Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-846f6c7c4f-9v9hh Total loading time: 1.841 Render date: 2022-07-06T20:00:32.757Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Section 4 - Factors Influencing the Onset and Course of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 July 2018

Evelyn J. Bromet
Affiliation:
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Elie G. Karam
Affiliation:
St George Hospital University Medical Center, Lebanon
Karestan C. Koenen
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Dan J. Stein
Affiliation:
University of Cape Town
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Global Perspectives from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
, pp. 153 - 252
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alhasnawi, S., Sadik, S., Rasheed, M., et al. (2009). The prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the Iraq Mental Health Survey (IMHS). World Psychiatry, 8, 97109.Google Scholar
Atwoli, L., Platt, J., Williams, D. R., Stein, D. J., & Koenen, K. C. (2015a). Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 1235–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Atwoli, L., Stein, D. J., Koenen, K. C., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2015b). Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: prevalence, correlates and consequences. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 28, 307–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bogic, M., Njoku, A., & Priebe, S. (2015). Long-term mental health of war-refugees: a systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 15, 29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., & Peterson, E. L. (2010). Assaultive violence and the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder following a subsequent trauma. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 1063–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Peterson, E. L., & Schultz, L. R. (2008). A second look at prior trauma and the posttraumatic stress disorder effects of subsequent trauma: a prospective epidemiological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 431–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R. (2014). Episodic memory, perceptual memory, and their interaction: foundations for a theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 6997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bromet, E. J., Atwoli, L., Kawakami, N., et al. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine, 47, 227–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bromet, E., Sonnega, A., & Kessler, R. C. (1998). Risk factors for DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 147, 353–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caramanica, K., Brackbill, R. M., Stellman, S. D., & Farfel, M. R. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among persons exposed to the 9/11 disaster. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17, 356–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Classen, C. C., Palesh, O. G., & Aggarwal, R. (2005). Sexual revictimization: a review of the empirical literature. Trauma, Violence, &Abuse, 6, 103–29.Google ScholarPubMed
Cougle, J. R., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Does prior exposure to interpersonal violence increase risk of PTSD following subsequent exposure? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 1012–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crespo, M., & Fernández-Lansac, V. (2016). Memory and narrative of traumatic events: a literature review. Psychological Trauma, 8, 149–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, A., & Otis, N. (2016). Sexual contact in childhood, revictimization, and lifetime sexual and psychological outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45, 1117–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daskalakis, N. P., Bagot, R. C., Parker, K. J., Vinkers, C. H., & de Kloet, E. R. (2013). The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 1858–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fossion, P., Leys, C., Kempenaers, C., et al. (2015). Beware of multiple traumas in PTSD assessment: the role of reactivation mechanism in intrusive and hyper-arousal symptoms. Aging &Mental Health, 19, 258–63.Google ScholarPubMed
Goldmann, E., & Galea, S. (2014). Mental health consequences of disasters. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 169–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, B. L., Goodman, L. A., Krupnick, J. L., et al. (2000). Outcomes of single versus multiple trauma exposure in a screening sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 271–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1983). A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology, 148, 839–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karam, E. G., Friedman, M. J., Hill, E. D., et al. (2014). Cumulative traumas and risk thresholds: 12-month PTSD in the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Depression and Anxiety, 31, 130–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karam, E. G., Mneimneh, Z. N., Dimassi, H., et al. (2008). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in Lebanon: first onset, treatment, and exposure to war. PLoS Medicine, 5, e61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Galea, S., Jones, R. T., & Parker, H. A. (2006). Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84, 930–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larson, G. E., Highfill-McRoy, R. M., & Booth-Kewley, S. (2008). Psychiatric diagnoses in historic and contemporary military cohorts: combat deployment and the healthy warrior effect. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167, 1269–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy-Gigi, E., & Richter-Levin, G. (2014). The hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure. Stress, 17, 343–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levy-Gigi, E., Richter-Levin, G., Okon-Singer, H., Keri, S., & Bonanno, G. A. (2016). The hidden price and possible benefit of repeated traumatic exposure. Stress, 19, 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, R. T. (2015). A developmentally informed perspective on the relation between stress and psychopathology: when the problem with stress is that there is not enough. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 8092.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lowe, S. R., Walsh, K., Uddin, M., Galea, S., & Koenen, K. C. (2014). Bidirectional relationships between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress: a longitudinal study of Detroit residents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123, 533–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLafferty, M., Armour, C., McKenna, A., et al. (2015). Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 35, 42–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miner, M. H., Flitter, J. M., & Robinson, B. B. (2006). Association of sexual revictimization with sexuality and psychological function. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 503–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, S. A., & Zoellner, L. A. (2007). Overgeneral autobiographical memory and traumatic events: an evaluative review. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 419–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38, 467–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nishith, P., Mechanic, M. B., & Resick, P. A. (2000). Prior interpersonal trauma: the contribution to current PTSD symptoms in female rape victims. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 2025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, F. H., Galea, S., Friedman, M. J., & Watson, P. J. (2006). Methods for Disaster Mental Health Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
