Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-2pzkn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-29T17:55:24.574Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

R. Edward Freeman
University of Virginia
Jeffrey S. Harrison
University of Richmond, Virginia
Andrew C. Wicks
University of Virginia
Bidhan L. Parmar
University of Virginia
Simone de Colle
University of Virginia
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Stakeholder Theory
The State of the Art
, pp. 292 - 337
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aaltonen, K., Kujala, J. and Oijala, T. 2008. Stakeholder salience in global projects. International Journal of Project Management 26 (5): 509–516.Google Scholar
Abrams, F. 1951. Management responsibilities in a complex world. Harvard Business Review 29 (5): 29–34.Google Scholar
Achterkamp, M. C. and Vos, J. F. J. 2008. Investigating the use of the stakeholder notion in project management literature, a meta-analysis. International Journal of Project Management 26 (7): 749–757.Google Scholar
Ackerman, R. W. 1973. How companies respond to social demands. Harvard Business Review 51 (4): 88–98.Google Scholar
Ackerman, R. W. 1975. The Social Challenge to Business. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ackerman, R. W. and Bauer, R. A. 1976. Corporate Social Responsiveness. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ackoff, R. L. 1970. A Concept of Corporate Planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Ackoff, R. L. 1974. Redesigning the Future. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Acquier, A., Gand, S. and Szpirglas, M. 2008. From stakeholder to stakeholder management in crisis episodes: A case study in a public transportation company. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 16 (2): 101–114.Google Scholar
Adams, C. A. 2004. The ethical, social and environmental reporting-performance portrayal gap. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 17 (5): 731–757.Google Scholar
Adler, R. W. 2002. Stakeholders' perceptions of organizational decline. Accounting Forum 26 (1): 31–45.Google Scholar
Adler, R. W. and Chaston, K. 2002. Stakeholders' perceptions of organizational decline. Accounting Forum 26 (1): 31–45.Google Scholar
Agle, B. R., Mitchell, R. K. and Sonnenfeld, J. A. 1999. Who matters to CEOs? An investigation of stakeholder attributes and salience, corporate performance, and CEO values. Academy of Management Journal 42 (5): 507–525.Google Scholar
Ahlstedt, L. and Jahnukainen, I. 1971. A Business Organization as a Management System. Tapiola: Weilin & Goos.
Albinger, H. S. and Freeman, S. J. 2000. Corporate social performance and attractiveness as an employer to different job seeking populations. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (3): 243–253.Google Scholar
Aldrich, H. E. and Whetten, D. A. 1981. Organization sets, action sets, and networks: Making the most of simplicity. In Nystrom, P. C. and Starbuck, W. H. (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Design. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 385–408.
Alkhafaji, A. F. 1989. A Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Governance: Managing in a Dynamic Environment. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Allen, D. 2003. All for one and one for all. Financial Management July/August: 12.
Allen, F., Carletti, E. and Marquez, R. 2007. Stakeholder capitalism, corporate governance and firm value. European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI) Finance Working Paper no. 190/2007. Knowledge@wharton Working Paper. (accessed Feb. 2, 2009).
Allison, G. 1971. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown.
Allison, G. and Zelikow, P. 1999. The Essence of Decision. 2nd edn. New York: Longman.
Al-Mudimigh, A. S., Zairi, M. and Ahmed, A. M. M. 2004. Extending the concept of supply chain: The effective management of value chains. International Journal of Production Research 87 (3): 309–321.Google Scholar
Alvarez-Gil, J., Berrone, P., Husillos, F. J. and Lado, N. 2007. Reverse logistics, stakeholders' influence, organizational slack, and managers' posture. Journal of Business Research 60: 463–473.Google Scholar
Ambler, T. and Wilson, A. 1995. Problems of stakeholder theory. Business Ethics: A European Review, 4 (1): 30–5.Google Scholar
,American Bar Association, Committee on Corporate Laws. 1990. Other Constituencies Statutes: Potential for Confusion. Business Law 45: 2253.Google Scholar
Andreadis, N. A. 2002. Leadership for civil society: Implications for global corporate leadership development. Human Resource Development International 5 (2): 143–149.Google Scholar
Andrews, K. 1980. The Concept of Corporate Strategy. 3rd edn. Homewood, IL: R. D. Irwin.
Andriof, J., Waddock, S., Husted, B. and Rahman, S. S. (eds.). 2002. Unfolding Stakeholder Thinking. 1: Theory, Responsibility and Engagement. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.
Ansoff, H. I. 1965. Corporate Strategy: An Analytic Approach to Business for Growth and Expansion. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ansoff, H. I. 1979. The changing shape of the strategic problem. Journal of General Management 4 (4): 42–58.Google Scholar
Ansoff, H. I. 1991. Critique of Henry Mintzberg's “The design school: reconsidering the basic premises of strategic management.” Strategic Management Journal 12: 449–461.Google Scholar
Argandoña, A. 1998. The stakeholder theory and the common good. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (9): 1093–1102.Google Scholar
Argenti, J. 1993. Your Organization: What Is It for? New York: McGraw-Hill.
Argenti, J. 1997. Stakeholders: The case against. Long Range Planning 30 (3): 442–445.Google Scholar
Armstrong, J. S. 1982. The value of formal planning for strategic decisions: Review of empirical research. Strategic Management Journal 3 (3): 197–211.Google Scholar
Arnold, S. J. and Luthra, M. N. 2000. Market entry effects of large format retailers: A stakeholder analysis. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 28 (4/5): 139–154.Google Scholar
Arora, A. and Alam, P. 2005. CEO compensation and stakeholders' claims. Contemporary Accounting Research 22 (3): 519–547.Google Scholar
Arora, B. and Puranik, R. 2004. A review of corporate social responsibility in India. Development 47 (3): 93–100.Google Scholar
Ashbaugh, H. and Warfield, T. D. 2003. Audits as a corporate governance mechanism: Evidence from the German market. Journal of International Accounting Research 2: 1–21.Google Scholar
Astley, W. G. 1984. Toward an appreciation of collective strategy. Academy of Management Review 9 (3): 526–535.Google Scholar
Astley, W. G. 1985. Administrative science as socially constructed truth. Administrative Science Quarterly 30 (4): 497–513.Google Scholar
Atkinson, A. A., Waterhouse, J. H. and Wells, R. B. 1997. A stakeholder approach to strategic performance measurement. MIT Sloan Management Review 38 (3): 25–37.Google Scholar
Aupperle, K. E., Carroll, A. B. and Hatfield, J. D. 1985. An empirical examination of the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability. Academy of Management Journal 28 (2): 446–463.Google Scholar
Austin, J., Stevenson, H. and Wei-Skillern, J. 2006. Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30 (1): 1–22.Google Scholar
Austin, J. L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Baele, L., Jonge, O. and Vander Vennet, R. 2007. Does the stock market value bank diversification? Journal of Banking and Finance 31 (7): 1999–2023.Google Scholar
Bainbridge, S. M. 1993. Independent directors and the ALI corporate governance project. George Washington Law Review 61: 1034–1083.Google Scholar
Baker, C. R. and Owsen, D. M. 2002. Increasing the role of auditing in corporate governance. Critical Perspectives on Accounting 13 (5/6): 783–796.Google Scholar
Ball, R., Kothari, S. P. and Robin, A. 2000. The effect of international institutional factors on properties of accounting. Journal of Accounting and Economics 29 (1): 1–51.Google Scholar
Balmer, J. M. T. 2008. Identity-based views of the corporation: Insights from corporate identity, organisational identity, social identity, visual identity, corporate brand identity and corporate image. European Journal of Marketing 42 (9/10): 879–906.Google Scholar
Bamonte, T. 1995. The meaning of the “corporate constituency” provision of the Illinois Business Corporation Act. Loyola University Chicago Law Journal 27: 1–25.Google Scholar
Bansal, P. 2005. Evolving sustainability: A longitudinal study of corporate sustainable development. Strategic Management Journal 26 (3): 197–218.Google Scholar
Barnard, C. I. 1938. Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barnett, A. 1997. Towards a stakeholder democracy. In Kelly, G., Kelly, D., and Gamble, A. (eds.), Stakeholder Capitalism. London: Macmillan. 82–95.
Barnett, M. L. 2007. Stakeholder influence capacity and the variability of financial returns to corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review 32 (3): 794–816.Google Scholar
Barney, J. B. 1986. Types of competition and the theory of strategy: Toward an integrative framework. Academy of Management Review 11 (4): 791–800.Google Scholar
Barney, J. B. Barney, J. B. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management 17 (1): 99–120.Google Scholar
Barney, J. B. and Arikan, A. M. 2001. The resource-based view: Origins and implications. In Hitt, M. A., Freeman, R. E., and Harrison, J. S. (eds.), Handbook of Strategic Management. Oxford: Blackwell. 124–188.
Barney, J. B. and Ouchi, W. G. 1986. Organizational Economics. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Baron, D. P. 1995. The nonmarket strategy system. Sloan Management Review 37 (1): 73–85.Google Scholar
Barringer, B. R. and Harrison, J. S. 2000. Walking a tightrope: Creating value through interorganizational relationships. Journal of Management 26 (3): 367–404.Google Scholar
Barton, S. L., Hill, N. C. and Sundaram, S. 1989. An empirical test of stakeholder theory predictions of capital structure. Financial Management 18 (1): 36–44.Google Scholar
Bartov, E., Goldberg, S. R. and Kim, M. 2005. Comparative value relevance among German, US and international accounting standards: A German stock market perspective. Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance 20 (2): 95–119.Google Scholar
Baskerville-Morley, R. F. 2004. Dangerous, dominant, dependent, or definitive: Stakeholder identification when the profession faces major transgressions. Accounting and the Public Interest 4: 24–42.Google Scholar
Baucus, M. S. 1995. Halo-adusted residuals: Prolonging the life of a terminally ill measure of corporate social performance. Business and Society 34 (2): 227–235.Google Scholar
Bauer, R. A. and Fenn, D. H., Jr., 1972. The Corporate Social Audit. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Baum, J. A. C. and Oliver, C. 1991. Institutional linkages and organizational mortality. Administrative Science Quarterly 36 (2): 187–218.Google Scholar
Baumhart, R. 1968. An Honest Profit – What Businessmen Say about Ethics in Business. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Baumol, W. J. 1990. Entrepreneurship: productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of Political Economy 98 (5): 893–921.Google Scholar
Baumol, W. J. 1994. Entrepreneurship, Management, and the Structure of Payoffs. Boston: MIT Press.
Baysinger, B. D. and Butler, H. 1985. Corporate governance and the board of directors: performance effects of changes in board composition. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 1 (1): 101–134.Google Scholar
Beasley, M. S., Chen, A., Nunez, K. and Wright, L. 2006. Working hand in hand: Balanced scorecards and enterprise risk management. Strategic Finance 87 (9): 49–55.Google Scholar
Beasley, M. S. and Frigo, M. L. 2007. Strategic risk management: Creating and protecting value. Strategic Finance, 88 (11): 25–53.Google Scholar
Beer, M., Spector, B., Lawrence, P., Quinn Mills, D. and Walton, R. 1984. Managing Human Assets. New York: Free Press.
Berle, A. A., Jr. 1954. The Twentieth Century Capitalist Revolution. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Berle, A. A., Jr., and Means, G. C.. 1932. The Modern Corporation and Private Property. New York: Macmillan.
Berman, S. L., Wicks, A. C., Kotha, S. and Jones, T. M. 1999. Does stakeholder orientation matter? The relationship between stakeholder management models and firm financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 42 (5): 488–506.Google Scholar
Beutler, L. 2005. Involving stakeholders in irrigation and drainage district decisions: Who, what, when, where, why, how? California Water Plan Update 4: 1095–1105.Google Scholar
Bhattacharya, C. B. and Korschun, D. 2008. Stakeholder marketing: Beyond the four Ps and the customer. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 27 (1): 113–116.Google Scholar
Bhimani, A. and Soonawalla, K. 2005. From conformance to performance: The corporate responsibilities continuum. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 24 (3): 165–174.Google Scholar
Biancalana, J. 1990. Defining the proper corporate constituency: Asking the wrong question. University of Cincinnati Law Review 59: 425, 429–30.Google Scholar
Biehl, M., Kim, H. and Wade, M. 2006. Relationships among the academic disciplines: A multi-method citation analysis. Omega 34 (4): 359–371.Google Scholar
Binmore, K. 1991. Fun and Games: A Text on Game Theory. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
Binmore, K. 1994. Game Theory and the Social Contract. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Binmore, K. 1997. Rationality and Backward Induction, Journal of Economic Methodology 4: 23–41.Google Scholar
Bishop, John Douglas (ed.). 2000. Ethics and Capitalism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Blair, J. and Buesseler, J. 1998. Competitive forces in the medical group industry: A stakeholder perspective. Health Care Management Review 23 (2): 7–27.Google Scholar
Blair, J. and Fottler, M. 1990. Challenges In Health Care Management: Strategic Perspectives for Managing Key Stakeholders. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Blair, J., Fottler, M. and Whitehead, C. 1996. Diagnosing the stakeholder bottom line for medical group practices: Key stakeholders' potential to threaten and/or cooperate. Medical Group Management Journal 43 (2): 40, 42–8, 50–1.Google Scholar
Blair, J., Rock, T., Rotarius, T., Fottler, M., Bosse, G. and Driskill, J. 1996. The problematic fit of diagnosis and strategy for medical group stakeholders – including IDS/Ns. Health Care Management Review 21 (1): 7–28.Google Scholar
Blair, J., Savage, G. and Whitehead, C. 1989. A strategic approach for negotiating with hospital stakeholders. Health Care Management Review 14 (1): 13–23.Google Scholar
Blair, J. and Whitehead, C. 1988. Too many on the seesaw: Stakeholder diagnosis and management for hospitals. Hospital and Health Services Administration 33 (2): 153–166.Google Scholar
Blair, M. 1995. Whose interests should be served?” In Clarkson, M. (ed.), Ownership and Control: Rethinking Corporate Governance for the Twenty First Century. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. 202–234.
Blair, M. M. 1998. For whom should corporations be run? An economic rationale for stakeholder management. Long Range Planning 31 (2): 195–200.Google Scholar
Blair, M. M. and Stout, L. 1999. A team production theory of corporate law. Virginia Law Review 85 (2): 248–328.Google Scholar
Blodgett, J. G., Long-Chuan, L., Rose, G. M. and Vitell, S. J. 2001. Ethical sensitivity to stakeholder interests: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 29 (2): 190–202.Google Scholar
Boatright, J. R. 1994. Fiduciary duties and the shareholder-management relation: Or, what's so special about shareholders? Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4): 393–407.Google Scholar
Boatright, J. R. 2000. Ethics and the Conduct of Business. 3rd edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Boatright, J. R. 2002. Contractors as stakeholders: Reconciling stakeholder theory with the nexus-of-contracts firm. Journal of Banking and Finance 26 (9): 1837–1852.Google Scholar
Boesso, G. and Kumar, K. 2007. Drivers of corporate voluntary disclosure. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 20 (2): 269–296.Google Scholar
Bosse, D. A., Phillips, R. A. and Harrison, J. S. 2009. Stakeholders, reciprocity and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal 30 (4): 447–456.Google Scholar
Bourgeois, L. J. III. 1984. Strategic management and determinism. Academy of Management Review 9 (4): 586–596.Google Scholar
Boutilier, R. G. 2007. Social capital in firm-stakeholder networks. Journal of Corporate Citizenship 26: 121–134.Google Scholar
Bowen, H. 1953. Social Responsibilities of the Businessman. New York: Harper & Row.
