Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-l8tfn Total loading time: 0.353 Render date: 2022-06-28T10:34:56.024Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

16 - Reproduction through surrogacy

The UK and US experience

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 August 2012

Martin Richards
Affiliation:
University of Cambridge
Guido Pennings
Affiliation:
Universiteit Gent, Belgium
John B. Appleby
Affiliation:
University of Cambridge
Get access

Summary

Introduction

From its beginnings, surrogacy has been dogged by controversy. Even the terminology has been met with controversy (English et al., 1991). In the United Kingdom arrangements where the surrogate is also the genetic mother of the child have been defined as ‘partial’, ‘straight’ or ‘genetic’ surrogacy, and arrangements where the surrogate is not genetically related to the child have been called ‘full’, ‘host’ or ‘gestational’ surrogacy.

In the United States surrogacy originally described an arrangement in which intended parents attempted conception through the use of a woman’s egg, and that woman underwent inseminations with the intended father’s sperm. In this case the surrogate was providing both the genetics and the gestation. As in vitro fertilization emerged as a viable treatment option, another surrogacy option emerged wherein a couple or individual worked with a woman who would carry a genetically unrelated embryo that was transferred to her. In this scenario the surrogate contributes only the gestation. In 2006 1 per cent of all fresh ART cycles in the United States involved a gestational surrogate (for a total of 1,042 cycles); additional cycles were performed involving donor eggs (CDC, 2006). In the UK the number of surrogate births, although rising, is harder to estimate due to a number of more informal home-insemination arrangements. In this case IVF is not required and so the surrogate birth goes unregistered as such.

Type
Chapter
Information
Reproductive Donation
Practice, Policy and Bioethics
, pp. 289 - 307
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andrews, L. B. 1989 Between Strangers: Surrogate Mothers, Expectant Fathers, and Brave New BabiesNew YorkHarper & RowGoogle Scholar
Andrews, L. B. 1990 Gostin, L.Surrogate Motherhood: Politics and PrivacyIndianapolisIndiana University PressGoogle Scholar
Brazier, M.Campbell, A.Golombok, S. 1998
Cameron, G. 2011
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCwww.cdc.gov/ART/ART2006/section2c.htm#f40
Ciccarelli, J. C.Beckman, L. J. 2005 Navigating rough waters: an overview of psychological aspects of surrogacyJournal of Social Issues 61 21CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crockin, S. L.JonesJr., H. W. 2010 Legal Conceptions: The Evolving Law and Policy of Assisted Reproductive TechnologiesBaltimoreThe Johns Hopkins University PressGoogle Scholar
English, M. E.Mechanick-Braverman, A.Corson, S. L. 1991 Semantics and science: the distinction between gestational carrier and traditional surrogacy programsWomen’s Health Issues 1 155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gamble, N. 2009 Crossing the line: the legal and ethical problems of foreign surrogacyReproductive Biomedicine Online 19 151CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ghevaert, L. 2011 International surrogacy: progress or media hype?BioNews590Google Scholar
Golombok, S.Murray, C.Jadva, V.MacCallum, F. 2004 Families created through surrogacy arrangement: parent-child relationships in the 1st year of lifeDevelopmental Psychology 40 400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golombok, S.MacCallum, F.Murray, C.Lycett, E. 2006 Surrogacy families: parental functioning, parent-child relationships and children’s psychological development at age 2Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47 213CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golombok, S.Murray, C.Jadva, V.Lycett, E. 2006 Non-genetic and non-gestational parenting: consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3Human Reproduction 21 1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gostin, L. 1990 Surrogate Motherhood: Politics and PrivacyIndianapolisIndiana University PressGoogle Scholar
Hyder, N. 2010 Couple request surrogate mum to abort over disabilityBionews579Google Scholar
Jadva, J.Murray, CLycett, E.MacCallum, F. 2003 Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate motherHuman Reproduction 18 2196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jadva, V.Casey, P.Readings, J.Blake, L.Golombok, S. 2011 A longitudinal study of recipients’ views and experiences of intra-family egg donationHuman ReproductionCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jadva, V.Blake, L.Casey, P.Golombok, S. 2012
Karpel, M. 1980 Family secretsFamily Process 19 295CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lycett, E.Daniels, K.Curson, R.Golombok, S. 2005 School-aged children of donor insemination: a study of parents’ disclosure patternsHuman Reproduction 20 810CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacCallum, F.Lycett, E.Murray, C.Jadva, V. 2003 Surrogacy: the experience of commissioning couplesHuman Reproduction 18 1334CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGee, G.Vaughan-Brakman, S.Gurmankin, A. D. 2001 Disclosure to children conceived with donor gametes should not be optionalHuman Reproduction 16 2033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pande, A. 2009 “It may be her eggs but it’s my blood”: surrogates and everyday forms of kinship in IndiaQualitative Sociology 32 379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ragoné, H. 1994 Surrogate Motherhood: Conception in the HeartOxfordWestview PressGoogle Scholar
Raoul-Duval, A.Letur-Konirsch, H.Frydman, R. 1992 Anonymous oocyte donation: a psychological study of recipients, donors and childrenHuman Reproduction 7 51CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Readings, J.Blake, L.Casey, P.Jadva, V. 2011 Secrecy, disclosure, and everything in between: decisions of parents of children conceived by donor insemination, egg donation, and surrogacyReproductive Biomedicine Online 22 485CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spar, D. L. 2006 The Baby Business: How Money, Science and Politics Drive the Commerce of ConceptionBostonHarvard Business School PressGoogle Scholar
Steinbock, B. 1990 Gostin, L.Surrogate Motherhood: Politics and PrivacyIndianapolisIndiana University PressGoogle Scholar
Teman, E. 2010 Birthing a MotherBerkleyUniversity of California PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tieu, M. M. 2009 Altruistic surrogacy: the necessary objectification of surrogate mothersJournal of Medical Ethics 35 171CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Triseliotis, J. 1973 In Search of Origins: The Experiences of Adopted PeopleLondon and BostonRoutledge and Kegan PaulGoogle Scholar
Turner, A. J.Coyle, A. 2000 What does it mean to be a donor offspring? The identity experiences of adults conceived by donor insemination and the implications for counselling and therapyHuman Reproduction 15 2041CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van den Akker, O. 2000 The importance of a genetic link in mothers commissioning a surrogate baby in the UKHuman Reproduction 15 1849CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Zyl, L.van Niekerk, A. 2000 Interpretations, perspectives and intentions in surrogate motherhoodJournal of Medical Ethics 26 404CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wallbank, J. 2002 Too many mothers? Surrogacy, kinship and the welfare of the childMedical Law Review 10 271CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warnock, M. 1984 Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and EmbryologyLondonDepartment of Health and Social SecurityGoogle Scholar
Code (Nouveau) de Procedure Civile Français 1977
1990
1990
5
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×