North, C. S. (2014). Current research and recent breakthroughs on the mental health effects of disasters. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16, 481.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palgi, Y., Gelkopf, M., & Berger, R. (2015). The inoculating role of previous exposure to potentially traumatic life events on coping with prolonged exposure to rocket attacks: a lifespan perspective. Psychiatry Research, 227, 296301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pirkola, S., Isometsa, E., Aro, H., et al. (2005). Childhood adversities as risk factors for adult mental disorders: results from the Health 2000 study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 769–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, K. T., Harris, W. W., & Putnam, F. W. (2013). Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 435–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 335–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sayed, S., Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2015). Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17, 612.Google ScholarPubMed
Shaar, K. H. (2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder in adolescents in Lebanon as wars gained in ferocity: a systematic review. Journal of Public Health Research, 2, e17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiri, S., Wexler, I. D., Alkalay, Y., Meiner, Z., & Kreitler, S. (2008). Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 906–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, G. C., Seaman, S. R., Wood, A. M., Royston, P., & White, I. R. (2014). Correcting for optimistic prediction in small data sets. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180, 318–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, H. L., Summers, B. J., Dillon, K. H., & Cougle, J. R. (2016). Is worst-event trauma type related to PTSD symptom presentation and associated features? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 38, 5561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Somer, E., Zrihan-Weitzman, A., Fuse, T., et al. (2009). Israeli civilians under heavy bombardment: prediction of the severity of post-traumatic symptoms. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 24, 389–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, J., Pearce, J., Morrison, S., et al. (2015). Risk of post-traumatic stress disorder following traumatic events in a community sample. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 24, 249–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, J., Jones, M., Fear, N. T., et al. (2009). Is previous psychological health associated with the likelihood of Iraq War deployment? An investigation of the “healthy warrior effect”. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169, 1362–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zou, K. H., O'Malley, A. J., & Mauri, L. (2007). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation, 115, 654–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Admon, R., Lubin, G., Stern, O., et al. (2009). Human vulnerability to stress depends on amygdala's predisposition and hippocampal plasticity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 14120–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bremmer, J. D., Southwick, S. M., Johnson, D. R., Yehuda, R., & Charney, D. S. (1993). Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 235–9.Google Scholar
Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D., et al. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 626–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Koenen, K. C., Luo, Z., et al. (2014). Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult post-traumatic stress disorder: a prospective investigation. Psychological Medicine, 44, 1937–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 748–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, A., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., et al. (2014). The p factor: one general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 119–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Courtney, M. E., Piliavin, I., Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Nesmith, A. (2001). Foster youth transitions to adulthood: a longitudinal view of youth leaving care. Child Welfare, 80, 685717.Google ScholarPubMed
Davis, E. P., Glynn, L. M., Schetter, C. D., et al. (2007). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression and cortisol influences infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 737–46.Google ScholarPubMed
Endicott, J., Andreasen, N., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria. New York, NY: Biometrics Research, NY State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
Espejo, E. P., Hammen, C., Connolly, N. P., et al. (2006). Stress sensitization and adolescent depressive severity as a function of childhood adversity: a link to anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 287–99.Google ScholarPubMed
Feldman, R., Granat, A., Pariente, C., et al. (2009). Maternal depression and anxiety across the postpartum year and infant social engagement, fear regulation, and stress reactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child &Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 919–27.Google ScholarPubMed
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: a developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, J. G., McLaughlin, K. A., Berglund, P., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) I: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 113–23.Google Scholar
Hammen, C., Henry, R., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 782–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardt, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 260–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harkness, K. L., Bruce, A. E., & Lumley, M. N. (2006). The role of childhood abuse and neglect in the sensitization to stressful life events in adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 730–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heleniak, C., Jenness, J., Van der Stoep, A., McCauley, E., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Childhood maltreatment exposure and disruptions in emotion regulation: a transdiagnostic pathway to adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40, 394415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hennessy, K. D., Rabideau, G. J., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (1994). Responses of physically abused and nonabused children to different forms of interadult anger. Child Development, 65, 815–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jenness, J., Jager-Hyman, S., Heleniak, C., et al. (2016). Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack. Depression and Anxiety, 33, 1039–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendler, K. S., Silberg, J. L., Neale, M. C., et al. (1991). The family history method: whose psychiatric history is measured? American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1501–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Davis, C. G., & Kendler, K. S. (1997). Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1101–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keyes, K. M., Shmulewitz, D., Greenstein, E., et al. (2014). Exposure to the Lebanon War of 2006 and effects on alcohol use disorders: the moderating role of childhood maltreatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 134, 296303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klebanoff, M. A., & Cole, S. R. (2008). Use of multiple imputation in the epidemiologic literature. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168, 355–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koenen, K. C., Moffit, T. E., Poulin, R., Martin, J., & Caspi, A. (2007). Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort. Psychological Medicine, 37, 181–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., & Cook, W. (2006). Rumination in adolescents at risk for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 96, 3947.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mather, M., Canli, T., English, T., et al. (2004). Amygdala responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in older and younger adults. Psychological Science, 15, 259–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrory, E. J., De Brito, S. A., Sebastian, C. L., et al. (2011). Heightened neural reactivity to threat in child victims of family violence. Current Biology, 21, R947–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrory, E. J., De Brito, S. A., Kelly, P. A., et al. (2013). Amygdala activation in maltreated children during pre-attentive emotional processing. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 269–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Conron, K. J., Koenen, K. C., & Gilman, S. E. (2010). Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1647–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., Gadermann, A. M., Hwang, I., et al. (2012a). Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200, 290–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2012b). Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 1151–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., Busso, D. S., Duys, A., et al. (2014a). Amygdala response to negative stimuli predicts PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack. Depression and Anxiety, 10, 834–42.Google Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., & Lambert, H. K. (2014b). Childhood adversity and neural development: deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 47, 578–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Peverill, M., Gold, A. L., Alves, S., & Sheridan, M. A. (2015). Child maltreatment and neural systems underlying emotion regulation. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 753–62.Google ScholarPubMed
Myers, B., McLaughlin, K. A., Wang, S., Blanco, C., & Stein, D. J. (2014). Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28, 1117–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, A. L., McLaughlin, K. A., Conron, K. J., & Koenen, K. C. (2010). Adult stressors, history of childhood adversity, and risk of perpetration of intimate partner violence among men and women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40, 128–38.Google Scholar
Rudolph, K. D., & Flynn, M. (2007). Childhood adversity and youth depression: influence of gender and pubertal status. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 497521.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schnurr, P. P., Lunney, C. A., & Sengupta, A. (2004). Risk factors for the development versus maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 8595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, K. M., Smith, D. R., & Ellis, P. M. (2010). Prospectively ascertained childhood maltreatment and its associations with DSM-IV mental disorders in young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 712–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheikh, M. A., Abelsen, B., & Olsen, J. A. (2016). Clarifying associations between childhood adversity, social support, behavioral factors, and mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood: a population-based study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 727.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: the Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 7588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suzuki, H., Luby, J. L., Botteron, K. N., et al. (2014). Early life stress and trauma and enhanced limbic activation to emotionally valenced faces in depressed and healthy children. Journal of the American Academy of Child &Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 800–13.Google Scholar
Wichers, M., Schrijvers, D., Geschwind, N., et al. (2009). Mechanisms of gene–environment interactions in depression: evidence that genes potentiate multiple sources of adversity. Psychological Medicine, 39, 1077–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, C. S., & Shepard, R. L. (1996). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: part 1. Childhood physical abuse. Psychological Assessment, 8, 412–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widom, C. S., & Morris, S. (1997). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: part 2. Childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Assessment, 9, 3446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bomyea, J., Risbrough, V., & Lang, A. J. (2012). A consideration of select pre-trauma factors as key vulnerabilities in PTSD. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 630–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., & Peterson, E. L. (2010). Assaultive violence and the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder following a subsequent trauma. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 1063–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Peterson, E. L., & Schultz, L. R. (2008). A second look at prior trauma and the posttraumatic stress disorder effects of subsequent trauma: a prospective epidemiological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 431–7.Google Scholar
Caramanica, K., Brackbill, R. M., Stellman, S. D., & Farfel, M. R. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among persons exposed to the 9/11 disaster. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17, 356–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cougle, J. R., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Does prior exposure to interpersonal violence increase risk of PTSD following subsequent exposure? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 1012–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiGangi, J. A., Gomez, D., Mendoza, L., et al. (2013). Pretrauma risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 728–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Karstoft, K. I., Statnikov, A., & Shalev, A. Y. (2014). Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: a Machine Learning application. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 6876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, J. G., McLaughlin, K. A., Berglund, P. A., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication I: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 113–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harkness, K. L., Hayden, E. P., & Lopez-Duran, N. L. (2015). Stress sensitivity and stress sensitization in psychopathology: an introduction to the special section. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karstoft, K. I., Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Statnikov, A., Li, Z., & Shalev, A. Y. (2015). Bridging a translational gap: using machine learning to improve the prediction of PTSD. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Akiskal, H. S., Angst, J., et al. (2006). Validity of the assessment of bipolar spectrum disorders in the WHO CIDI 3.0. Journal of Affective Disorders, 96, 259–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., et al. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13, 265–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., & Üstün, T. B. (2004). The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 93121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knäuper, B., Cannell, C. F., Schwarz, N., Bruce, M. L., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Improving accuracy of major depression age-of-onset reports in the US National Comorbidity Survey. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 8, 3948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., Greif Green, J., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2012). Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 1151–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nemeroff, C. B. (2016). Paradise lost: the neurobiological and clinical consequences of child abuse and neglect. Neuron, 89, 892909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ogle, C. M., Rubin, D. C., Berntsen, D., & Siegler, I. C. (2013). The frequency and impact of exposure to potentially traumatic events over the life course. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 426–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ogle, C. M., Siegler, I. C., Beckham, J. C., & Rubin, D. C. (2016). Neuroticism increases PTSD symptom severity by amplifying the emotionality, rehearsal, and centrality of trauma memories. Journal of Personality, 85, 702–15.Google ScholarPubMed
Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 5273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sayed, S., Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2015). Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17, 612.Google ScholarPubMed
Abrahams, N., Devries, K., Watts, C., et al. (2014). Worldwide prevalence of non-partner sexual violence: a systematic review. The Lancet, 383, 1648–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Armour, C., Shevlin, M., Elklit, A., & Mroczek, D. (2012). A latent growth mixture modeling approach to PTSD symptoms in rape victims. Traumatology, 18, 20–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 57, 289300.Google Scholar
Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E., et al. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46, 327–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Branscombe, N. R., Wohl, M. J., Owen, S., Allison, J. A., & N'gbala, A. (2003). Counterfactual thinking, blame assignment, and well-being in rape victims. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 25, 265–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D. et al. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 626–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R. (2011). The nature and significance of memory disturbance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 203–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, R., Dworkin, E., & Cabral, G. (2009). An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women's mental health. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 10, 225–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, L. P., Murad, M. H., Paras, M. L., et al. (2010). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85, 618–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dartnall, E., & Jewkes, R. (2013). Sexual violence against women: the scope of the problem. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 27, 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., et al. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet, 373, 6881.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1983). A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology, 148, 839–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jina, R., & Thomas, L. S. (2013). Health consequences of sexual violence against women. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 27, 1526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kearns, M. C., Ressler, K. J., Zatzick, D., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2012). Early interventions for PTSD: a review. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 833–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E. J., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maikovich, A. K., Koenen, K. C., & Jaffee, S. R. (2009). Posttraumatic stress symptoms and trajectories in child sexual abuse victims: an analysis of sex differences using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 727–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maniglio, R. (2009). The impact of child sexual abuse on health: a systematic review of reviews. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 647–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markman, K. D., & Miller, A. K. (2006). Depression, control, and counterfactual thinking: functional for whom? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 210–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, A. K., Handley, I. M., Markman, K. D., & Miller, J. H. (2010). Deconstructing self-blame following sexual assault: the critical roles of cognitive content and process. Violence Against Women, 16, 1120–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Möller, A. T., Bäckström, T., Söndergaard, H. P., & Helström, L. (2014). Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape. PLoS One, 9, e111136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mullen, P. E., Martin, J. L., Anderson, J. C., Romans, S. E., & Herbison, G. P. (1993). Childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 721–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mullen, P. E., Martin, J. L., Anderson, J. C., Romans, S. E., & Herbison, G. P. (1996). The long-term impact of the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children: a community study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 721.Google Scholar
Najdowski, C. J., & Ullman, S. E. (2009). PTSD symptoms and self-rated recovery among adult sexual assault survivors: the effects of traumatic life events and psychosocial variables. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33, 4353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nishith, P., Mechanic, M. B., & Resick, P. A. (2000). Prior interpersonal trauma: the contribution to current PTSD symptoms in female rape victims. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, F. H., Murphy, A. D., Baker, C. K., et al. (2003). Epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 646.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roese, N. J. (1997). Counterfactual thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 133–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothbaum, B. O., Kearns, M. C., Price, M., et al. (2012). Early intervention may prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot civilian study with modified prolonged exposure. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 957–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, K. M., de Jonge, P., Stein, D. J., & Kessler, R. C., eds. (2018). Mental Disorders Around the World: Facts and Figures from the World Mental Health Surveys. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, G. E., & Von Korff, M. (1995). Recall of psychiatric history in cross-sectional surveys: implications for epidemiological research. Epidemiological Reviews, 17, 221–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, G. C., Seaman, S. R., Wood, A. M., Royston, P., & White, I. R. (2014). Correcting for optimistic prediction in small data sets. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180, 318–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takayanagi, Y., Spira, A. P., Roth, K. B., et al. (2014). Accuracy of reports of lifetime mental and physical disorders: results from the Baltimore Epidemiological Catchment Area Study. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 273–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Temple, J. R., Weston, R., Rodriguez, B. F., & Marshall, L. L. (2007). Differing effects of partner and nonpartner sexual assault on women's mental health. Violence Against Women, 13, 285–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ullman, S. E., & Filipas, H. H. (2001). Predictors of PTSD symptom severity and social reactions in sexual assault victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 369–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ullman, S. E., Filipas, H. H., Townsend, S. M., & Starzynski, L. L. (2006). The role of victim-offender relationship in women's sexual assault experiences. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 798819.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ullman, S. E., Filipas, H. H., Townsend, S. M., & Starzynski, L. L. (2007). Psychosocial correlates of PTSD symptom severity in sexual assault survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 821–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, L. M. (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: a prospective study of women's memories of child sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1167–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, C. S., & Morris, S. (1997). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization, part 2: childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Assessment, 9, 3446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zoellner, L. A., Foa, E. B., Brigidi, B. D., & Przeworski, A. (2000). Are trauma victims susceptible to “false memories”? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zou, K. H., O'Malley, A. J., & Mauri, L. (2007). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation, 115, 654–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amos, T., Stein, D. J., & Ipser, J. C. (2014). Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 7, CD006239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, J. G., & Coffey, S. F. (2007). Assessment and treatment of PTSD after a motor vehicle collision: empirical findings and clinical observations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 629–39.Google ScholarPubMed
Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E. G., et al. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46, 117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bisson, J. I. (2014). Early responding to traumatic events. British Journal of Psychiatry, 204, 329–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blanchard, E. B., & Hickling, E. J. (2004). After the Crash: Psychological Assessment and Treatment of Survivors of Motor Vehicle Accidents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blaszcyzynski, A., Gordon, K., Silove, D., et al. (1998). Psychiatric morbidity following motor vehicle accidents: a review of methodological issues. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 39, 111–21.Google Scholar
Brewin, C. R. (2005a). Risk factor effect sizes in PTSD: what this means for intervention. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6, 123–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R. (2005b). Systematic review of screening instruments for adults at risk of PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 5362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 748–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clapp, J. D., Baker, A. S., Litwack, S. D., Sloan, D. M., & Beck, J. G. (2014). Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courvoisier, D. S., Combescure, C., Agoritsas, T., Gayet-Ageron, A., & Perneger, T. V. (2011). Performance of logistic regression modeling: beyond the number of events per variable, the role of data structure. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 64, 9931000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, A., Tran, Y., Guest, R., et al. (2016). Psychological impact of injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 6, e011993.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiGangi, J. A., Gomez, D., Mendoza, L., et al. (2013). Pretrauma risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 728–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dohrenwend, B. P., Turner, J. B., Turse, N. A., et al. (2006). The psychological risks of Vietnam for U.S. veterans: a revisit with new data and methods. Science, 313, 979–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Forneris, C. A., Gartlehner, G., Brownley, K. A., et al. (2013). Interventions to prevent post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44, 635–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Karstoft, K. I., Statnikov, A., & Shalev, A. Y. (2014). Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: a Machine Learning application. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 6876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guest, R., Tran, Y., Gopinath, B., Cameron, I. D., & Craig, A. (2016). Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: a systematic review of preventative interventions. Injury, 47, 2415–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1983). A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology, 148, 839–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haro, J. M., Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S., Brugha, T. S., et al. (2006). Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 167–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (2000). Memory for acute stress disorder symptoms: a two-year prospective study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188, 602–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heron-Delaney, M., Kenardy, J., Charlton, E., & Matsuoka, Y. (2013). A systematic review of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for adult road traffic crash survivors. Injury, 44, 1413–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karstoft, K. I., Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Statnikov, A., et al. (2015). Bridging a translational gap: using machine learning to improve the prediction of PTSD. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kazantzis, N., Kennedy-Moffat, J., Flett, R. A., et al. (2012). Predictors of chronic trauma-related symptoms in a community sample of New Zealand motor vehicle accident survivors. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 36, 442–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenardy, J., Heron-Delaney, M., Warren, J., & Brown, E. (2015). The effect of mental health on long-term health-related quality of life following a road traffic crash: results from the UQ SuPPORT study. Injury, 46, 883–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., et al. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13, 265–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kliem, S., & Kroger, C. (2013). Prevention of chronic PTSD with early cognitive behavioral therapy. A meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 753–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knäuper, B., Cannell, C. F., Schwarz, N., Bruce, M. L., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Improving accuracy of major depression age-of-onset reports in the US National Comorbidity Survey. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 8, 3948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Korn, E., & Graubard, B. (1990). Simultaneous testing of regression coefficients with complex survey data: use of the Bonferroni t statistics. The American Statistician, 44, 270–6.Google Scholar