Bowen, R. M., Johnson, M. F., Shevlin, T. and Shores, D. 1992. Determinants of the timing of quarterly earnings announcement. Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance 7 (4): 395–422.Google Scholar
Bowie, N. E. 1998. A Kantian theory of capitalism. Business Ethics Quarterly. The Ruffin Series, Special Issue 1: 37–60. Charlottesville, VA: Philosophy Documentation Center.
Bowie, N. E. 1999. Business Ethics: A Kantian Perspective. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bradley, N. 2003. How to measure and analyze corporate governance. International Financial Law Review, special issue on corporate governance: 40–47. (accessed Feb. 4, 2009).
Braudel, Fernand. 1982. Civilization and Capitalism: 15th–18th Century, Vol. 2, The Wheels of Commerce. New York: Harper & Row.
Brenner, S. N. 1993. The stakeholder theory of the firm and organizational decision making: Some propositions and a model. In Pasquero, J. and Collins, D. (eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Association for Business and Society. San Diego. 205–210.
Brenner, S. N. 1995. Stakeholder theory of the firm: Its consistency with current management techniques. In Näsi, J. (ed.), Understanding Stakeholder Thinking. Helsinki: LSR-Julkaisut Oy. 75–96.
Broehl, W. G. 1999. Tuck and Tucker: The origin of the Graduate Business School. Hanover: University Press of New England.
Brown, B. and Perry, S. 1995. Halo-removed residuals of Fortune's “Responsibility to the community and environment”: A decade of data. Business and Society 34 (2): 199–215.Google Scholar
Brugha, R. and Varvasovszky, Z. 2000. Stakeholder analysis: A review. Health Policy and Planning 15 (3): 239–246.Google Scholar
Bryson, J. 2004. What to do when stakeholders matter. Public Management Review 6 (1): 21–53.Google Scholar
Bryson, J., Cunningham, G. and Lokkesmoe, K. 2002. What to do when stakeholders matter: The case of problem formulation for the African American Men Project of Hannepin County Minnesota. Public Administration Review 62 (5): 568–584.Google Scholar
Bryson, J., Freeman, R. E. and Roering, W. 1986. Strategic planning in the public sector: Approaches and future directions. In Checkoway, B. (ed.), Strategic Perspectives on Planning Practice. Boston: Lexington Books. 65–85.
Bryson, N. and Mobolurin, A. 1996. An action learning evaluation procedure for multiple criteria decision making problems. European Journal of Operational Research 96 (2): 379–386.Google Scholar
Buchanan, J. M. and Tullock, G. 1965. The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Buchheit, S., Collins, D. and Reitenga, A. 2002. A cross-discipline comparison of top-tier academic journal publication rates: 1997–1999. Journal of Accounting Education 20 (2): 123–130.Google Scholar
Buchholz, R. A. 1989. Fundamental Concepts and Problems in Business Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Buchholz, R. A. and Rosenthal, S. B. 2000. Rethinking Business Ethics: A Pragmatic Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Burgstahler, D. and Dichev, I. 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24 (1): 99–126.Google Scholar
Burke, M. J., Borucki, C. C. and Hurley, A. E. 1992. Reconceptualizing psychological climate in a retail service environment: A multiple-stakeholder perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (5): 717–729.Google Scholar
Burton, B. K. and Dunn, C. P. 1996. Collaborative control and the commons: Safeguarding employee rights. Business Ethics Quarterly 6 (3): 277–288.Google Scholar
Burton, R. M. and Naylor, T. H. 1980. Economic theory in corporate planning. Strategic Management Journal 1 (3): 249–262.Google Scholar
Buysse, K. and Verbeke, A. 2003. Proactive environmental strategies: A stakeholder perspective. Strategic Management Journal 24 (5): 453–470.Google Scholar
Byrne, M. R. and Polonsky, M. J. 2001. Impediments to consumer adoption of sustainable transportation alternative fuel vehicles. International Journal of Operations and Production Management 21 (12): 1521–1538.Google Scholar
Cadbury, A. 1992. Report of the Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance. London: The Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance and Gee and Co. Ltd./Burgess Science Press.
Calton, J. M. 1991. The dark side of commitment: Is the literature on organizational commitment an ideological black hole? In Paul, K. (ed.), Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics and Politics. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. 69–99.
Calton, J. M. and Kurland, N. B. 1995. A theory of stakeholder enabling: Giving voice to an emerging postmodern praxis of organisational discourse. In Boje, D. M., Gephart, R. P., and Thatchenkery, T. J. (eds.), Postmodern Management and Organization Theory. London: Sage. 154–177.
Calton, J. M. and Lad, L. J. 1995. Social contracting as a trust-building process: Of network governance. Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2): 271–295.Google Scholar
Cameron, K. 1980. Critical questions in assessing organizational effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics 9 (2): 66–80.Google Scholar
Cameron, K. 1984. Effectiveness as paradox: Consensus and conflict in conceptions of organizational effectiveness. Management Science 32 (5): 539–553.Google Scholar
Campbell, A. 1997. Stakeholders: The case in favour. Long Range Planning 30 (3): 446–449.Google Scholar
Campbell, A. and Yeung, S. 1991. Brief case: Mission, vision and strategic intent. Long Range Planning 24 (4): 145–147.Google Scholar
Campbell, D., Moore, G. and Shrives, P. 2006. Cross-sectional effects in community disclosure. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 19 (1): 96–114.Google Scholar
Campbell, J. L. 2007. Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review 32 (3): 946–967.Google Scholar
Carey, J. M., Beilin, R., Boxshall, A., Burgman, M. A. and Flander, L. 2007. Risk-based approaches to deal with uncertainty in a data-poor system: Stakeholder involvement in hazard identification for marine national parks and marine sanctuaries in Victoria, Australia. Risk Analysis: An International Journal 27 (1): 271–281.Google Scholar
Carrigan, M. 1995. Positive and negative aspects of the social marketing concept: Stakeholder conflicts for the tobacco industry. Journal of Marketing Management 11 (5): 469–485.Google Scholar
Carroll, A. B. (ed.). 1977. Managing Corporate Social Responsibility. Boston: Little, Brown.
Carroll, A. B. 1979. A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review 16 (4): 497–505.Google Scholar
Carroll, A. B. 1991. The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons 34 (4): 39–48.Google Scholar
Carroll, A. B. 1993. Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. 2nd edn. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing.
Carroll, A. B. 1999. Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business and Society 38 (3): 268–295.Google Scholar
Carroll, A. B. 2003. The four faces of corporate citizenship. Business and Society Review 100 (101): 1–7.Google Scholar
Carroll, A. B. 2006. Corporate social responsibility: A historical perspective. In Epstein, M. and Hanson, K. (eds.), The Accountable Corporation, Vol. 3. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. 3–30.
Carroll, A. B. and Hoy, F. 1984. Integrating corporate social policy into strategic management. Journal of Business Strategy 4 (3): 48–57.Google Scholar
Carroll, A. B. and Näsi, J. 1997. Understanding stakeholder thinking: Themes from a Finnish conference. Business Ethics 6 (1): 46–51.Google Scholar
Carroll, D. S. A. 1983. Managing relations with government and society: The business perspective. Long Range Planning 16 (2): 10–14.Google Scholar
Carson, T. L. 1993. Does the stakeholder theory constitute a new kind of theory of social responsibility? Business Ethics Quarterly 3 (2): 171–176.Google Scholar
Carter, S. M. 2006. The interaction of top management group, stakeholder, and situational factors on certain corporate reputation management activities. Journal of Management Studies 43 (5): 1145–1176.Google Scholar
Caux, Round Table. 2009. Principles for Responsible Business.
Chakravarthy, B. S. 1986. Measuring strategic performance. Strategic Management Journal 7 (5): 437–458.Google Scholar
Chandler, A. D. 1962. Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chang, Y.-H., Yeh, C.-H. and Wang, S.-Y. 2007. A survey of optimization-based evaluation of development strategies for the air cargo industry. International Journal of Production Economics 106 (2): 550–562.Google Scholar
Chapple, W. and Moon, J. 2005. Corporate social responsibility in Asia. Business and Society 44 (4): 415–441.Google Scholar
Charan, R. and Freeman, R. E. 1980. Planning for the business environment of the 1980s. Journal of Business Strategy 1 (2): 9–19.Google Scholar
Chatterjee, C. and Bergh, D. D. 2003. Failed takeover attempts, corporate governance and refocusing. Strategic Management Journal 24 (1): 87–100.Google Scholar
Chatterjee, C. and Harrison, J. S. 2001. Corporate governance. In Hitt, M. A., Freeman, R. E., and Harrison, J. S. (eds.), Handbook of Strategic Management. Oxford: Blackwell. 543–563.
Chemla, G. 2005. Hold-up, stakeholders and takeover threats. Journal of Financial Intermediation 14 (3): 376–397.Google Scholar
Chen, L., Carson, E. and Simnett, R. 2007. Impact of stakeholder characteristics on voluntary dissemination of interim information and communication of its level of assurance. Accounting and Finance 47 (4): 667–691.Google Scholar
Chen, Y. C. K. and Sackett, P. J. 2007. Return merchandize authorization stakeholders and customer requirements management – high-technology products. International Journal of Production Research 45 (7): 1595–1608.Google Scholar
Child, J. W. and Marcoux, A. M. 1999. Freeman and Evan: Stakeholder theory and the original position. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (2): 207–224.Google Scholar
Chinyio, E. A. and Akintoye, A. 2008. Practical approaches for engaging stakeholders: Findings from the UK. Construction Management and Economics 26 (6): 591–599.Google Scholar
Chou, T.-Y., Chou, S.-C. T. and Tzeng, G.-H. 2006. Evaluating IT/IS investments: A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model approach. European Journal of Operational Research 173 (3): 1026–1046.Google Scholar
Christensen, R., Andrews, K. and Bower, J. 1980. Business Policy: Text and Cases. Homewood, IL: R. D. Irwin.
Christopher, M., Payne, A. and Ballantyne, D. 1991. Relationship Marketing: Bringing Quality, Customer Service and Marketing Together. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Christopher, M., Payne, A. and Ballantyne, D. 2002. Relationship Marketing: Creating Stakeholder Value. 2nd edn. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Chung, W., Chen, H. and Reid, E. 2009. Business stakeholder analyzer: An experiment of classifying stakeholders on the Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60 (1): 59–74.Google Scholar
Churchman, C. W. 1968. The Systems Approach. New York: Delacorte Press.
Churchman, C. W. 1971. The Design of Inquiring Systems: Basic Concepts of Systems and Organizations. New York: Basic Books.
Churchman, C. W., Ackoff, R. L. and Wax, M. (eds.). 1947. Measurement of Consumer Interest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Clark, R. 1986. Corporate Law. Boston: Little, Brown.
Clarke, L. L. and Lyons, E. C. 2007. The corporate common good: The right and obligation of managers to do good to others. University of Daytona Law Review 32: 273–299.Google Scholar
Clarke, T. 1998. The stakeholder corporation: A business philosophy for the information age. Long Range Planning 31(2): 182–194.Google Scholar
Clarkson, M. B. E. 1988. Corporate social performance in Canada, 1976–86. In Preston, L. E. (ed.), Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, Vol. 12. Greenwich, CT: TM Press. 331–358.
Clarkson, M. B. E. 1991. Defining, evaluating and managing corporate social performance: A stakeholder management model. In Post, J. E. (ed.), Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, Vol. 12. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 331–358.
Clarkson, M. B. E. 1994. A Risk-Based Model of Stakeholder Theory. Toronto: Centre for Corporate Social Performance and Ethics.
Clarkson, M. B. E. 1995. A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review 20 (1): 92–117.Google Scholar
Clarkson, M. B. E. 1998. The Corporation and lts Stakeholders: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
,Clarkson Centre for Business Ethics. 1999. Principles of Stakeholder Management. Toronto: University of Toronto. (Reproduced in 2002, Business Ethics Quarterly, 12 (1): 256–264.)
Clegg, S. R., Pitsis, T. S., Rura-Polley, T. and Marosszeky, M. 2002. Governmentality matters: Designing an alliance culture of inter-organizational collaboration for managing projects. Organization Studies 23 (3): 317–337.Google Scholar
Cleland, D. I. and Ireland, L. R. 2002. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Clement, R. W. 2005. The lessons from stakeholder theory for US business leaders. Business Horizons 48 (3): 255–264.Google Scholar
Cloninger, D. O. 1995. Managerial goals and ethical behavior. Financial Practice and Education 5 (1): 50–59.Google Scholar
Cloninger, D. O. 1997. Share price maximization, asymmetric information and ethical behavior: A comment. Financial Practice and Education 7 (2): 82–84.Google Scholar
Clulow, V. 2005. Futures dilemmas for marketers: Can stakeholder analysis add value? European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 978–997.Google Scholar
Coase, R. H. 1937. The nature of the firm. Economica 4 (16): 386–405.Google Scholar
Cochran, P. L. and Wood, R. A. 1984. Corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 27 (1): 42–56.Google Scholar
Coff, R. W. 1999. When competitive advantage doesn't lead to performance: The resource-based view and stakeholder bargaining power. Organization Science 10 (2): 119–133.Google Scholar
Coffee, J. 1988. The uncertain case for takeover reform: An essay on stockholders, stakeholders, and bust-ups. Wisconsin Law Review 435–465.
Colakoglu, S., Lepak, D. P. and Hong, Y. 2006. Measuring HRM effectiveness: Considering multiple stakeholders in a global context. Human Resource Management Review 15: 209–218.Google Scholar
Collier, P. M. 2008. Stakeholder accountability. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 21: 933–954.Google Scholar
Collins, J. and Porras, J. I. 1997. Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies. New York: HarperCollins.
Coman, A. and Ronen, B. 1995. Information technology in operations management: A theory-of-constraints approach. International Journal of Production Research 33 (5): 1403–1415.Google Scholar
Connolly, T., Conlon, E. J. and Deutsch, S. J. 1980. Organizational effectiveness: A multiple-constituency approach. Academy of Management Review 5 (2): 211–217.Google Scholar
Conway, T. and Whitelock, J. 2007. Relationship marketing in the subsidised arts: The key to a strategic marketing focus? European Journal of Marketing 41 (1/2): 199–213.Google Scholar
Coombs, J. E. and Gilley, K. M. 2005. Stakeholder management as a predictor of CEO compensation: Main effects and interactions with financial performance. Strategic Management Journal 26 (9): 827–840.Google Scholar
Copulsky, W. 1991. Balancing the needs of customers and shareholders. Journal of Business Strategy 12 (6): 44–47.Google Scholar
Córdoba, J.-R. and Midgley, G. 2006. Broadening the boundaries: An application of critical systems thinking to IS planning in Colombia. Journal of the Operational Research Society 57 (9): 1064–1080.Google Scholar
Cornell, B. and Shapiro, A. C. 1987. Corporate stakeholders and corporate finance. Financial Management 16 (1): 5–14.Google Scholar
Covey, S. M. R. and Merrill, R. R. 2006. The Speed of Trust: The One Thing that Changes Everything. New York: Free Press.
Cragg, W. 2002. Business ethics and stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2): 113–142.Google Scholar
Crane, A. 1998. Exploring green alliances. Journal of Marketing Management 14 (6): 559–579.Google Scholar
Cummings, J. F. 2001. Engaging stakeholders in corporate accountability programmes: A cross-sectoral analysis of UK and transnational experience. Business Ethics: A European Review 10 (1): 45–52.Google Scholar
Cyert, R. M. and March, J. G. 1963. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Daft, R. L. 1992. Organization Theory and Design. 4th edn. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Daft, R. L. and Marcic, D. 2001. Understanding Management. Fort Worth: Southwestern Publishing.
