F., Belleville, S., Richards, C. L., Desrosiers, J. and Doyon, J. (2004). Working memory and mental practice outcomes after stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 85, 177–83.
Marshuetz, C., Smith, E. E., Jonides, J., DeGutis, J. and Chenevert, T. L. (2000). Order information in working memory: FMRI evidence for parietal and prefrontal mechanisms. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 12 (Suppl. 2), S130–S144.
Martin, R. C., Shelton, J. R. and Yaffee, L. S. (1994). Language processing and working memory: Neuropsychological evidence for separate phonological and semantic capacities. J. Mem. Lang., 33, 83–111.
Mayer, E., Reicherts, M., Deloche, G., et al. (2003). Number processing after stroke: Anatomoclinical correlations in oral and written codes. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 9, 899–912.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H. and Howerter, A. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cogn. Psychol., 41, 49–100.
Norman, D. A. and Shallice, T. (1980). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. Center for Human Information Processing (Technical report No. 99). Reprinted in revised form in Consciousness and Self-regulation. Advances in Research, ed. Davidson, R. J., Schartz, G. E. and Shapiro, , (1986), Vol 4, New York: Plenum Press, pp. 1–18.
Prabhakaran, V., Narayanan, K., Zhao, Z. and Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2000). Integration of diverse information in working memory within the frontal lobe. Nature Neurosci., 3, 85–90.
Ravizza, S. M. and Ciranni, M. A. (2002). Contributions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia to set shifting. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 14, 472–83.
Silveri, M. A. and Cappa, A. (2003). Segregation of the neural correlates of language and phonological short-term memory. Cortex, 39, 913–25.
Takayama, Y., Kinomoto, K. and Nakamura, K. (2004). Selective impairment of the auditory-verbal short-term memory due to a lesion of the superior temporal gyrus. Eur. Neurol., 51, 115–17.
Vallar G. and Papagno, C. (2002). Neuropsychological impairments of verbal short-term memory. In Handbook of Memory Disorders, 2nd Edition, ed. Baddeley, A. D., Kopelman, M. D. and Wilson, B. A.. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 249–70.
Van der Linden, M. and Poncelet, M. (1998). The role of working memory in language and communication disorders. In Handbook of Neurolinguistics, ed. Stemmer, B. and Whitaker, H. A.. Academic Press, pp. 289–300.
Vataja, R., Pohjasvaara, T., Mäntylä, R., et al. (2003). MRI correlates of executive dysfunction in patients with ischaemic stroke. Eur. J. Neurol., 10, 625–31.