Kuch, K., Cox, B. J., & Evans, R. J. (1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder and motor vehicle accidents: a multidisciplinary overview. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 41, 429–34.Google ScholarPubMed
Lissek, S., & van Meurs, B. (2014). Learning models of PTSD: theoretical accounts and psychobiological evidence. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98, 594605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, C. J., Barber, R. M., Foreman, K. J., et al. (2015). Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition. Lancet, 386, 2145–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nickerson, A., Aderka, I. M., Bryant, R. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2013). The role of attribution of trauma responsibility in posttraumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents. Depression and Anxiety, 30, 483–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, F. H. (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 409–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Donnell, M. L., Creamer, M. C., Parslow, R., et al. (2008). A predictive screening index for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following traumatic injury. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 923–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 5273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peduzzi, P., Concato, J., Kemper, E., Holford, T. R., & Feinstein, A. R. (1996). A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49, 1373–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pratchett, L. C., & Yehuda, R. (2011). Foundations of posttraumatic stress disorder: does early life trauma lead to adult posttraumatic stress disorder? Development and Psychopathology, 23, 477–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reed, J. F. I. (2007). Better binomial confidence intervals. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 6, 153–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rice, M. E., & Harris, G. T. (2005). Comparing effect sizes in follow-up studies: ROC Area, Cohen's d, and r. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 615–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roemer, L., Litz, B. T., Orsillo, S. M., Ehlich, P. J., & Friedman, M. J. (1998). Increases in retrospective accounts of war-zone exposure over time: the role of PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 597605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
SAS Institute Inc. (2008). SAS Software, Version 9.2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Smith, G. C., Seaman, S. R., Wood, A. M., Royston, P., & White, I. R. (2014). Correcting for optimistic prediction in small data sets. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180, 318–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stein, D. J., Boshoff, D., Traut, A., et al. (1997). Patients presenting with fresh trauma after interpersonal violence. Part II. Assault history. South African Medical Journal, 87, 9991000.Google ScholarPubMed
Stein, D. J., Williams, S. L., Jackson, P. B., et al. (2009). Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa: association with psychiatric disorders. South African Medical Journal, 99, 390–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Steyerberg, E. W., Schemper, M., & Harrell, F. E. (2011). Logistic regression modeling and the number of events per variable: selection bias dominates. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 64, 1464–65; author reply 1463–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vittinghoff, E., & McCulloch, C. E. (2007). Relaxing the rule of ten events per variable in logistic and Cox regression. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165, 710–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolter, K. M. (1985). Introduction to Variance Estimation. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
World Health Organization (2015). Global Status Report on Road Safety 2015. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Wu, K. K., Li, F. W., & Cho, V. W. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of brief-CBT for patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress following a motor vehicle crash. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42, 3147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wynants, L., Bouwmeester, W., Moons, K. G., et al. (2015). A simulation study of sample size demonstrated the importance of the number of events per variable to develop prediction models in clustered data. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68, 1406–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zoellner, L. A., Foa, E. B., Brigidi, B. D., & Przeworski, A. (2000). Are trauma victims susceptible to “false memories”? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 517–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zou, K. H., O'Malley, A. J., & Mauri, L. (2007). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation, 115, 654–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Atwoli, L., Stein, D. J., Williams, D. R., et al. (2013). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E. G., et al. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46, 327–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D., et al. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 626–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 748–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carmassi, C., Dell'Osso, L., Manni, C., et al. (2014). Frequency of trauma exposure and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Italy: analysis from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 7784.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cozza, S. J., Fisher, J. E., Mauro, C., et al. (2016). Performance of DSM-5 persistent complex bereavement disorder criteria in a community sample of bereaved military family members. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 919–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DiGangi, J. A., Gomez, D., Mendoza, L., et al. (2013). Pretrauma risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 728–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dohrenwend, B. P., Turner, J. B., Turse, N. A., et al. (2006). The psychological risks of Vietnam for U.S. veterans: a revisit with new data and methods. Science, 313, 979–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Endo, K., Yonemoto, N., & Yamada, M. (2015). Interventions for bereaved parents following a child's death: a systematic review. Palliative Medicine, 29, 590604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferry, F., Bunting, B., Murphy, S., et al. (2014). Traumatic events and their relative PTSD burden in Northern Ireland: a consideration of the impact of the ‘Troubles’. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 435–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedman, M. J. (2013). Finalizing PTSD in DSM-5: getting here from there and where to go next. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 548–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1983). A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology, 148, 839–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haro, J. M., Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S., Brugha, T. S., et al. (2006). Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 167–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kawakami, N., Tsuchiya, M., Umeda, M., Koenen, K. C., & Kessler, R. C. (2014). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 53, 157–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., et al. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13, 265–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keyes, K. M., Pratt, C., Galea, S., et al. (2014). The burden of loss: unexpected death of a loved one and psychiatric disorders across the life course in a national study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 864–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kristensen, P., Weisaeth, L., & Heir, T. (2012). Bereavement and mental health after sudden and violent losses: a review. Psychiatry, 75, 7697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, S. E., & Pacella, M. L. (2016). Comparing the effect of DSM-congruent traumas vs. DSM-incongruent stressors on PTSD symptoms: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 38, 3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lobb, E. A., Kristjanson, L. J., Aoun, S. M., et al. (2010). Predictors of complicated grief: a systematic review of empirical studies. Death Studies, 34, 673–98.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maercker, A., & Znoj, H. (2010). The younger sibling of PTSD: similarities and differences between complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 1, 5558.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olaya, B., Alonso, J., Atwoli, L., et al. (2015). Association between traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: results from the ESEMeD-Spain study. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 24, 172–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 5273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peduzzi, P., Concato, J., Kemper, E., Holford, T. R., & Feinstein, A. R. (1996). A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49, 1373–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reed III, J. F. (2007). Better binomial confidence intervals. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 6, 15.Google Scholar
Roemer, L., Litz, B. T., Orsillo, S. M., Ehlich, P. J., & Friedman, M. J. (1998). Increases in retrospective accounts of war-zone exposure over time: the role of PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 597605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simon, N. M. (2013). Treating complicated grief. JAMA, 310, 416–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, G. C., Seaman, S. R., Wood, A. M., Royston, P., & White, I. R. (2014). Correcting for optimistic prediction in small data sets. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180, 318–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zisook, S., Chentsova-Dutton, Y., & Shuchter, S. R. (1998). PTSD following bereavement. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 10, 157–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zoellner, L. A., Foa, E. B., Brigidi, B. D., & Przeworski, A. (2000). Are trauma victims susceptible to “false memories”? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 517–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zou, K. H., O'Malley, A. J., & Mauri, L. (2007). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation, 115, 654–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amos, T., Stein, D. J., & Ipser, J. C. (2014). Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 7, CD006239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bisson, J. I. (2014). Early responding to traumatic events. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204, 329–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E. G., et al. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46, 327–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonanno, G. A., Brewin, C. R., Kaniasty, K., & La Greca, A. M. (2010). Weighing the costs of disaster: consequences, risks, and resilience in individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11, 149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D., et al. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 626–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Troost, J. P., Bohnert, K., & Luo, Z. (2013). Influence of predispositions on post-traumatic stress disorder: does it vary by trauma severity? Psychological Medicine, 43, 381–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R. (2005a). Risk factor effect sizes in PTSD: what this means for intervention. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6, 123–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, C. R. (2005b). Systematic review of screening instruments for adults at risk of PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 5362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bromet, E. J., Hobbs, M. J., Clouston, S. A., et al. (2016). DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder among World Trade Center responders 11–13 years after the disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11). Psychological Medicine, 46, 771–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darves-Bornoz, J. M., Alonso, J., de Girolamo, G., et al. (2008). Main traumatic events in Europe: PTSD in the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders survey. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 455–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Boden, J. M., & Mulder, R. T. (2014). Impact of a major disaster on the mental health of a well-studied cohort. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 1025–31.Google Scholar
Ferry, F., Bunting, B., Murphy, S., et al. (2014). Traumatic events and their relative PTSD burden in Northern Ireland: a consideration of the impact of the ‘Troubles’. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 435–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forneris, C. A., Gartlehner, G., Brownley, K. A., et al. (2013). Interventions to prevent post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44, 635–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galea, S., Nandi, A., & Vlahov, D. (2005). The epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorder after disasters. Epidemiologic Reviews, 27, 7891.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldmann, E., & Galea, S. (2014). Mental health consequences of disasters. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 169–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1983). A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology, 148, 839–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haro, J. M., Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S., Brugha, T. S., et al. (2006). Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 167–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., et al. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13, 265–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kliem, S., & Kroger, C. (2013). Prevention of chronic PTSD with early cognitive behavioral therapy. A meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 753–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knauper, B., Cannell, C. F., Schwarz, N., Bruce, M. L., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Improving accuracy of major depression age-of-onset reports in the US National Comorbidity Survey. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 8, 3948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lopes, A. P., Macedo, T. F., Coutinho, E. S., Figueira, I., & Ventura, P. R. (2014). Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem. PLoS One, 9, e109013.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Molnar, B. E., Buka, S. L., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 753–60.Google ScholarPubMed
Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38, 467–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, F. H., Friedman, M. J., Watson, P. J., et al. (2002). 60,000 disaster victims speak: part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981–2001. Psychiatry, 65, 207–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, F. H., Galea, S., Friedman, M. J., & Watson, P. J. (2006). Methods for Disaster Mental Health Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