Daily, C. M. 1995. CEO and director turnover in failing firms: an illusion of change? Strategic Management Journal 16 (5): 393–400.Google Scholar
Davis, K. 1996. Governance patterns in bankruptcy reorganizations. Strategic Management Journal 17 (5): 355–375.Google Scholar
Daily, C. M. and Dalton, D. R. 1994. Corporate governance and the bankrupt firm: An empirical assessment. Strategic Management Journal 15 (8): 643–654.Google Scholar
Dalton, D. R., Daily, C. M., Ellstrand, A. E. and Johnson, J. L. 1998. Meta-analytic reviews of board composition, leadership structure, and financial performance. Strategic Management Journal 19 (3): 269.Google Scholar
Davis, J. J. 1992. Ethics and environmental marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (2): 81–87.Google Scholar
Davis, K. 1960. Can business afford to ignore social responsibilities? California Management Review 2 (3): 70–76.Google Scholar
Davis, K. 1967. Understanding the social responsibility puzzle: What does the businessman owe to society? Business Horizons 10 (4): 45–50.Google Scholar
Davis, K. 1973. The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Academy of Management Journal 16 (2): 312–322.Google Scholar
Davis, P. and Freeman, R. E. 1978. Technology assessment and idealized design: An application to telecommunications. In Elton, M. C. J., Lucas, W. A. and Conrath, D. W. (eds.), Evaluating New Telecommunications Services. New York: Plenum Press. 325–344.
Deakin, S. and Slinger, G. 1997. Hostile takeovers, corporate law, and the theory of the firm. Journal of Law and Society 24 (1): 124–51.Google Scholar
Lopez, T. 2001. Stakeholder management for conservation projects: A case study of Ream National Park, Cambodia. Environmental Management 28 (1): 47–60.Google Scholar
Demise, N., 2005. Business ethics and corporate governance in Japan. Business and Society 44 (2): 211–217.Google Scholar
Demise, N. 2006. CSR in Japan: A historical perspective. (accessed Jan. 30, 2009).
Hengst, M., Vreed, G-J. and Maghnouji, R. 2007. Using soft OR principles for collaborative simulation: A case study in the Dutch airline industry. Journal of the Operational Research Society 58 (5): 669–682.Google Scholar
Denis, D. J., Denis, D. K. and Sarin, A. 1997. Agency problems, equity ownership, and corporate diversification. Journal of Finance 52 (1): 135–160.Google Scholar
Dennett, D. 1995. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Derkinderen, F. G. J. and Crum, R. L. 1979. Projects Set Strategies. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
Dermer, J. 1990. The strategic agenda: Accounting for issues and support. Accounting, Organizations and Society 15 (1/2): 67–76.Google Scholar
Dewey, J. 1927. The Public and Its Problems. New York: Ohio University Press Books.
Dey, P. K., Hariharan, S. and Clegg, B. T. 2006. Measuring the operational performance of intensive care units using the analytic hierarchy process approach. International Journal of Operations and Production Management 26 (8): 849–865.Google Scholar
Dienhart, J. 2008. The separation thesis: Perhaps nine lives are enough. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4): 555–559.Google Scholar
Dierickx, I. and Cool, K. 1989. Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage. Management Science 35 (12): 1504–1511.Google Scholar
Dill, W. R. 1958. Environment as an influence on managerial autonomy. Administrative Science Quarterly 2 (4): 409–443.Google Scholar
Dill, W. R. 1975. Public participation in corporate-planning: Strategic management in a kibitzer's world. Long Range Planning 8 (1): 57–63.Google Scholar
DiMaggio, P. and Powell, W. 1983. The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review 48 (2): 147–160.Google Scholar
Dimovski, B. and Brooks, R. 2004. Stakeholder representation on the boards of Australian initial public offerings. Applied Financial Economics 14 (17): 1233–1238.Google Scholar
Dipboye, R. L. 2007. Eight outrageous statements about HR science. Human Resource Management Review 17 (2): 96–106.Google Scholar
Dodd, E. M., Jr. 1932. For whom are corporate managers trustees? Harvard Law Review 45 (7): 1145–1163.Google Scholar
Donaldson, T. 1999. Response: Making stakeholder theory whole, Academy of Management Review 24 (2): 237–241.Google Scholar
Donaldson, T. and Dunfee, T. W. 1994. Towards a unified conception of business ethics: Integrative social contracts. Academy of Management Review 19 (2): 252–284.Google Scholar
Donaldson, T. 1999. Ties that Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Business Ethics. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Donaldson, T. and Preston, L. E. 1995. The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review 20 (1): 65–91.Google Scholar
Donaldson, T. J. and Freeman, R. E. (eds.). 1994. Business as a Humanity. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dray, W. H. 1964. Philosophy of History. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Drisco, C. and Stank, M. 2004. The primordial stakeholder: Advancing the conceptual consideration of stakeholder status for the natural environment. Journal of Business Ethics 49 (1): 55–74.Google Scholar
Drucker, P. 1980. Managing in Turbulent Times. New York: Harper & Row.
Duncan, T. and Moriarty, S. E. 1998. A communication-based marketing model for managing relationships. Journal of Marketing 62 (2): 1–13.Google Scholar
Dunham, L., Freeman, R. E. and Liedtka, J. 2006. Enhancing stakeholder practice: A particularized exploration of community. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1): 23–42.Google Scholar
Dyer, J. H. and Hatch, N. W. 2004. Using supplier networks to learn faster. MIT Sloan Management Review 45 (3): 57–63.Google Scholar
Dyer, J. H. and Nobeoka, K. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal 21 (3): 345–367.Google Scholar
Dyer, J. H. and Singh, H. 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review 23 (4): 660–679.Google Scholar
Dymond, S., Nix, T., Rotarius, T. and Savage, G. 1995. Why do key integrated delivery stakeholders really matter? Assessing control, coalitions, resources and power. Medical Group Management Journal 42 (6): 27–38.Google Scholar
Edmunds, D. and Wollenberg, E. 2001. A strategic approach to multistakeholder negotiations. Development and Change 32 (2): 231–253.Google Scholar
Elias, A. A., Cavana, R. Y. and Jackson, L. S. 2002. Stakeholder analysis for R&D project management. R&D Management 32 (4): 301–320.Google Scholar
Elkington, J. 1994. Towards the sustainable corporation: Win-win-win business strategies for sustainable development. California Management Review 36 (2): 90–100.Google Scholar
Elkington, J. 1997. Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business. Oxford: Capstone Publishing.
Elms, H., Berman, S. and Wicks, A. 2002. Ethics and incentives: An inductive development of stakeholder theory in the health care industry. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (4): 413–432.Google Scholar
Ely, K. M. and Pownall, G. 2002. Shareholder- versus stakeholder-focused Japanese companies: Firm characteristics and accounting valuation. Contemporary Accounting Research 19 (4): 615–636.Google Scholar
Emanuel, E. 1999. Choice and representation in health care. Medical Care Research and Review 56 (1): 113–140.Google Scholar
Emery, F. E. and Trist, E. L. 1965. The causal texture of organizational environments. Human Relations 18 (1): 21–32.Google Scholar
Emshoff, J. and Freeman, R. E. 1981. Stakeholder management: A case study of the US brewers and the container issue. In Schultz, R. (ed.), Applications of Management Science, Vol. 1. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 57–90.
Emshoff, J. R. 1980. Managerial Breakthroughs. New York: AMACOM.
Emshoff, J. R. and Finnel, A. 1979. Defining corporate strategy: A case study using strategic assumptions analysis. Sloan Management Review 20 (3): 41–52.Google Scholar
Enderle, G. 2006. Corporate responsibility in the CSR debate. In Wieland, J. and Brenkert, G. (eds.), Unternehmensethik im Spannungsfeld der Kulturen und Religionen. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. 108–124.
,Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1998. Stakeholder involvement: Action plan.
2005. Handbook for Developing Watershed Plans to Restore and Protect Our Waters. EPA 841-B-05–005.
Epstein, E. M. 1969. The Corporation in American Politics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Epstein, E. M. 1980. Business political activity: Research approaches and analytical issues. In Preston, L. E. (ed.), Research in Corporate Social Performance, II. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 1–55.
Epstein, E. M. 1987. The corporate social policy process: Beyond business ethics, corporate social responsibility, and corporate social responsiveness. California Management Review 29 (3): 99–114.Google Scholar
Etzioni, A. 1964. Modern Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Etzioni, A. 1996. The New Golden Rule. Community and Morality in a Democratic Society. New York: Basic Books.
Etzioni, A. 1998. A communitarian note on stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (4): 679–691.Google Scholar
Evan, W. M. 1966. The organization-set: Toward a theory of inter-organizational relations. In Thompson, J. D. (ed.), Approaches to Organizational Design. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 174–190.
Evan, W. M. and Freeman, R. E. 1993. A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation: Kantian capitalism. In Beauchamp, T. L. and Bowie, N. E. (eds.), Ethical Theory and Business. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 97–106.
Eyles, J., Brimacombe, M., Chaulk, P., Stoddart, G., Pranger, T. and Moase, O. 2001. What determines health? To where should we shift resources? Attitudes towards the determinants of health among multiple stakeholder groups in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Social Science and Medicine 53 (12): 1611–1619.Google Scholar
Fairfax, L. 2006. The rhetoric of corporate law: The impact of stakeholder rhetoric on corporate norms. Journal of Corporate Law 31 (3): 675–719.Google Scholar
Fama, E. F. 1970. Efficient capital markets: A review of theory and empirical work. Journal of Finance 25 (5): 383–417.Google Scholar
Fama, E. F. 1980. Agency problems and the theory of the firm. Journal of Political Economy 88 (2): 288–307.Google Scholar
Fama, E. F. and Jensen, M. C. 1983. Separation of ownership and corporate control. Journal of Law and Economics 26 (2): 301–325.Google Scholar
Fassin, Y. 2008. Imperfections and shortcomings of the stakeholder model graphical representation. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4): 879–888.Google Scholar
Ferguson, J., Collison, D., Power, D. and Stevenson, L. 2005. What are recommended accounting textbooks teaching students about corporate stakeholders? British Accounting Review 37 (1): 23–46.Google Scholar
Ferguson, J., Collison, D., Power, D. and Stevenson, L. 2007. Exploring lecturers' perceptions of the emphasis given to different stakeholders in introductory accounting textbooks. Accounting Forum 31 (2): 113–127.Google Scholar
Ferraro, F., Pfeffer, J. and Sutton, R. I. 2005. Economics language and assumptions: How theories can become self-fulfilling. Academy of Management Review 30 (1): 8–24.Google Scholar
Ferrell, O. C. and Ferrell, L. 2008. A macromarketing ethics framework: Stakeholder orientation and distributive justice. Journal of Macromarketing 28 (1): 24–32.Google Scholar
Feyerabend, P. K. 1975. Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge. London: Humanities Press.
Fiedler, L. and Kirchgeorg, M. 2007. The role concept in corporate branding and stakeholder management reconsidered: Are stakeholder groups really different? Corporate Reputation Review 10 (3): 177–188.Google Scholar
Fineman, S. and Clark, K. 1996. Green stakeholders: Industry interpretations and response, Journal of Management Studies 33 (6): 715–30.Google Scholar
Firouzabadi, A. K., Henson, B. and Barnes, C. 2008. A multiple stakeholders' approach to strategic selection decisions. Computers and Industrial Engineering 54 (4): 851–865.Google Scholar
Fischer, E. and Reuber, R. 2007. The good, the bad and the unfamiliar: The challenges of reputation facing new firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 31 (1): 53–75.Google Scholar
Flak, L., Moe, C. and Sæbø, Ø. 2003. On the evolution of e-government: The user imperative. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on e-Government. Prague: 139–142.
Florida, R. and Goodnight, J. 2005. Managing for creativity. Harvard Business Review 83 (7/8): 124–131.Google Scholar
Fogarty, T. J. and Markarian, G. 2007. An empirical assessment of the rise and fall of accounting as an academic discipline. Issues in Accounting Education 22 (2): 137–161.Google Scholar
Fombrun, C. 2001. Corporate reputations as economic assets. In Hitt, M. A., Freeman, R. E., and Harrison, J. S. (eds.), Handbook of Strategic Management. Oxford: Blackwell. 289–312.
Fombrun, C. and Astley, W. G. 1983. Beyond corporate strategy. Journal of Business Strategy 3 (4): 47–54.Google Scholar
Fombrun, C. and Shanley, M. 1990. What's in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy. Academy of Management Journal 33 (2): 233–258.Google Scholar
Fort, T. 1997. The corporation as mediating institution: An efficacious synthesis of stakeholder theory and corporate constituency statutes. Notre Dame Law Review 73 (1): 173–203.Google Scholar
Fort, T. and Schipani, C. 2000. Corporate governance in a global environment: The search for the best of all worlds. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 33 (4): 829–876.Google Scholar
Foster, D. and Jonker, J. 2003. Third generation quality management: The role of stakeholders in integrating business into society. Managerial Auditing Journal 18 (4): 323–333.Google Scholar
Fottler, M. and Blair, J. 2002. Introduction: New concepts in health care stakeholder management theory and practice. Health Care Management Review 27 (2): 50–51.Google Scholar
Fottler, M. D., Blair, J. D., Whitehead, C. J., Laus, M. D. and Savage, G. T. 1989. Assessing key stakeholders: Who matters to hospitals and why? Hospital and Health Services Administration 34 (4): 525–547.Google Scholar
Frank, R. H. 1988. Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of Emotions. New York: W. W. Norton.
Frank, R. H., Gilovich, T. and Regan, D. T. 1993. Does studying economics inhibit cooperation? Journal of Economic Perspectives 7: 159–171.Google Scholar
Frederick, W. C. 1978. From CSR1 to CSR2: The maturing of business and society thought. Working Paper no. 279, Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh.
Frederick, W. C. 1986. Toward CSR3: Why ethical analysis is indispensable and unavoidable in corporate affairs. California Management Review 28 (2), 126–155.Google Scholar
Frederick, W. C. 1987. Theories of corporate social performance. In Sethi, S. P. and Falbe, C. M. (eds.), Business and society: Dimensions of Conflict and Cooperation. Lexington, MA: Lexington/D.C. Heath. 142–161
Frederick, W. C. 1994. From CSR1 to CSR2. Business and Society 33 (2): 150–165.Google Scholar
Frederick, W. C. 1998a. Creatures, corporations, communities, chaos, complexity: A naturological view of the corporate social role. Business and Society 37 (4): 358–389.Google Scholar
Frederick, W. C. 1998b. Moving to CSR4: What to pack for the trip. Business and Society 37 (1): 40–59.Google Scholar
Frederick, W. C. 2006. Corporation Be Good! The Story of Corporate Social Responsibility. Dog Ear Publishing Inc.
Frederick, W. C., Post, J. E. and Davis, K. 1988. Business and Society: Corporate Strategy, Public Policy, Ethics. 6th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Frederiksen, H. D. and Mathiassen, L. 2005. Information-centric assessment of software metrics practices. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 52 (3): 350–362.Google Scholar
Freedman, M. and Stagliano, A. J. 1992. European unification, accounting harmonization and social disclosures. International Journal of Accounting 27 (2): 112–122.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. 1984. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman.
Freeman, R. E. 1994. The politics of stakeholder theory: Some future directions. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4): 409–421.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. 1998. Poverty and the politics of capitalism. In Werhane, Patricia H. (ed.), New Approaches to Business Ethics, The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1. 31–35.
Freeman, R. E. 1999. Response: Divergent stakeholder theory. Academy of Management Review 24 (2): 233–236.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. 2000. Business ethics at the millennium. Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (1): 169–180.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. 2004. The stakeholder approach revisited. Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts-und Unternehmensethik 5 (3): 228–241.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. 2005. The development of stakeholder theory: An idiosyncratic approach. In Smith, K. and Hitt, M. A. (eds.), Great Minds in Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 417–435.
Freeman, R. E., Bryson, J. and Roering, W. 1986. Strategic planning in the public sector: Approaches and future directions. In Checkoway, B. (ed.), Strategic Perspectives on Planning Practice. Boston: Lexington Books. 65–85.
Freeman, R. E. and Emshoff, J. 1979. Who's butting into your business? Wharton Magazine 4 (Fall): 44–48, 58–59.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. and Evan, W. 1990. Corporate governance: a stakeholder interpretation. Journal of Behavioral Economics 19 (4): 337–59.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. and Gilbert, D. R. 1987. Managing stakeholder relationships. In Sethi, S. P. and Falbe, G. M. (eds.), Business and Society: Dimensions of Conflict and Cooperation. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. 397–423.
Freeman, R. E. and Gilbert, D. R. 1988. Corporate Strategy and the Search for Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Freeman, R. E. 1992. Business ethics and society: a critical agenda. Business and Society 31 (1): 9–17.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S. and Wicks, A. C. 2007. Managing for Stakeholders: Business in the 21st Century. Managing for Stakeholders: Survival, Reputation, and Success. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Freeman, R. E. and Liedtka, J. 1991. Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach. Business Horizons 34 (4): 92–98.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. and Liedtka, J. 1997. Stakeholder capitalism and the value chain. European Management Journal 15 (3): 286–296.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. and Lorange, P. 1985. Theory building in strategic management. In Lamb, R. and Shrivastava, P. (eds.), Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 3, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 9–38.
Freeman, R. E. and McVea, J. 2001. Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. In Hitt, M. A., Freeman, R. E., and Harrison, J. S. (eds.), Handbook of Strategic Management. Oxford: Blackwell. 189–207.
Freeman, R. E., Martin, K. and Parmar, B. 2006. Ethics and capitalism. In Epstein, M. and Hanson, K. (eds.), The Accountable Corporation, Vol. 2, Business Ethics. Westport: Praeger. 193–208.
Freeman, R. E. and Newkirk, D. 2008a. Business school research: Some preliminary suggestions. 1st IESE Conference, Humanizing the Firm and Management Profession, Barcelona, IESE Business School.
Freeman, R. E. and Newkirk, D. 2008b. Business as a human enterprise: Implications for education? In Gregg, Samuel and Stoner, James R., Jr. (eds.), Rethinking Business Management. Princeton, NJ: Witherspoon Institute. 131–148.
Freeman, R. E. and Phillips, R. 2002. Stakeholder theory: A libertarian defense. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3): 331–350.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E. and Reed, D. L. 1983. Stockholders and stakeholders: A new perspective on corporate governance. California Management Review 15 (3): 88–106.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E., Wicks, A. and Parmar, B. 2004. Stakeholder theory and “the corporate objective revisited.” Organization Science 15 (3): 364–369.Google Scholar
Freeman, R. E., Wicks, A. C., Parmar, B. and McVea, J. 2004. Stakeholder theory: The state of the art and future perspectives. Politeia Anno XX, No.74. 9–22.
Fried, C. 1981. Contract as Promise: A Theory of Contractual Obligation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Friedman, A. L. 2002. Developing stakeholder theory. Journal of Management Studies 39 (1): 1–21.Google Scholar
Friedman, A. L. and Miles, S. 2001. Socially responsible investment and corporate social and environmental reporting in the UK: An exploratory study. British Accounting Review 33 (4): 523–548.Google Scholar
Friedman, A. L. and Miles, S. 2006. Stakeholders: Theory and Practice. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Friedman, A. L. and Phillips, M. 2005. Model for governance of professional associations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 15 (2): 187–204.Google Scholar
Friedman, D. 1973. The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to a Radical Capitalism. New York: Arlington House.
Friedman, M. 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and Phoenix Books.
Friedman, M. 1970. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times September 13: 33.
Friedman, M. T. and Mason, D. 2004. A stakeholder approach to analyzing economic development decision making: Public subsidies for professional sport facilities. Economic Development Quarterly 18 (3): 236–254.Google Scholar
Friedman, M. T. and Mason, D. 2005. Stakeholder management and the public subsidization of Nashville's coliseum. Journal of Urban Affairs 27 (1): 93–118.Google Scholar
Friedman, S. D. and Olk, P. 1995. Four ways to choose a CEO: Crown heir, horse race, coup d'état, and comprehensive search. Human Resource Management 34 (1): 141–164.Google Scholar
Frooman, J. 1999. Stakeholder influence strategies. Academy of Management Review 24 (2): 191–205.Google Scholar
Frost, F. A. and Mensik, S. 1991. Balancing minerals development and environmental protection. Long Range Planning 24 (4): 58–73.Google Scholar
Froud, J., Haslam, C., Suckdev, J., Shaoul, J. and Williams, K. 1996. Stakeholder economy? From utility privatisation to new labour. Capital and Class 60 (Autumn): 119–134.Google Scholar
Fry, M. L. and Polonsky, M. J. 2004. Examining the unintended consequences of marketing. Journal of Business Research 57 (11): 1303–1314.Google Scholar
Fryxell, G. E. and Wang, J. 1994. The Fortune corporate reputation index: Reputation for what? Journal of Management 20 (1): 1–14.Google Scholar
Fubini, D. G., Price, C. and Zollo, M. 2006. The elusive art of postmerger leadership. McKinsey Quarterly 4: 28–37.Google Scholar
Gallo, G. 2004. Operations research and ethics: Responsibility, sharing and cooperation. European Journal of Operational Research 153 (2): 468–476.Google Scholar
Gamble, G. and Kelly, G. 1996. Stakeholder capitalism and one nation socialism. Renewal 4 (1): 23–32.Google Scholar
Garavan, T. N. 1995. Stakeholders and strategic human resource development. Journal of European Industrial Training 19 (10): 11–15.Google Scholar
Gauthier, D. 1986. Morals by Agreement. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gelis, A. 2003. The reaction of stakeholders to the role of the Brazilian Federal Agency for Health Plans. Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs 20: (1): 59–66.Google Scholar
George, B. 2003. Authentic Leadership: Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Ghonkrokta, S. S. and Lather, A. S. 2007. Identification of role of social audit by stakeholders as accountability tool in good governance. Journal of Management Research 7(1): 18–26.Google Scholar
Ghoshal, S. 2005. Bad management theories are destroying good management practices. Academy of Management Learning and Education 4 (1): 75–91.Google Scholar
Gibson, J. L., Ivancevich, J. M., Donnelly, J. H. and Konopaske, R. 2003. Organizations: Behavior Structure Processes. 11th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Gibson, K. 2000. The moral basis of stakeholder theory. Journal of Business Ethics 26 (3): 245–257.Google Scholar
Gilligan, C. 1982. In a Different Voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gilmartin, M. and Freeman, R. E. 2002. Business ethics and health care: A stakeholder perspective. Health Care Management Review 27 (2): 52–65.Google Scholar
Gioia, D. A. 1999a. Practicability, paradigms and problems in stakeholder theorizing. Academy of Management Review 24 (2): 228–232.Google Scholar
Gioia, D. A. 1999b. Gioia's reply to Jones and Wicks, Academy of Management Review 26 (4): 624–625.Google Scholar
Glaskiewicz, J. 1994. Advances in Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gonin, M. 2007. Business research, self-fulfilling prophecy, and the inherent responsibility of scholars. Journal of Academic Ethics 5(1): 33–58.Google Scholar
González-Benito, J. and González-Benito, O. 2006. The role of stakeholder pressure and managerial values in the implementation of environmental logistics practices. International Journal of Production Research 44 (7): 1353–1373.Google Scholar
Goodpaster, K. 1991. Business ethics and stakeholder analysis. Business Ethics Quarterly 1 (1): 53–73.Google Scholar
Goodpaster, K. and Holloran, T. 1994. In defense of a paradox. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4): 423–430.Google Scholar
Gordon, R. A. and Howell, J. E. 1959. Higher Education for Business. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gowthorpe, C. and Amat, O. 1999. External reporting of accounting and financial information via the Internet in Spain. European Accounting Review 8 (2): 365–371.Google Scholar
Granovetter, M. 1985. Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology 91 (3): 481–510.Google Scholar
Graves, S. B. and Waddock, S. A. 1990. Institutional ownership and control: Implications for long-term corporate performance. Academy of Management Executive 37 (4): 1034–1046.Google Scholar
Graves, S. B. and Waddock, S. A. 1994. Institutional owners and corporate social performance. Academy of Management Journal 37 (4): 75–83.Google Scholar
Gray, R. 2001. Thirty years of social accounting, reporting, and auditing: What (if anything) have we learnt? Business Ethics: A European Review 10 (1): 9–15.Google Scholar
Gray, R., Dey, C., Owen, D., Evans, R. and Zadek, S. 1997. Struggling with the praxis of social accounting: Stakeholders, accountability, audits and procedures. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 10 (3): 325–364.Google Scholar
Gray, R., Kouhy, R. and Lavers, S. 1995. Corporate social and environmental reporting: A review of the literature and a longitudinal study of UK disclosure. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 8 (2): 47–75.Google Scholar
Gray, R., Owen, D. and Adams, C. 1996. Accounting and Accountability: Changes and Challenges in Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting. London: Prentice-Hall.
Greenhalgh, L. 2001. Managing Strategic Relationships. New York: Free Press.
Greening, D. W. and Turban, D. B. 2000. Corporate social performance as a competitive advantage in attracting a quality workforce. Business and Society 39 (3): 254–280.Google Scholar
Greenley, G. E. and Foxall, G. R. 1996. Consumer and nonconsumer stakeholder orientation in U.K. companies. Journal of Business Research 35 (2): 105–116.Google Scholar
Greenley, G. E. and Foxall, G. R. 1997. Multiple stakeholder orientation in UK companies and the implications for company performance. Journal of Management Studies 34 (2): 259–284.Google Scholar
Greenley, G. E. and Foxall, G. R. 1998. External moderation of associations among stakeholder orientations and company performance. International Journal of Research in Marketing 15 (1): 51–69.Google Scholar
Greenley, G. E., Hooley, G. J., Broderick, A. and Rudd, J. M. 2004. Strategic planning differences among different multiple stakeholder orientation profiles. Journal of Strategic Marketing 12 (3): 163–182.Google Scholar
Greenwood, M. R. and Simmons, J. 2004. A stakeholder approach to ethical human resource management. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 23 (3): 3–23.Google Scholar
Gregory, A. 2007. Involving stakeholders in developing corporate brands: The communication dimension. Journal of Marketing Management 23 (1–2): 59–73.Google Scholar
Gregory, R. and Keeney, R. L. 1994. Creating policy alternatives using stakeholder values. Management Science 40 (8): 1035–1048.Google Scholar
Griffin, J. J. 1998. Using technology to understand stakeholders. Business and Society 37 (1): 107–110.Google Scholar
Grimble, R., Aglionby, J. and Quan, J. 1994. Tree Resources and Environmental Policy: A Stakeholder Approach. NRI Socioeconomics Series 7. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute.
Grimble, R. and Chan, M. 1995. Stakeholder analysis for natural resource management in developing countries. Natural Resources Forum 19 (2): 113–124.Google Scholar
Grimble, R. and Wellard, K. 1997. Stakeholder methodologies in natural resource management: A review of principles, contexts, experiences and opportunities. Agricultural Systems 55 (2): 173–193.Google Scholar
Grinyer, J. R., Sinclair, C. D. and Ibrahim, D. N. 1999. Management objectives in capital budgeting. Financial Practice and Education 9 (2): 12–22.Google Scholar
Grossman, S. J. and Hart, O. 1986. The costs and benefits of ownership: A theory of vertical and lateral integration. Journal of Political Economy 94: 691–719.Google Scholar
Guild, W. L. 2002. Relative importance of stakeholders: Analysing speech acts in a layoff. Journal of Organizational Behavior 23 (7): 837–852.Google Scholar
Gulati, R. and Singh, J. H. 1998. The architecture of cooperation: Managing coordination costs and appropriation concerns in strategic alliances. Administrative Science Quarterly 43 (4): 781–814.Google Scholar
Gunther, M. 2004. Money and morals at GE. Fortune. November 15: 178.
Gupta, A. 1995. A stakeholder analysis approach for interorganizational systems. Industrial Management and Data Systems 95: (6): 3–7.Google Scholar
Gutting, G. 1999. Pragmatic Liberalism and the Critique of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Habermas, J. 1978. Knowledge and Human Interests, trans. Shapiro, J. J.. 2nd edn. Boston: Beacon Press.
Habermas, J. 1984. The Theory of Communicative Action. Boston: Beacon Hill.
Habermas, J. 1987. Philosophy as stand-in and interpreter. In Baynes, K., Bohman, J., and McCarthy, T. (eds.), After Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Habermas, J. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. Burger, T.. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Habermas, J. 1990. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge: Polity.
Habermas, J. 1993. Justification and Application: Remarks on Discourse Ethics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Habermas, J. 1996. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hall, A. T., Blass, F. R., Ferris, G. R. and Massengale, R. 2004. Leader reputation and accountability in organizations: Implications for dysfunctional leader behavior. Leadership Quarterly 15 (4): 515–536.Google Scholar
Hall, J. and Vredenburg, H. 2005. Managing stakeholder ambiguity. MIT Sloan Management Review 47 (1): 11–13.Google Scholar
Hambrick, D. C. 2007. The field of management's devotion to theory: Too much of a good thing? Academy of Management Journal 50 (6): 1346–1352.Google Scholar
Hampton-Turner, C. and Trompenaars, A. 1993. The Seven Cultures of Capitalism. New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.
Hanks, J. 1991. Playing with fire: Nonshareholder constituency statutes in the 1990s. Stetson Law Review 21: 97, 111.Google Scholar
Hansmann, H. 1996. The Ownership of the Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hardy, C., Phillips, E. and Lawrence, T. B. 2003. Resources, knowledge and influence: The organizational effects of interorganizational collaboration. Journal of Management Studies 40 (2): 321–347.Google Scholar
Hargreaves, B. J. A. and Dauman, J. 1975. Business Survival and Social Change: A Practical Guide to Responsibility and Partnership. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Harris, J. and Bromiley, P. 2007. Incentives to cheat: The influence of executive compensation and firm performance on financial misrepresentation. Organization Science 18 (3): 350–367.Google Scholar
Harris, J. and Freeman, R. E. 2008. The impossibility of the separation thesis. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4): 541–548.Google Scholar
Harris, P. and Rees, P. 2005. Stakeholder Marketing. London: Sage.
Harrison, J. S. 1996. Managing and partnering with external stakeholders. Academy of Management Executive 10 (2): 46–60.Google Scholar
Harrison, J. S. and Fiet, J. O. 1999. New CEOs pursue their own self-interests by sacrificing stakeholder values. Journal of Business Ethics 19 (3): 301–308.Google Scholar
Harrison, J. S. and St. John, C. H. 1994. Strategic Management of Organizations and Stakeholders: Concepts and Cases. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Harrison, J. S. 1998. Strategic Management of Organizations and Stakeholders: Concepts and Cases. 2nd edn. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing.
Harsanyi, J. C., 1977. Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hart, O. 1995. Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hart, O. and Holmstrom, B. 1986. The theory of contracts. Working Paper no. 418, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
Hart, O. and Moore, J. 1990. Property rights and the nature of the firm. Journal of Political Economy 98 (6): 1119–1158.Google Scholar
Hart, S. L. and Sharma, S. 2004. Engaging fringe stakeholders for competitive imagination. Academy of Management Executive 18 (1): 7–18.Google Scholar
Hartman, E. 1996. Organizational Ethics and the Good Life. New York: Oxford University Press.
Haselhoff, F. 1976. A new paradigm for the study of organizational goals. In Ansoff, I., Declerk, R. and Hayes, R. (eds.), From Strategic Planning to Strategic Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 15–27.
Hasnas, J. 1998. The normative theories of business ethics. A guide for the perplexed. Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (1): 19–42.Google Scholar
Hausman, D. M. 2002. Trustworthiness and self-interest. Journal of Banking and Finance 26 (9): 1767–1783.Google Scholar
Hayek, F. von 1974. The pretence of knowledge. In Nobel Lectures: Economic Sciences 1969–1980. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. 179–189.
Hayek, F. 1979. Law, Legislation, Liberty, Vol. 3, The Political Order of a Free People. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
Hayes, R. H. and Abernathy, W. J., 1980. Managing our way to economic decline. Harvard Business Review 58 (4): 67–77.Google Scholar
Heenan, D. and Perlmutter, H. 1979. Multinational Organizational Development. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Heller, F. 1997. Leadership and power in a stakeholder setting. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 6 (4): 467–479.Google Scholar
Hellriegel, D., Slocum, J. W., Jr. and Woodman, R. W. 2001. Organizational Behavior. 9th edn. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
Hemmati, M. 2002. Multi-Stakeholder Processes for Governance and Sustainability – Beyond Deadlock and Conflict. London: Earthscan.
Hendry, J. 2001a. Economic contacts versus social relationships as a foundation for normative stakeholder theory. Business Ethics: A European Review 10 (3): 223–232.Google Scholar
Hendry, J. 2001b. Missing the target: Normative stakeholder theory and the corporate governance debate. Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (1): 159–176.Google Scholar
Henn, A. and Patz, R. 2007. A multicriteria approach for corporate decisions in sustainable planning policy. International Transactions in Operational Research 14 (1): 14–23.Google Scholar
Henriksen, E., Johansen, M., Deraas, T. and Arild, E. 2005. Difficulties in moving routine medical checks from the specialist level to the general practitioner level. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 11 (S2): 47–50.Google Scholar
Heugens, P. P. M. A. R., Bosch, F. A. J. and Riel, C. B. M. 2002. Stakeholder integration: Building mutually enforcing relationships. Business and Society 41 (1): 36–60.Google Scholar
Hilary, G. 2003. Accounting behavior of German firms after an ADR issuance. International Journal of Accounting 38 (3): 355–377.Google Scholar
Hill, C. W. L. and Jones, T. M. 1992. Stakeholder–agency theory. Journal of Management Studies 29 (2): 131–154.Google Scholar
Hillman, A. J. and Dalziel, T. 2003. Boards of directors and firm performance: Integrating agency and resource dependence perspectives. Academy of Management Review 28 (3): 383–396.Google Scholar
Hillman, A. J. and Keim, G. D. 2001. Shareholder value, stakeholder management, and social issues: What's the bottom line? Strategic Management Journal 22 (2): 125–139.Google Scholar
Hirschman, A. O. 1970. Exit Voice and Loyalty: Response to Decline in Firms, Organizations and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hitt, M. A. 2005. Spotlight on strategic management. Business Horizons 48 (5): 371–377.Google Scholar
Hitt, M. A., Freeman, R. E. and Harrison, J. S. (eds.). 2001. Handbook of Strategic Management, Oxford: Blackwell.
Hitt, M. A., Harrison, J. S. and Ireland, R. D. 2001. Mergers and Acquisitions: A Guide to Creating Value for Stakeholder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hitt, M. A., Keats, B. W. and DeMarie, S. M. 1998. Navigating in the new competitive landscape: Building strategic flexibility and competitive advantage in the 21st century. Academy of Management, 12 (4): 22–42.Google Scholar
Hjortsø, C. N. 2004. Enhancing public participation in natural resource management using soft OR – an application of strategic option development and analysis in tactical forest planning. European Journal of Operational Research 152: 667–683.Google Scholar
Hoek, J. and Maubach, N. 2005. A model for addressing stakeholders' concerns about direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9–10): 1151–1169.Google Scholar
Hofer, C. W., Murray, E. A., Charan, R. and Pitts, R. A. 1980. Strategic Management: A Casebook in Business Policy and Planning. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Hofer, C. W. and Schendel, D. E. 1978. Strategy Formulation: Analytical Concepts. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Holder, M. E., Langrehr, F. W. and Hexter, J. L. 1998. Dividend policy determinants: An investigation of the influences of stakeholder theory. Financial Management 27 (3): 73–82.Google Scholar
Honore, A. M. 1961. Ownership. In Guest, A. G. (ed.), Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hoover, K. R. 2003. Economics as Ideology. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Hosmer, L. T. 1994. Strategic planning as if ethics mattered. Strategic Management Journal 15 (Special Issue): 17–34.Google Scholar
Hosseini, J. and Brenner, S. N. 1992. The stakeholder theory of the firm: A methodology to generate value matrix weight. Business Ethics Quarterly 2 (2): 99–119.Google Scholar
Hrebiniak, L. G. and Joyce, W. F. 1985. Organizational adaptation: Strategic choice and environmental determinism. Administrative Science Quarterly 30 (3): 336–349.Google Scholar
Humber, J. M. 2002. Beyond stockholders and stakeholders: A plea for corporate moral autonomy. Journal of Business Ethics 36 (3): 207–221.Google Scholar
Huss, W. R. 1988. A move toward scenarios. International Journal of Forecasting 4 (3): 377–388.Google Scholar
Hussain, Z. and Hafeez, K. 2008. Changing attitudes and behavior of stakeholders during an information systems-led organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 44 (4): 490–513.Google Scholar
Hussey, D. and Langham, M. 1978. Corporate Planning: The Human Factor. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Hutton, W. 1995. The State We're In. London: Jonathan Cape.
,IASC (International Accounting Standards Committee). 1989. Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements. New York: IASC.
Ibarra, H. and Hunter, M. 2007. How leaders create and use networks. Harvard Business Review 85 (1): 40–48.Google Scholar
Ilinitch, A. Y., Soderstrom, N. S. and Thomas, T. E. 1998. Measuring corporate environmental performance. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 17 (4/5): 383–407.Google Scholar
Ippolito, R. A. and James, W. H. 1992. LBOs, reversions and implicit contracts. Journal of Finance 47 (1): 139–167.Google Scholar
Ireland, P. 1996. Corporate governance, stakeholding, and the company: Towards a less degenerate capitalism? Journal of Law and Society 23 (2): 287–320.Google Scholar
Ireland, R. D. and Hitt, M. A. 2005. Achieving and maintaining strategic competitiveness in the 21st century: The role of strategic leadership. Academy of Management Executive 19 (4): 63–77.Google Scholar
Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A. and Vaidyanath, D. 2002. Managing strategic alliances to achieve a competitive advantage. Journal of Management 28 (3): 413–446.Google Scholar
Islam, M. A. and Deegan, C. 2008. Motivations for an organisation within a developing country to report social responsibility information. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 21 (6): 850–874.Google Scholar
Istaitieh, A. and Rodriquez-Fernandez, J. M. 2006. Factor-product markets and firm's capital structure: A literature review. Review of Financial Economics 15 (1): 49–75.Google Scholar
Jackson, J. 2001. Prioritising customers and other stakeholders using the AHP. European Journal of Marketing 35 (7/8): 858–871.Google Scholar
Jallat, F. and Wood, E. 2005. Exploring “deep” and “wide” stakeholder relations in service activity. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 1013–1024.Google Scholar
Jamal, T. and Eyre, M. 2003. Legitimation struggles in national park spaces: The Banff Bow Valley Round Table. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 46 (3): 417–441.Google Scholar
Jamal, T., Stein, S. and Harper, T. 2002. Beyond labels: Pragmatic planning in multistakeholder tourism-environmental conflicts. Journal of Planning Education and Research 22 (2): 164–177.Google Scholar
James, W. 1907. Pragmatism, a new name for some old ways of thinking. Popular Lectures on Philosophy. New York: Longman Green.
Jansen, E. and Glinow, M. A. 1985. Ethical ambivalence and organizational rewards systems. Academy of Management Review 10 (4): 814–830.Google Scholar
Jawahar, I. M. and McLaughlin, G. L. 2001. Towards a descriptive stakeholder theory: An organizational life cycle approach. Academy of Management Review 26 (3): 3397–3414.Google Scholar
Jennings, M. M. and Happel, S. 2002–3. The post-Enron era for stakeholder theory: A new look at corporate governance and the Coase Theorem. Mercer Law Review 54: 873–938.Google Scholar
Jensen, M. C. 1989. The evidence speaks loud and clear. Harvard Business Review 67 (6): 186–188.Google Scholar
Jensen, M. C. 2000. Value maximization and the corporate objective function. In Beer, M. and Nohria, N. (eds.), Breaking the Code of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 37–58.
Jensen, M. C. 2001. Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function. European Financial Management 7(3): 297–317.Google Scholar
Jensen, M. C. 2002. Maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2), 235–256.Google Scholar
Jensen, M. C. and Meckling, W. 1976. Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and capital structure. Journal of Financial Economics 3 (4): 305–360.Google Scholar
Johnson, J. L., Daily, C. M. and Ellstrand, A. E. 1996. Boards of directors: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management 22 (3): 409–438.Google Scholar
Johnson, R. W. 1947. Or Forfeit Freedom. New York: Doubleday.
Jones, E. 1964. The Life and Times of Sigmund Freud. London: Penguin Books.
Jones, M. T. and Kunz, P. 2005. Competitive advantage through nonmarket strategy: Lessons from the Baywatch experience. The Business Review 3 (2): 271–283.Google Scholar
Jones, R. E. 1990. Managing the political context in PMS organizations. European Journal of Operational Research 49 (1): 60–67.Google Scholar
Jones, T. M. 1980. Corporate social responsibility revisited, redefined. California Management Review 22 (2): 59–67.Google Scholar
Jones, T. M. 1995. Instrumental stakeholder theory: A synthesis of ethics and economics. Academy of Management Review 20 (2): 404–437.Google Scholar
Jones, T. M., Felps, W. and Bigley, G. A. 2007. Ethical theory and stakeholder-related decisions: The role of stakeholder culture. Academy of Management Review 32 (1): 137–155.Google Scholar
Jones, T. M. and Goldberg, L. 1982. Governing the large corporation: More arguments for public directors. Academy of Management Review 7 (4): 603–611.Google Scholar
Jones, T. M. and Wicks, A. C. 1999a. Convergent stakeholder theory in management research. Academy of Management Review 24 (2): 206–221.Google Scholar
Jones, T. M., 1999b. Letter to AMR regarding “Convergent Stakeholder Theory.” Academy of Management Review 26 (4): 621–623.Google Scholar
Jørgensen, T. H., Remmen, A. and Mellado, M. D. 2006. Integrated management systems – three different levels of integration. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 (8): 713–722.Google Scholar
Joseph, G. 2007. Implications of a stakeholder view on corporate reporting. Accounting and the Public Interest 7: 50–65.Google Scholar
Kale, J. R. and Shahrur, H. 2008. Corporate leverage and specialized investments by customers and suppliers. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 20 (4): 98–104.Google Scholar
Kale, P., Dyer, J. and Singh, H. 2001. Value creation and success in strategic alliances: Alliancing skills and the role of alliance structure and systems. European Management Journal 19 (5): 463–471.Google Scholar
Kaler, J. 2002. Morality and strategy in stakeholder identification. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1/2): 91–99.Google Scholar
Kaler, J. 2003. Differentiating stakeholder theories. Journal of Business Ethics 46 (1): 71–83.Google Scholar
Kaler, J. 2006. Evaluating stakeholder theory. Journal of Business Ethics 69 (3): 249–268.Google Scholar
Kane, E. J. 2004. Continuing dangers of disinformation in corporate accounting reports. Review of Financial Economics 13 (1/2): 149–164.Google Scholar
Kanter, R. M. 1994. Collaborate advantage: The art of alliances. Harvard Business Review 72 (4): 96–108.Google Scholar
Kaptein, M. 2008. Developing a measure of unethical behavior in the workplace: A stakeholder perspective. Journal of Management 34 (5): 978–1008.Google Scholar
Karlsen, J. T. 2002. Project stakeholder management. Engineering Management Journal 14 (4): 19–24.Google Scholar
Katz, D. and Kahn, R. L. 1978. The Social Psychology of Organizations. 2nd edn. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Katz, D., Kahn, R. L. and Adams, S. 1980. The Study of Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Keasey, K. and Wright, M. 1993. Issues in corporate accountability and governance: An editorial. Accounting and Business Research 23 (91A): 291–303.Google Scholar
Keeley, M. 1978. A contingency framework for performance evaluation. Academy of Management Review 3 (3): 428–439.Google Scholar
Keeney, R. L. 1988. Structuring objectives for problems of public interest. Operations Research 36 (3): 396–405.Google Scholar
Keeney, R. L. and McDaniels, T. L. 1999. Identifying and structuring values to guide integrated resource planning at BC Gas. Operations Research 47 (5): 651–662.Google Scholar
Kenny, G. K. 2001. Strategic Factors. Mosman, Australia: President Press.
Kent, B., Kaval, P., Berry, J., Retzlaff, M., Hormaechea, D. and Shields, D. 2003. A role for stakeholder objectives in USDA Forest Service plan revisions: A case study on the White River National Forest. International Transactions in Operational Research 10 (5): 515–542.Google Scholar
Keynes, J. M. 1936. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. London: Macmillan.
Kiechel, W., III. 1979. Playing by the rules of the corporate strategy game. Fortune September 24: 24–26.
King, W. and Cleland, D. 1978. Strategic Planning and Policy. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Kingdon, J. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown.
Kirzner, I. M. 1979. Perception, Opportunity and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kirzner, I. M. 1985. Discovery and the Capitalist Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Klassen, R. D. 1993. The integration of environmental issues into manufacturing: Toward an interactive open-systems model. Production and Inventory Management Journal 34 (1): 82–88.Google Scholar
Klemm, M., Sanderson, S. and Luffman, G. 1991. Mission statements: Selling corporate values to employees. Long Range Planning 24 (3): 73–78.Google Scholar
Kochan, T. A. and Dyer, L. 1993. Managing transformational change: The role of human resource professionals. International Journal of Human Resource Management 4 (3): 569–590.Google Scholar
Kochan, T. A. and Rubenstein, S. A. 2000. Toward a stakeholder theory of the firm: The Saturn partnership. Organization Science 11 (4): 367–386.Google Scholar
Kolk, A. and Pinkse, J. 2007. Towards strategic stakeholder management? Integrating perspectives on sustainability challenges such as corporate responses to climate change. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Effective Board Performance 7 (4): 370–378.Google Scholar
Kotler, P. 2003. Marketing Management. 11th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kotler, P. 2005. The role played by the broadening of marketing movement in the history of marketing thought. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 24 (1): 114–116.Google Scholar
Kotter, J. and Heskett, J. 1992. Corporate Culture and Performance. New York: Free Press.
Kreitner, R. and Kinicki, A. 2008. Organizational Behavior. 8th edn. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Kruchten, P., Woo, C., Monu, K. and Sotoodeh, M. 2008. A conceptual model of disasters encompassing multiple stakeholder domains. International Journal of Emergency Management 5 (1/2): 25–56.Google Scholar
Krucken, L. and Meroni, A. 2006. Building stakeholder networks to develop and deliver product-service systems: Practical experiences on elaborating pro-active materials for communication. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 (17): 1502–1508.Google Scholar
Kuhn, T. S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kuhn, T. S. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kumar, K. and Subramanian, R. 1998. Meeting the expectations of stakeholders. SAM Advanced Management Journal 63 (2): 31–41.Google Scholar
Kumar, Y., Chaudhury, N. and Vasudev, N. 1997. Stakeholder Analysis: The Women's and Children's Health Project in India. Technical Report no. 13. Bethesda, MD: Partnerships for Health Reform, Abt. Associates, Inc.
Labib, N. and Appelbaum, S. H. 1993. Strategic downsizing: A human resources perspective. Human Resource Planning 16 (4): 69–93.Google Scholar
Lado, A. A., Boyd, N. G. and Hanlon, S. C. 1997. Competition, cooperation and the search for economic rents: A syncretic model. Academy of Management Review 22 (1): 110–141.Google Scholar
Lamberg, J.-A., Pajunen, K., Parvinen, P. and Savage, G. T. 2008. Stakeholder management and path dependence in organizational transitions. Management Decision 46 (6): 846–863.Google Scholar
Langtry, B. 1994. Stakeholders and the moral responsibilities of the firm. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4): 431–43.Google Scholar
Laplume, A. O., Sonpar, K. and Litz, R. A. 2008. Stakeholder theory: Reviewing a theory that moves us. Journal of Management 34 (6): 1152–1189.Google Scholar
Lavie, D. 2006. The competitive advantage of interconnected firm: An extension of the resource-based view. Academy of Management Review 31 (3): 638–658.Google Scholar
Lawrence, P. R. and Lorsch, J. W. 1967. Differentiation and integration in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 12 (1): 1–47Google Scholar
Lea, D. 2004. The imperfect nature of corporate responsibilities to stakeholders. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (2): 201–217.Google Scholar
Leach, W. 2004. Public Involvement and Facilitation Assistance. Center for Collaborative Policy, Sacramento State University.
Learned, E. P., Christensen, C. R., Andrews, K. R. and Guth, W. D. 1965. Business Policy: Text and Cases. Homewood, IL: R. D. Irwin.
Cardinal, G., Guyonnet, J.-F., Pouzoullic, B. and Rigby, J. 2001. Intervention methodology for complex problems: The FAcT-mirror method. European Journal of Operational Research 132 (3): 694–702.Google Scholar
Letza, S., Sun, X. and Kirkbride, J. (2004). Shareholding versus stakeholding: A critical review of corporate governance. Corporate Governance 12 (3): 242–262.Google Scholar
Lewis, M., Young, B., Mathiassen, L., Rai, A. and Welke, R. 2007. Business process innovation based on stakeholder perceptions. Information Knowledge Systems Management 6 (1/2): 7–27.Google Scholar
Liebl, F. 2002. The anatomy of complex societal problems and its implications for OR. Journal of the Operational Research Society 53 (2): 161–183.Google Scholar
Lim, G., Ahn, H. and Lee, H. 2005. Formulating strategies for stakeholder management: A case-based reasoning approach. Expert Systems with Applications 28 (4): 831–840.Google Scholar
Lim, S. S. and Wang, H. 2007. The effect of financial hedging on the incentives for corporate diversification: The role of stakeholder firm-specific investments. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 62 (4): 640–656.Google Scholar
Lindblom, C. 1959. The science of muddling through. Public Administration Review 19: 78–88.Google Scholar
Lindfelt, L.-L. and Törnroos, J.-A. 2006. Ethics and value creation in business research: Comparing two approaches. European Journal of Marketing 40 (3/4): 328–351.Google Scholar
Logsdon, J. and Wood, D. 2002. Business citizenship: From domestic to global level of analysis. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2): 155–187.Google Scholar
Long, D. M. and Rao, S. 1995. The wealth effects of unethical business behavior. Journal of Economics and Finance 19 (2): 65–73.Google Scholar
Lorange, P. 1983. Strategic control. In Lamb, R. (ed.), Latest Advances in Strategic Management: A New View of Business Policy and Planning. Boston: Little, Brown.
Lorange, P., Roos, J. and Bronn, P. S. 1992. Building successful strategic alliances. Long Range Planning 25 (6): 10–17.Google Scholar
Lorca, P. and Garcia-Diez, J. 2004. The relation between firm survival and the achievement of balance among its stakeholders: An analysis. International Journal of Management 21 (1): 93–99.Google Scholar
Lorigan, T. 2006/2007. Marketing, schmarketing! NZ Business 20 (11): 12.Google Scholar
Lowendahl, B. and Revang, O. 1998. Challenges to existing strategy theory in a postindustrial society. Strategic Management Journal 19 (8): 755–769.Google Scholar
Lozano, R. 2006. Incorporation and institutionalization of SD into universities: Breaking through barriers to change. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 (9–11): 787–796.Google Scholar
Lubatkin, M. 2007. One more time: What is a realistic theory of corporate governance? Journal of Organizational behavior 28 (1): 59–67.Google Scholar
Luk, C.-L., Yau, O. H. M., Tse, A. C. B., Sin, L. Y. M. and Chow, R. P. M. 2005. Stakeholder orientation and business performance: The case of service companies in China. Journal of International Marketing 13 (1): 89–110.Google Scholar
Luoma, P. and Goodstein, J.. 1999. Stakeholders and corporate boards: Institutional influences on board composition and structure. Academy of Management Journal 42 (5): 553–563.Google Scholar
McCraw, Thomas K. (ed.). 2003. Creating Modern Capitalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Macey, J. R. 1999. Fiduciary duties as residual claims: Obligations to nonshareholder constituencies from a theory of the firm perspective. Cornell Law Review 84: 1266–1281.Google Scholar
Macey, J. R. 1991–2. An economic analysis of the various rationales for making shareholders the exclusive beneficiaries of corporate fiduciary duties. Stetson Law Review 21: 23–44.Google Scholar
Macey, J. R. and Miller, G. P. 1993. Corporate stakeholders: A contractual perspective. University of Toronto Law Journal 43: 401–424.Google Scholar
McGuire, J. B., Sundgren, A. and Schneeweis, T. 1988. Corporate social responsibility and firm financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 31 (4): 854–872.Google Scholar
McHale, R. 2006. Relationship capital. Financial Management April: 38–39.
McLellan, D. and Sayers, S. (eds.). 1990. Socialism and Morality. London: Macmillan.
McManus, J. 2002. The influence of stakeholder values on project management. Management Services 46 (6): 8–16.Google Scholar
MacMillan, I. C. 1974. Business strategies for political action. Journal of General Management 2 (1): 51–63.Google Scholar
MacMillan, I. C. 1978. Strategy Formulation: Political Concepts. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
MacMillan, I. C. 1982. Seizing competitive initiative. Journal of Business Strategy 2 (4): 43–57.Google Scholar
MacMillan, I. C. 1983. Corporate ideology and strategic delegation. Journal of Business Strategy 3 (3): 71–76.Google Scholar
McNerney, D. 1994. Competitive advantage: Diverse customers and stakeholders. HR Focus 71 (6): 9–10.Google Scholar
McQuater, R. E., Peters, A. J., Dale, B. G., Spring, M., Rogerson, J. H. and Rooney, E. M. 1998. The management and organisational context of new product development: Diagnosis and self-assessment. International Journal of Production Economics 55 (2): 121–131.Google Scholar
Magness, V. 2006. Strategic posture, financial performance and environmental disclosure: An empirical test of legitimacy theory. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 19 (4): 540–563.Google Scholar
Mahon, J. F. 1982. Public affairs structures and activities in large American corporations. Academy of Management Proceedings 366–370.
Mahon, J. R. and Murray, E. A., Jr. 1981. Strategic planning for regulated companies. Strategic Management Journal 2 (3): 251–262.Google Scholar
Mahoney, J. T. 2005. Economic Foundations of Strategy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Maignan, I., Ferrell, O. C. and Ferrell, L. 2005. A stakeholder model for implementing social responsibility in marketing. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 956–977.Google Scholar
Maksimovic, V. and Titman, S. 1991. Financial policy and reputation for product quality. Review of Financial Studies 4 (1): 175–200.Google Scholar
Malekzadeh, A. R. and Nahavandi, A. 1987. Merger mania: Who wins? Who loses? Journal of Business Strategy 8 (1): 76–79.Google Scholar
Malvey, D., Fottler, M. and Slovensky, D. 2002. Evaluating stakeholder management performance using a stakeholder report card: The next step in theory and practice. Health Care Management Review 27 (2): 66–79.Google Scholar
Manring, S. L. and Moore, S. B. 2006. Creating and managing a virtual inter-organizational learning network for greener production: A conceptual model and case study. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 (9–11): 891–899.Google Scholar
March, J. and Simon, H. 1958. Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Marcoux, A. M. 2000. Balancing act. In DesJardins, J. R. and McCall, J. J. (eds.), Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics. 4th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. 92–100.
Marcoux, A. M. 2003. A fiduciary argument against stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1): 1–24.Google Scholar
Marens, R. and Wicks, A. C. 1999. Getting real: Stakeholder theory, managerial practice, and the general irrelevance of fiduciary duties owed to shareholders. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (2): 272–293.Google Scholar
Margolis, J. D. and Walsh, J. P. 2001. People and Profits: The Search for a Link Between a Company's Social and Financial Performance. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Margolis, J. D. and Walsh, J. P. 2003. Misery loves companies: Rethinking social initiatives by business. Administrative Science Quarterly 48 (2): 268–305.Google Scholar
Marris, R. 1964. The Economic Theory of “Managerial” Capitalism. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Martin, K. and Freeman, R. E. 2004. The separation of technology and ethics in business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4): 353–364.Google Scholar
Marx, K. and Engels, F. 1847a. The Principles of Communism.
Marx, K and Engels, F. 1847b. Wage and Labor Capital.
Mason, D. S. and Slack, T. 1996–7. Appropriate opportunism or bad business practice? Stakeholder theory, ethics, and the franchise relocation issue. Marquette Sports Law Journal 7: 399–426.Google Scholar
Mason, R. and Mitroff, I. 1982. Challenge Strategic Planning Assumptions. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Matten, D. and Crane, A. 2005. Corporate citizenship: Toward an extended theoretical conceptualization. Academy of Management Review 30 (1): 166–179.Google Scholar
Matten, D. and Moon, J. 2008. “Implicit” and “Explicit” CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review 33 (2): 404–424.Google Scholar
Mattingly, J. 2004. Redefining the corporation: Stakeholder management and organizational wealth (book review). Academy of Management Review 29 (3): 520–523.Google Scholar
Maull, R., Hughes, D., Childe, S., Weston, N., Tranfield, D. and Smith, S. 1990. A methodology for the design and implementation of resilient CAPM systems. International Journal of Operations and Production Management 10 (9): 27–36.Google Scholar
Meek, G. K. and Gray, S. J. 1988. The value added statement: An innovation for US companies? Accounting Horizons 2 (2): 73–81.Google Scholar
Mendelow, A. L. 1983. Setting corporate goals and measuring organizational effectiveness – a practical approach. Long Range Planning 16 (1): 70–76.Google Scholar
Mikalsen, K. and Jentoft, S. 2001. From user-groups to stakeholders? The public interest in fisheries management. Marine Policy 25 (4): 281–292.Google Scholar
Miller, R. L. and Lewis, W. F. 1991. A stakeholder approach to marketing management using the value exchange models. European Journal of Marketing 25 (8): 55–68.Google Scholar
Millon, D. 1991. Redefining corporate law. Indiana Law Review 24: 223.Google Scholar
Mills, R. W. and Chen, G. 1996. Evaluating international joint ventures using strategic value analysis. Long Range Planning 29 (4): 552–561.Google Scholar
Minnow, N. 1991–2. Shareholders, stakeholders, and boards of directors. Stetson Law Review 21: 197–243.Google Scholar
Mintzberg, H. 1971. Patterns in strategy formation. Management Science 24 (9): 934–948.Google Scholar
Mintzberg, H. 1978. Managerial work: Analysis from observation. Management Science 18 (2): B97–B110.Google Scholar
Mintzberg, H. 1993. The pitfalls of strategic planning. California Management Review 36 (1): 32–47.Google Scholar
Mintzberg, H. 1994. The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Re-conceiving Roles for Planning, Plans, and Planners. New York: Free Press.
Mintzberg, H. 2004. Managers Not MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Managing and Management Development. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Mitchell, L. 1992. A theoretical and practical framework for enforcing constituency statutes. Texas Law Review 70: 579–643.Google Scholar
Mitchell, R., Agle, B. R. and Wood, D. J 1997. Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principles of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review 22 (4): 853–886.Google Scholar
Mitnick, B. M. 1980. The Political Economy of Regulation: Creating, Designing, and Removing Regulatory Forms. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mitroff, I. 1983a. Archetypal social systems analysis: On the deeper structure of human systems. Academy of Management Review 8 (3): 387–397.Google Scholar
Mitroff, I. 1983b. Stakeholders of the Organizational Mind. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mitroff, I. and Emshoff, J. 1979. On strategic assumption-making. Academy of Management Review 4 (1): 1–12.Google Scholar
Mitroff, I., Emshoff, J. and Kilmann, R. 1979. Assumptional analysis: a methodology for strategic problem solving. Management Science 25 (6): 583–593.Google Scholar
Mitroff, I. and Mason, R. O. 1980. Structuring ill-structured policy issues: Further explorations in a methodology for messy problems. Strategic Management Journal 1 (4): 331–342.Google Scholar
Moerman, L. and Laan, S. 2005. Social reporting in the tobacco industry: All smoke and mirrors? Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 18 (3): 374–389.Google Scholar
Moffat, A. and Auer, A. 2006. Corporate environmental innovation: A government initiative to support corporate sustainability leadership. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 (6/7): 589–600.Google Scholar
Mohanty, R. P., Agarwal, R., Choudhury, A. K. and Tiwari, M. K 2005. A fuzzy ANP-based approach to project selection: A case study. International Journal of Production Research 43 (24): 5199–5216.Google Scholar
Moneva, J. M. and Llena, F. 2000. Environmental disclosure in the annual reports of large companies in Spain. European Accounting Review 9 (1): 7–29.Google Scholar
Morelli, N. 2006. Developing new product service systems: Methodologies and operational tools. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 (17): 1495–1501.Google Scholar
Morgan, G. 1986. Images of Organization. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Morgan, R. and Matlock, M. 2008. A collaborative learning matrix for combining science with stakeholder involvement to prioritize watershed implementation in Arkansas' nonpoint source state management plan. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management 10 (3): 307–331.Google Scholar
Moskowitz, M. 1972. Choosing socially responsible stocks. Business and Society 1: 71–75.Google Scholar
,MSH (Management Sciences for Health) and UNICEF. 2005. Stakeholder analysis. http: // (accessed Feb. 4, 2009).
Munilla, L. and Miles, M. 2005. The corporate social responsibility continuum as a component of stakeholder. Business and Society Review 110 (4): 371–387.Google Scholar
Murillo-Luna, J. L., Garcés-Ayerbe, C. and Rivera-Torres, P. 2008. Why do patterns of environmental response differ? A stakeholders' pressure approach. Strategic Management Journal 29 (11): 1225–1240.Google Scholar
Murphy, B., Maguiness, P., Pescott, C., Wislang, S., Ma, J. and Wang, R 2005. Stakeholder perceptions presage holistic stakeholder relationship marketing performance. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 1049–1059.Google Scholar
Murray, E. A. 1976. Limitations on strategic choice. Academy of Management Proceedings 140–144.
Näsi, J. 1979. Yrityksen suunnittelun perusteet. Yrityksen taloustieteen ja yksityisoikeuden laitoksen julkaisuja A 1: 15. Tampere: Tampereen yliopisto.
Näsi, J. 1982. Towards a deeper comprehension of the social responsibility of firms: Some philosophical, conceptual and methodological frameworks for scientific research. In Social Responsibility of Marketing. Publication of the Turku School of Economics and Business Administration. Series A-2. Turku.
Näsi, J. 1995a. Understanding Stakeholder Thinking. Helsinki: LSR-Julkaisut Oy.
Näsi, J. 1995b. What is stakeholder thinking? A snapshot of social theory of the firm. In Näsi, J. (ed.), Understanding Stakeholder Thinking. Helsinki: LSR-Julkaisut Oy. 19–32.
Neligan, C. 2003. Increasing Accountability Through External Stakeholder Engagement. London: One World Trust.
Nelson, J. A. 2006. Economics for Humans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Neugebauer, G. P., III. 2003. Indigenous peoples as stakeholders: Influencing resource-management decisions affecting indigenous community interests in Latin America. New York University Law Review 78: 1227–1261.Google Scholar
Neville, B. A., Bell, S. J. and Mengüc, B 2005. Corporate reputation, stakeholders and the social performance–financial performance relationship. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 1184–1198.Google Scholar
Newman, W. H. 1979. Commentary. In Schendel, D. E. and Hofer, C. W., Strategic Management: A New View of Business Policy and Planning. Boston: Little, Brown. 44–47.
Nobes, C. W. 1992. A political history of goodwill in the UK: An illustration of cyclical standard setting. Abacus 28 (2): 142–167.Google Scholar
Noddings, N. 1984. Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Nozick, R. 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. Oxford: Blackwell.
Nunamaker, J. F., Applegate, L. M. and Konsynski, B. R 1988. Computer-aided deliberation: Model management and group decision support. Operations Research 36 (6): 826–248.Google Scholar
Nutt, P. C. 2004. Expanding the search for alternatives during strategic decisions-making. Academy of Management Executive 18 (4): 13–28.Google Scholar
Nwankwo, S. and Richardson, B. 1996. Organizational leaders as political strategists: A stakeholder management perspective. Management Decision 34 (10): 43–50.Google Scholar
Nystrom, P. C. and Starbuck, W. H. (eds.). 1981. Handbook of Organizational Design. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
,ODA. 1995a. Guidance note on how to do stakeholder analysis of aid projects and programmes (July). London: Social Development Department, Overseas Development Administration. (accessed February 4, 2009).
,ODA. 1995b. Guidance note on indicators for measuring and assessing primary stakeholder participation (July). London: Social Development Department, Overseas Development Administration. (accessed February 4, 2009).
O'Dwyer, B. 2005a. The construction of a social account: A case study in an overseas aid agency. Accounting, Organizations and Society 30 (3): 279–296.Google Scholar
O'Dwyer, B. 2005b. Stakeholder democracy: Challenges and contributions from social accounting. Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (1): 28–41.Google Scholar
O'Dwyer, B. and Hession, E. 2005. User needs in sustainability reporting: Perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland. European Accounting Review 14 (4): 759–787.Google Scholar
O'Dwyer, B. and Owen, D. L. 2005. Assurance statement practice in environmental, social and sustainability reporting: A critical evaluation. British Accounting Review 37 (2): 205–229.Google Scholar
O'Dwyer, B., Unerman, J. and Bradley, J 2005. Perceptions on the emergence and future development of corporate social disclosure in Ireland: Engaging the voices of nongovernmental organizations. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 18 (1): 14–43.Google Scholar
Ogden, S. and Watson, R. 1999. Corporate performance and stakeholder management: Balancing shareholder and customer interests in the U.K. privatized water industry. Academy of Management Journal 42 (5): 526–536.Google Scholar
Ohman, P., Hackner, E., Jansson, A. and Tschudi, F 2006. Swedish auditors' view of auditing: Doing things right versus doing the right things. European Accounting Review 15 (1): 89–114.Google Scholar
Olander, S. 2007. Stakeholder impact analysis in construction project management. Construction Management and Economics 25 (3): 277–287.Google Scholar
Olian, J. D. and Rynes, S. L. 1991. Making total quality work: Aligning organizational processes, performance measures, and stakeholders. Human Resource Management 30 (3): 303–333.Google Scholar
Oliver, C. 1991. Strategic responses to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review 16 (1): 145–179.Google Scholar
O'Neill, H. M. 1989. Board members, corporate social responsiveness and profitability: Are tradeoffs necessary? Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5): 353–357.Google Scholar
Oral, M., Kettani, O. and Cinar, U 2001. Project evaluation and selection in a network of collaboration: A consensual disaggregation multi-criterion approach. European Journal of Operational Research 130 (2): 332–346.Google Scholar
Orlitzky, M. and Benjamin, J. D. 2001. Corporate social performance and firm risk: A meta-analytic review. Business and Society 40 (4): 369–396.Google Scholar
Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F. L. and Rynes, S. L 2003. Corporate social and financial performance: A meta-analysis. Organization Studies 24 (3): 403–441.Google Scholar
Orts, E. W. 1992. Beyond shareholders: Interpreting corporate constituency statutes. George Washington Law Review 61 (1): 14–135.Google Scholar
Orts, E. W. 1997. A North American legal perspective on stakeholder management theory. In Patfield, F. M. (ed.), Perspectives on Company Law. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. II, 165–179.
Orts, E. W. and Strudler, A. 2002 The ethical and environmental limits of stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2): 215–34.Google Scholar
Osheroff, M, 2006. SOX as opportunity. Strategic Finance 87 (10): 19–20.Google Scholar
Ostas, D. T. 1995. Religion and the business enterprise: An American perspective. Journal of Human Values 1 (1): 27–35.Google Scholar
O'Sullivan, P. and Murphy, P. 1998. Ambush marketing: The ethical issues. Psychology and Marketing 15 (4): 349–366.Google Scholar
Oswald, L. J. 1998. Shareholders v. stakeholders: Evaluating corporate constituency statutes under the takings clause. Journal of Corporation Law 24 (1): 1–29.Google Scholar
O'Toole, J. 1979. What's ahead for the business-government relationship. Harvard Business Review 57 (2): 94–105.Google Scholar
Owen, D. L., Swift, T. and Hunt, K 2001. Questioning the role of stakeholder engagement in social and ethical accounting, auditing and reporting. Accounting Forum 25 (3): 264–282.Google Scholar
Page, C. G. 2002. The determination of organization stakeholder salience in public health. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 8 (5): 76–84.Google Scholar
Pagell, M., Krumwiede, D. W. and Sheu, C 2007. Efficacy of environmental and supplier relationship investments – moderating effects of external environment. International Journal of Production Research 45 (9): 2005–2028.Google Scholar
Palmer, M. and Quinn, B. 2005. Stakeholder relationships in an international retailing context: An investment bank perspective. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 1096–1117.Google Scholar
Panda, S. K. 2008. Corporate Social Responsibility in India: Past, Present, and Future. Delhi: Eastern Book Corporation.
Payne, A., Ballantyne, D. and Christopher, M 2005. A stakeholder approach to relationship marketing strategy: The development and use of the “six markets” model. European Journal of Marketing 39 (7/8): 855–871.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. A., III 1982. The company mission as a strategic tool. Sloan Management Review 23 (3): 15–24.Google Scholar
Pedersen, E. R. 2006. Making corporate social responsibility (CSR) operable: How companies translate stakeholder dialogue into practice. Business and Society Review 11 (2): 137–163.Google Scholar
Pennings, J. M. 1981. Strategically interdependent organizations. In Nystrom, P. C. and Starbuck, W. H. (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Design. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Penrose, E. 1959. The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Oxford: Blackwell.
,Pensions and Investment Research Consultants (PIRC). 1999. The 1999 Survey of Environmental Reporting at FTSE 350 Companies. London: PIRC.
Peters, M. H. and Austin, M. J. 1995. The impact of JIT: A critical analysis. Industrial Management and Data Systems 95 (1): 12–17.Google Scholar
Pfeffer, J. and Fong, C. T. 2002. The end of business schools? Less success than meets the eye. Academy of Management Learning and Education 1 (1): 78–95.Google Scholar
Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G. R. 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper & Row.
Phillips, R. 1997. Stakeholder theory and a principle of fairness. Business Ethics Quarterly 7 (1): 51–66.Google Scholar
Phillips, R. 2003a. Stakeholder Theory and Organizational Ethics. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Phillips, R. 2003b. Stakeholder legitimacy. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1): 25–41.Google Scholar
Phillips, R. and Freeman, R. E. 2008. Corporate citizenship and community stakeholders. In Scherer, A. G and Palazzo, G (eds.), Handbook of Research on Global Corporate Citizenship. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. 99–115.
Phillips, R., Freeman, R. E. and Wicks, A. C 2003. What stakeholder theory is not. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (4): 479–502.Google Scholar
Phillips, R. and Reichart, J. 1998. The environment as a stakeholder: A fairness-based approach. Journal of Business Ethics 23 (2): 185–197.Google Scholar
Pirson, M. and Malhotra, D. 2008. Unconventional insights for managing stakeholder trust. MIT Sloan Management Review 49 (4): 43–50.Google Scholar
Podnar, K. and Jancic, Z. 2006. Towards a categorization of stakeholder groups: An empirical verification of a three-level model. Journal of Marketing Communications 12 (4): 297–308.Google Scholar
Poindexter, G. C. 1995–6. Addressing morality in urban brownfield redevelopment: Using stakeholder theory to craft legal process. Virginia Environmental Law Journal 15 (1): 37–76.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J. 1995. A stakeholder theory approach to designing environmental marketing strategy. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 10 (3): 29–46.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J. 2001. Strategic bridging within firm-environmental group alliances: Opportunities and pitfalls. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 9 (1): 38–47.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J., Carlson, L. and Fry, M.-L. 2003. The harm chain – a public policy development and stakeholder perspective. Marketing Theory 3 (3): 345–360.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J. and Hyman, M. R. 2007. A multiple stakeholder perspective on responsibility in advertising. Journal of Advertising 36 (2): 5–13.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J. and Ottman, J. 1998. Stakeholders' contribution to the green new product development process. Journal of Marketing Management 14 (6): 533–537.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J., Schuppisser, D. S. W. and Beldona, S 2002. A stakeholder perspective for analyzing marketing relationships. Journal of Market-Focused Management 5 (2): 109–126.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J. and Scott, D. 2005. A quantitative examination of the freeman stakeholder strategy matrix. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 1199–1215.Google Scholar
Polonsky, M. J., Suchard, H. T. and Scott, D. R 1999. The incorporation of an interactive external environment: An extended model of marketing relationships. Journal of Strategic Marketing 7 (1): 41–55.Google Scholar
Popper, K. 1968. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Harper & Row.
Porter, M. 1980. Competitive Strategy. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M. 1985. Competitive Advantage. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M. and Kramer, M. K. 2002. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review 80 (12): 55–69.Google Scholar
Porter, M. 2006. Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review 84 (12): 78–92.Google Scholar
Post, J. 1978. Corporate Behavior and Social Change. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company.
Post, J. 1981. Research in business and society: Current issues and approaches, presented at AACSB Conference on Business Environment/Public Policy and the Business School of the 1980s, Berkeley, CA.
Post, J., Preston, L. and Sachs, S 2002a. Redefining the Corporation: Stakeholder Management and Organizational Wealth. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Post, J., Preston, L. and Sachs, S. 2002b. Managing the extended enterprise: The new stakeholder view. California Management Review 45 (1): 6–28.Google Scholar
Preston, L. 1986. Social Issues and Public Policy in Business and Management: Retrospect and Prospect. College Park, MD: Center for Business & Public Policy.
Preston, L. and Sapienza, H. J. 1990. Stakeholder management and corporate performance. Journal of Behavioral Economics 19 (4): 361–375.Google Scholar
Preston, L. E. and Post, J. E. 1975. Private Management and Public Policy: The Principle of Public Responsibility. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Priem, R. L. and Butler, J. E. 2001. Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? Academy of Management Review 26 (1): 22–40.Google Scholar
Primack, D. 2008. PE Week Wire. October 17, 2008.–08.htm.
Provan, K. and Milward, H. B. 2001. Do networks really work? A framework for evaluating public-sector organizational networks. Public Administration Review 61 (4): 414–423.Google Scholar
Pruzan, P. 1998. From control to values-based management and accountability. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (13): 1379–1394.Google Scholar
Puccini, D. S. and Marley-Clarke, B. W. G. 1979. The management of offshore resources: Some implications of the 200-mile limit. Long Range Planning 12 (5): 8–15.Google Scholar
Puncheva, P. 2008. The role of corporate reputation in the stakeholder decision-making process. Business and Society 47 (3): 272–290.Google Scholar
Putnam, H. 2002. The Collapse of the Fact–Value Dichotomy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Qu, R. 2007. Corporate social responsibility in China: Impact of regulations, market orientation and ownership structure. Chinese Management Studies 1 (3): 198–207.Google Scholar
Quagli, A. 1995. Knowledge in the system of the firm's intangible resources. European Accounting Review 4 (2): 393–396.Google Scholar
Quine, W. V. 1951. Mathematical Logic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1960. Word and Object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Quine, W. V. 1961. Two dogmas of empiricism. In Quine, W. V. O., From a Logical Point of View. 2nd edn. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 20–46.
Rahman, M. Z. 1990. The local value added statement: A reporting requirement for multinationals in developing host countries. International Journal of Accounting 25 (2): 87–97.Google Scholar
Rappaport, A. 1986. Creating Shareholder Value: A Guide for Managers and Investors. New York: Free Press.
Rawls, J. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Raymond, T. J. C. and Greyser, S. A. 1978. The business of managing the arts. Harvard Business Review 56 (4): 123–132.Google Scholar
Reed, D. 1999. Stakeholder management theory: A critical theory perspective. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3): 453–483.Google Scholar
Reed, D. 2002. Employing normative stakeholder theory in developing countries. Business and Society 41 (1): 166–207.Google Scholar
Reich, M. 1994. Political Mapping of Health Policy: A Guide for Managing the Political Dimension of Health Policy. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health.
Reuer, J. J. and Leiblein, M. J. 2001. Real options: Let the buyer beware. In Pickford, J. (ed.), Financial Times Mastering Risk. London: FT Prentice-Hall.
Rhenman, E. 1964. Företagsdemokrati och företagsorganisation. Stockholm: Thule.
Rhenman, E. 1968. Industrial Democracy and Industrial Management: A Critical Essay on the Possible Meanings and Implications of Industrial Democracy. London: Tavistock.
Rhenman, E. 1973. Organization Theory for Long-Range Planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Rhenman, E. and Stymne, B. 1965. Företagsledning i en Föränderlig Värld. Stockholm: Aldus/Bonniers.
Riahi-Belkaoui, A. 1991. Organizational effectiveness, social performance and economic performance. Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy 12: 143–153.Google Scholar
Ribstein, L. E. 2005–6. Accountability and responsibility in corporate governance. Notre Dame Law Review 81: 1431–1494.Google Scholar
Richardson, H. S. 1997. Practical Reasoning about Final Ends. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Richardson, V. J. 2000. Information asymmetry and earnings management: Some evidence. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting 15 (4): 325–347.Google Scholar
Riis, J. O., Dukovska-Popovska, I. and Johansen, J. 2006. Participation and dialogue in strategic manufacturing development. Production Planning and Control 17 (2): 176–188.Google Scholar
Ringbakk, K. 1976. Strategic planning in a turbulent international environment. Long Range Planning 9 (3): 2–11.Google Scholar
Rivera-Camino, J. 2007. Re-evaluating green marketing strategy: A stakeholder perspective. European Journal of Marketing 41 (11/12): 1328–1340.Google Scholar
Robbins, J. 2003. Stakeholders and conflict management corporate perspectives on collaborative approaches. In Andriof, J., Waddock, S., Husted, B., and Rahman, S. Sutherland (eds.), Unfolding Stakeholder Thinking 2: Relationships, Communication, Reporting and Performance. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing. 162–180.
Roberts, N. and Bradley, T. 1991. Stakeholder collaboration and innovation: A study of public policy initiation at the state level. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 27 (2): 209–227.Google Scholar
Roberts, N. and King, P. J. 1989. Stakeholder audit goes public. Organizational Dynamics 17 (3): 63–79.Google Scholar
Roberts, R. W. 1992. Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: An application of stakeholder theory. Accounting, Organizations and Society 17 (6): 595–612.Google Scholar
Roberts, R. W. and Mahoney, L. 2004. Stakeholder conceptions of the corporation: Their meaning and influence in accounting research. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (3): 399–431.Google Scholar
Robilotti, M. 1997. Codetermination, stakeholder rights, and hostile takeovers: A reevaluation of the evidence from abroad. Harvard International Law Journal 38: 536–538.Google Scholar
Rodgers, W. and Gago, S. 2004. Stakeholder influence on corporate strategies over time. Journal of Business Ethics, 52 (4): 349–363.Google Scholar
Romano, R. and Leiman, M. 1970. Views on Capitalism. Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press.
Roper, S. and Davies, G. 2007. The corporate brand: Dealing with multiple stakeholders. Journal of Marketing Management 23 (1/2): 75–90.Google Scholar
Rorty, R. 1979. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rorty, R. 1982. Consequences of Pragmatism. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Rorty, R. 1986. Beyond realism and anti-realism. In Nagl, L. and Heinrich, R. (eds.), Wo steht die analytische Philosophie heute? Vienna: R. Oldenbourg Verlag.
Rorty, R. 1989. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rorty, R. 1998. Truth and Progress: Philosophical Papers III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rorty, R. 1999. Philosophy and Social Hope. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Rosenthal, S. and Buchholz, G. 2000. Rethinking Business Ethics: A Pragmatic Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rostow, Eugene V. 1959. To whom and for what ends are corporate managements responsible? In Mason, E. S. (ed.), The Corporation in Modern Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 46–84.
Rothschild, W. 1976. Putting It All Together. New York: AMACOM.
Rowe, A. J., Mason, R. O. and Dickel, K. E. 1985. Strategic Management and Business Policy: A Methodological Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Rowley, T. J. 1997. Moving beyond dyadic ties: A network theory of stakeholder influences. Academy of Management Review 22 (4): 887–910.Google Scholar
Rubenstein, D. B. 1992. Bridging the gap between great accounting and black ink. Accounting, Organizations and Society 17 (5): 501–508.Google Scholar
Rudner, R. 1953. The scientist qua scientist makes value judgments. Philosophy of Science 20: 1–6.Google Scholar
Rueda-Manzanares, A., Aragón-Correa, J. A and Sharma, S. 2008. The influence of stakeholders on the environmental strategy of service firms: The moderating effects of complexity, uncertainty and munificence. British Journal of Management 19 (2): 185–203.Google Scholar
Ruf, B. M., Muralidhar, K., Brown, R. M, Janney, J. J. and Paul, K. 2001. An empirical investigation of the relationship between change in corporate social performance and financial performance: A stakeholder theory perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 32 (2): 143–156.Google Scholar
Ruffat, J. 1983. Strategic management of public and non-market corporations. Long Range Planning 16 (2): 74–84.Google Scholar
Russo, M. V. and Fouts, P. A. 1997. A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability. Academy of Management Journal 40 (3): 534–559.Google Scholar
Rustin, M. 1997. Stakeholding and the public sector. In Kelly, G., Kelly, D., and Gamble, A. (eds.), Stakeholder Capitalism. London: Macmillan. 72–81.
Ryan, C. 2002. Equity, management, power sharing and sustainability – issues of the “new tourism.” Tourism Management 23 (1): 17–26.Google Scholar
Sacconi, L. 2006. A social contract account for CSR as an extended model of corporate governance (I): Rational bargaining and justification. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3): 259–281.Google Scholar
Sachdeva, R. 2007. Mixing methodologies to enhance implementation of healthcare operational research. Journal of the Operational Research Society 58 (2): 159–167.Google Scholar
Sachdeva, R., Williams, T. and Quigley, J. 2007. Mixing methodologies to enhance the implementation of healthcare operational research. Journal of the Operational Research Society 58 (2): 159–167.Google Scholar
Sandberg, J. 2008a. Understanding the separation thesis. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2): 213–232.Google Scholar
Sandberg, J. 2008b. The tide is turning on the separation thesis? Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4): 561–565.Google Scholar
Sandoval, M. C., Veiga, M. M., Hinton, J. and Sandner, S. 2006. Application of sustainable development concepts to an alluvial mineral extraction project in Lower Caroni River, Venezuela. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 (3/4): 415–426.Google Scholar
Sarasvathy, S. 2001. Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review 26 (2): 243–288.Google Scholar
Saravanamuthu, K. 2004. What is measured counts: Harmonized corporate reporting and sustainable economic development. Critical Perspectives on Accounting 15 (3): 295–302.Google Scholar
Sarig, O. H. 1998. The effect of leverage on bargaining with corporation. Financial Review 33 (1): 1–16.Google Scholar
Sass, S. A. 1982. The Pragmatic Imagination: A History of the Wharton School, 1881–1981. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Sauter, E. T. and Leisen, B. 1999. Managing stakeholders – a tourism planning model. Annals of Tourism Research 26 (2): 312–328.Google Scholar
Savage, G., Taylor, R., Rotarius, T. and Buesseler, J. 1997. Governance of integrated delivery systems/networks: A stakeholder approach. Health Care Management Review 22 (1): 7–20.Google Scholar
Schankar, V., Urban, G. L. and Sultan, F. 2002. Online trust: A stakeholder perspective, concepts, implications, and future directions. Journal of Strategic Information Systems 11 (3): 325–344.Google Scholar
Schelling, T. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schelling, T. 1978. Micromotives and Macrobehavior. New York: W. W. Norton.
Schendel, D. E. and Hatten, K. J. 1972. Business policy or strategic management: A broader view for an emerging discipline. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management National Meeting, Minneapolis, MN.
Schendel, D. E. and Hofer, C. W. 1979. Strategic Management: A New View of Business Policy and Planning. Boston: Little, Brown.
Scherer, A. G. and Palazzo, G. (eds). 2008. Handbook of Research on Global Corporate Citizenship. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Schilling, M. A. 2000. Decades ahead of her time: Advancing stakeholder theory through the ideas of Mary Parker Follett. Journal of Management History 6 (5): 224–242.Google Scholar
Schlossberger, E. 1994. A new model of business: Dual-investor theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4): 459–474.Google Scholar
Schneider, A., Church, B. and Ely, K. 2006. Non-audit services and auditor independence: A review of the literature. Journal of Accounting Literature 25: 169–211.Google Scholar
Schneider, M. 2002. A stakeholder model of organizational leadership. Organization Science 13 (2): 209–220.Google Scholar
Schoemaker, P. J. H. 1993. Multiple scenario development: Its conceptual and behavioral basis. Strategic Management Journal 14 (3): 193–213.Google Scholar
Schoemaker, P. J. H. 1995. Scenario planning: A tool for strategic thinking. Sloan Management Review 36 (2): 25–40.Google Scholar
Scholes, E. and Clutterbuck, D. 1998. Communication with stakeholders: An integrated approach. Long Range Planning 31 (2): 227–238.Google Scholar
Schonberger, R. J. 1980. MIS design: A contingency approach. MIS Quarterly 4 (1): 13–20.Google Scholar
Schreuder, H. and Ramanathan, K. 1984. Accounting and corporate accountability: A postscript. Accounting, Organizations and Society 9 (3/4): 421–423.Google Scholar
Schumpeter, J. A. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. London: Allen & Unwin.
Scott, J. E. M., McKinnon, J. L. and Harrison, G. L. 2003. Cash to accrual and cash to accrual: A case study of financial reporting in two NSW hospitals 1857 to post-1975. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 16 (1): 104–125.Google Scholar
Scott, S. G. and Lane, V. R. 2000. A stakeholder approach to organizational identity. Academy of Management Review 25 (1): 43–62.Google Scholar
Seal, W. 2006. Management accounting and corporate governance: An institutional interpretation of the agency problem. Management Accounting Research 17 (4): 389–408.Google Scholar
Searle, J. 1964. How to derive “ought” from “is.” Philosophical Review 73 (1): 43–58.Google Scholar
Selznick, P. 1966. TVA and the Grassroots. New York: Harper Torch Books.
Sen, A. 1987. On Ethics and Economics. Oxford: Blackwell.
Sen, A. 1989. Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Sen, A. 1995. Inequality Reexamined. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sen, S., Bhattacharya, C. B. and Korschun, D. 2006. The role of corporate social responsibility in strengthening multiple stakeholder relationships: A field experiment. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34 (2): 158–166.Google Scholar
Sethi, S. P. 1970. Business Corporations and the Black Man: An Analysis of Social Conflict: The Kodak-Fight Controversy. Scranton, PA: Chandler Publishing Company.
Sethi, S. P. 1975. Dimensions of corporate social performance: An analytic framework. California Management Review 17 (3): 58–64.Google Scholar
Shaffer, B., Quasney, T. J. and Grimm, C. M. 2000. Firm-level performance implications of nonmarket actions. Business and Society 39 (2): 126–143.Google Scholar
Shah, A. K. 1995. Accounting policy choice: The case of financial instruments. European Accounting Review 4 (2): 397–399.Google Scholar
Shah, S. and Bhaskar, A. S. 2008. Corporate stakeholder management: Western and Indian perspectives: An overview. Journal of Human Values 14 (1): 73–93.Google Scholar
Shane, P. B. and Spicer, B. H. 1983. Market response to environmental information produced outside the firm. Accounting Review 58 (3): 521–536.Google Scholar
Shane, S. and Venkataraman, S. 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review 25 (1): 217–226.Google Scholar
Shankman, N. A. 1999. Reframing the debate between agency and stakeholder theories of the firm. Journal of Business Ethics 19 (4): 319–334.Google Scholar
Sharma, S. and Henriques, I. 2005. Stakeholder influence on sustainability practices in the Canadian forest products industry. Strategic Management Journal 26 (2): 159–180.Google Scholar
Sharma, S. and Starik, M. 2004. Stakeholders, the Environment and Society. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Shortell, S. 1988. The evolution of hospital systems: Unfulfilled promises and self-fulfilling prophesies. Medical Care Review 45 (2): 177–214.Google Scholar
Silbert, T. H. 1952. Financing and factoring accounts receivable. Harvard Business Review 30 (1): 39–54.Google Scholar
Sillanpää, M. 1998. The Body Shop Values Report: Towards integrated stakeholder auditing. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (13): 1443–1456.Google Scholar
Simon, H. A. 1947. Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations. New York: Macmillan.
Sisodia, R., Wolfe, D. B. and Sheth, J. 2007. Firms of Endearment: How World-Class Companies Profit from Passion and Purpose. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.
Skidelsky, R. 1995. The role of ethics in Keynes' economics. In Brittan, S. and Hamilton, A. (eds.), Market Capitalism and Moral Values. Brookfield: Edward Elgar.
Slatter, S. S. 1980. Strategic planning for public relations. Long Range Planning 13 (3): 57–69.Google Scholar
Slinger, G. 1998. Spanning the gap: The theoretical principles connecting stakeholder policies to business performance. Working Paper, Centre for Business Research, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.
Slinger, G. 1999. Essays on stakeholding, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.
Smith, A. 1986. The theory of moral sentiments. In Heilbroner, R. L. (ed.), The Essential Adam Smith. New York: W. W. Norton. 57–148.
Smith, A. M. and Fishbacher, M. 2005. New service development: A stakeholder perspective. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10): 1025–1048.Google Scholar
Smith, H. J. 2003. The shareholders vs. stakeholders debate. MIT Sloan Management Review 44 (4): 85–90.Google Scholar
Smith, H. J. and Hasnas, J. 1999. Ethics and information systems: The corporate domain. MIS Quarterly 23 (1): 109–127.Google Scholar
Smith, J. V., Adhikari, A. and Tondkar, R. H. 2005. Exploring differences in social disclosures internationally: A stakeholder perspective. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 24 (2): 123–151.Google Scholar
Smith, M. 1993. Pressure, Power and Policy: State Autonomy and Policy Networks in Britain and the United States. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Sperling, K. L. 2006. The employer's role in reforming the US health care system. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 18 (1): 108–116.Google Scholar
Spicer, B. H. 1978. Investors, corporate social performance and information disclosure: An empirical study. Accounting Review 53 (1): 94–111.Google Scholar
Starik, M. 1995. Should trees have managerial standing? Towards stakeholder status for non-human nature. Journal of Business Ethics 14 (3): 207–217.Google Scholar
Stead, W. E. and Stead, J. G. 1992. Management for a Small Planet: Strategic Decision Making and the Environment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Stead, W. E. and Stead, J. G. 2004. Sustainable Strategic Management. London: M. E. Sharpe.
Steadman, M., Albright, T. and Dunn, K. 1996. Stakeholder group interest in the new manufacturing environment. Managerial Auditing Journal 11 (2): 4–20.Google Scholar
Steadman, M. E., Zimmerer, T. W. and Green, R. F. 1995. Pressures from stakeholders hit Japanese companies. Long Range Planning 28 (6): 29–37.Google Scholar
Stearns, J. M., Walton, J. R., Crespy, C. T. and Bol, J. W. 1996. The role of moral obligations to stakeholders in ethical marketing decision making. Journal of Marketing Management 6 (2): 34–47.Google Scholar
Stearns, L. B. and Mizruchi, M. S. 1993. Board composition and corporate financing: The impact of financial institution representation on borrowing. Academy of Management Journal 36 (3): 603–618.Google Scholar
Sternberg, E. 1996. Stakeholder theory exposed. Corporate Governance Quarterly 2 (1): 4–18.Google Scholar
Sternberg, E. 2000. Just Business. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sternberg, R. J. 2007. A systems model of leadership. American Psychologist 62 (1): 34–42.Google Scholar
Stewart, D. W. 1984. Managing competing claims: An ethical framework for human resource decision making. Public Administration Review 44 (1): 14–22.Google Scholar
Stewart, M. 1999. Keynes and After. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Stewart, R. F., Allen, J. K. and Cavender, J. M. 1963. The strategic plan. Research Report 168, Stanford Research Institute, Long Range Planning Service, Industrial Economics Division.
Stout, D. E. and West, R. N. 2004. Using a stakeholder-based process to develop and implement an innovative graduate-level course in management accounting. Journal of Accounting Education 22 (2): 95–118.Google Scholar
Strand, R. 2008. The stakeholder dashboard. Greener Management Journal 54: 23–36.Google Scholar
Strong, K. C., Ringer, R. C. and Taylor, S. A. 2001. THE* rules of stakeholder satisfaction (*timeliness, honesty, empathy). Journal of Business Ethics 32 (3): 219–230.Google Scholar
Sturdivant, F. D. 1979. Executives and activists: Test of stakeholder management. California Management Review 22 (1) 53–60.Google Scholar
Stymne, B. 2004. Travelling in the borderline of academy and industry. In Adler, N., Shani, A. B., and Styhre, A. (eds.), Collaborative Research in Organizations: Foundations for Learning, Change, and Theoretical Development. London: Sage. 37–53.
Subrahmanyam, A. and Titman, S. 2001. Feedback from stock prices to cash flows. Journal of Finance 56 (6): 2389–2415.Google Scholar
Sundaram, A. K. and Inkpen, A. C. 2004. The corporate objective revisited. Organization Science 15 (3): 350–363.Google Scholar
Sundkvist, A. and Finnveden, G. 2007. Stakeholder needs study on indicators for integrated product policy. Journal of Cleaner Production 15 (4): 323–326.Google Scholar
Sussland, W. A. 2001. Creating business value through intangibles. Journal of Business Strategy 22 (6): 23–28.Google Scholar