North, C. S. (2014). Current research and recent breakthroughs on the mental health effects of disasters. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16, 481.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
North, C. S., & Pfefferbaum, B. (2013). Mental health response to community disasters: a systematic review. JAMA, 310, 507–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olaya, B., Alonso, J., Atwoli, L., et al. (2015). Association between traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: results from the ESEMeD-Spain study. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 24, 172–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peduzzi, P., Concato, J., Kemper, E., Holford, T. R., & Feinstein, A. R. (1996). A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49, 1373–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reed, J. F. III. (2007). Better binomial confidence intervals. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 6, 153161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roemer, L., Litz, B. T., Orsillo, S. M., Ehlich, P. J., & Friedman, M. J. (1998). Increases in retrospective accounts of war-zone exposure over time: the role of PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 597605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roy, N., Thakkar, P., & Shah, H. (2011). Developing-world disaster research: present evidence and future priorities. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 5, 112–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sayed, S., Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2015). Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17, 70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schreiber, M. D., Yin, R., Omaish, M., & Broderick, J. E. (2014). Snapshot From Superstorm Sandy: American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance in lower New York State. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 64, 5965.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, G. C., Seaman, S. R., Wood, A. M., Royston, P., & White, I. R. (2014). Correcting for optimistic prediction in small data sets. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180, 318–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warsini, S., West, C., Ed Tt, G. D., et al. (2014). The psychosocial impact of natural disasters among adult survivors: an integrative review. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 35, 420–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zou, K. H., O'Malley, A. J., & Mauri, L. (2007). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation, 115, 654–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E. G., et al. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46, 327–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brackbill, R. M., Hadler, J. L., DiGrande, L., et al. (2009). Asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms 5 to 6 years following exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack. JAMA, 302, 502–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D., et al. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 626–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapman, C., Mills, K., Slade, T., et al. (2012). Remission from post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 42, 1695–703.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courtois, C. A., Sonis, J., Brown, L. S., et al. (2017). Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in adults (online). Available at: www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/ptsd.pdf (Accessed August 22, 2017).
Halli, S. S., & Rao, K. V. (1992). Advanced Techniques of Population Analysis. New York, NY: Springer US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., et al. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13, 265274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., & Üstün, T. B. eds. (2008). The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Liu, H., Petukhova, M. V., Sampson, N. A., et al. (2017). Association of DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder with traumatic experience type and history in the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys. JAMA Psychiatry, 74, 270–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Koenen, K. C., Bromet, E. J., et al. (2017). Childhood adversities and post-traumatic stress disorder: evidence for stress sensitization in the World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 211, 280–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morina, N., Wicherts, J. M., Lobbrecht, J., & Priebe, S. (2014). Remission from post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of long term outcome studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 249–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
North, C. S., Pfefferbaum, B., Kawasaki, A., Lee, S., & Spitznagel, E. L. (2011). Psychosocial adjustment of directly exposed survivors 7 years after the Oklahoma City bombing. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perkonigg, A., Pfister, H., Stein, M. B., et al. (2005). Longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1320–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pietrzak, R. H., Feder, A., Singh, R., et al. (2014). Trajectories of PTSD risk and resilience in World Trade Center responders: an 8-year prospective cohort study. Psychological Medicine, 44, 205–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pietrzak, R. H., Goldstein, R. B., Southwick, S. M., & Grant, B. F. (2011). Prevalence and Axis I comorbidity of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder in the United States: results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 456–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
SAS Institute Inc. (2008). SAS Software, Version 9.2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
SAS Institute Inc. (2010). SAS/STATR Software. Version 9.3 for Unix. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Smith, G. C., Seaman, S. R., Wood, A. M., Royston, P., & White, I. R. (2014). Correcting for optimistic prediction in small data sets. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180, 318–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinert, C., Hofmann, M., Leichsenring, F., & Kruse, J. (2015). The course of PTSD in naturalistic long-term studies: high variability of outcomes. A systematic review. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 69, 483–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tarrier, N., & Gregg, L. (2004). Suicide risk in civilian PTSD patients – predictors of suicidal ideation, planning and attempts. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 655–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Willett, J. B., & Singer, J. D. (1993). Investigating onset, cessation, relapse, and recovery: why you should, and how you can, use discrete-time survival analysis to examine event occurrence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 952–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolter, K. M. (1985). Introduction to Variance Estimation. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Zlotnick, C., Rodriguez, B. F., Weisberg, R. B., et al. (2004). Chronicity in posttraumatic stress disorder and predictors of the course of posttraumatic stress disorder among primary care patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 153–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed