Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-558cb97cc8-5hmnr Total loading time: 3.133 Render date: 2022-10-06T06:37:41.865Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Chapter 12 - Non-Neoplastic Disorders of the Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinuses and Nasopharynx

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 June 2017

Robert O. Greer
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Robert E. Marx
Affiliation:
University of Miami
Sherif Said
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Lori D. Prok
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Primary Sources

Brown-Kelley, A. Hairy or dermoid polypi of the pharynx and nasopharynx. J Laryngol 1918; 33:6570.Google Scholar
Jarvis, SJ, Bull, PD. Hairy polyps of the nasopharynx. J Laryngal Otol 2002; 116(6):467469.Google ScholarPubMed
Zakaria, R, Drinnan, NRT, Natt, RS, Temple, R. Hairy polyp of the nasopharynx causing middle ear effusion. BMJ Case Reports 2011; 3 online publication.Google Scholar
Walsh, RM, Philip, G, Salama, NY. Hairy polyp of the oropharynx: an unusual case of intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1996; 34:129134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jong-lyel, R. Transoral endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal hairy polyp. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2004; 68:10871090.Google Scholar
Gambino, M, Cozzi, A, Aceti, P, et al. Two unusual cases of pharyngeal hairy polyp causing intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 37:761762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Secondary Sources

Herely, E. Pediatric congenital nasal mass. Ear Nose Throat 1991; 70:2833.Google Scholar
Morgan, DW, Evans, JNG. Developmental nasal anomalies. J Laryngal Otol 1990; 104:394403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Altissimi, G, Ascani, S, Falcetti, S, et al. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngologica Italica 2009; 29:218221.Google ScholarPubMed
Heffner, DK. Brain in the middle ear or nasal cavity: heterotopia or encephalocele. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004; 8:252257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fujioka, M, Tasaki, I, Nakayama, R, et al. Both nasal cerebral heterotopia and encephalocele in the same patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006; 43:112116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neidzielska, G, Neidzielska, A, Kotowski, M. Nasal ganglioglioma – difficulties in radiological imaging. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008; 72:285287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Penner, CR, Thompson, L. Nasal glial heterotopia: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 10 cases with a review of the literature. Ann Diag Pathol 2003; 7:354359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charrier, JB, Rouillon, I, Roger, G, et al. Craniofacial dermoids: an embryological theory unifying nasal dermoid sinus cysts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005; 42:5157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, LW. Midline cysts of nasal dorsum: embryologic origin and treatment. Laryngoscope 1965; 75:968980.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blake, WE, Chow, CW, Holmes, AD, Mears, JG. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts. A retrospective review and discussion of investigation and management. Ann Plast Surg 2006; 57:535540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, V, Sehrawat, S, Kharat, A, Kuber, R. Nasal dermoid cyst with intracranial extension and atretic dermal sinus tract. Med J DY Patil Univ 2012; 5:4750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, ML, Chang, SD, Pang, D, Adler, JR. Intracranial nasal dermoid cyst associated with colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Case report and new concepts. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:201206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pivnick, EK, Walter, AW, Lawrence, MD, Smith, ME. Gorlin syndrome associated with midline nasal dermoid cyst. J Med Genet 1996; 33:704706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wenig, BG, Heffner, DK. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx: a clinicopathologic study of 31 cases. Ann Oto Rhino Laryngol 1995; 104:639645.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gajda, M, Zagolski, O, Jasztal, A, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the anterior nasal septum a rare localization for an unusual tumor in a child: a case report. Cases Journal 2009; 2:81518155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzhugh, VA, Neena, M. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma: a review. Head Neck Pathol 2008; 2:203208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, HP, Unterman, B. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the maxillary sinus presenting as periapical radiolucency: a case report and review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004; 97:607612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delbrouk, C, Fernandez Aguilare, S, Choufani, G, Hassid, S. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma associated with nasal polyposis. Am J Otolaryngol 2004; 25:282284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozolek, JA, Hunt, JL. Tumor suppressor gene alterations in respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:15761580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaneko, C, Inokuchi, A, Kimitsuki, T, et al. Huge hamartoma with inverted papilloma I the nasal cavity. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 1999; 256(suppl. 1):S33–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lima, NB, Jankowski, R, Georgel, T, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma must be suspected on CT scan enlargement of olfactory clefts. Rhinology 2006; 44:264269.Google ScholarPubMed
Baillie, EE, Batsakis, JG. Glandular (seromucinous) hamartoma of the nasopharynx. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1974; 38:760762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinreb, I, Gnepp, D, Laver, N, et al. Seromucinous hamartoma: a clinicopathological study of a sinonasal glandular lesion lacking myoepithelial cells. Histopathology 2009; 54:205213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zarbo, RJ, McClatchey, . Nasopharyngeal hamartoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 1983; 93:494497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ambrosisi-Spaltro, A, Morandi, L, Spagnolo, D, et al. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases. Virchows Arch. 2010; 457:727734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graem-Cook, F, Pilch, BZ. Hamartoma of the nose and nasopharynx. Head Neck 1992; 14:321327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chuang, SS, Lin, CN. Microglandular adenosis arising in chronic paranasal sinusitis. Histopathology 2000; 36:376377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roffman, E, Bardes, S, Mirani, N. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma and chondroosseous respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract: a case series and report of the literature. Am J Rhinol 2006; 20:586590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adair, CF, Thompson, LDR, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Lab Invest 1996; 74: Abs557.Google Scholar
Williams, S, Brady, K, Adair, C. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997; 84:185. (Abs)Google Scholar
McDermott, MB, Ponder, TB, Dehner, LP. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: an upper respiratory tract analogue of the chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22:425433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozolek, JA, Carrau, R, Barnes, EL, Hunt, JL. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in older children and adults: series and immunohistochemical analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129:14441450.Google ScholarPubMed
Hseuh, C, Hseuh, S, Gonzalez-Crussi, F, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in children: report of 2 cases with review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125:400403.Google Scholar
Kim, JE, Kim, HJ, Kim, JH, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: CT and MR imaging findings. Korean J Radiol 2009; 10:416419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, C, Nagaraj, U, Esguerra, J, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: radiographic and histopathologic analysis of a rare pediatric tumor. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37:101104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, B, Park, SH, Min, HS, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma of infancy clinically mimicking meningoencephalocele. Pediatr Neurosurg 2004; 40:136140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silkiss, RZ, Mudvari, SS, Shetlar, D. Ophthalmic presentation of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in an infant. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2007; 23:243244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maloney, JR. Nasal polyps, nasal polypectomy, asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Their association in 445 cases of nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1977; 91:837846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triglia, JM, Nicollas, R. Nasal and sinus polyposis in children. Laryngoscope 1997; 107:963966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, G, Greistrofer, K, Jebeles, JA. The endoscopic endonasal surgical technique in treatment of chronic recurring sinusitis in children. Rhinology 1995; 33:97103.Google Scholar
Stern, RC, Boat, TF, Wood, RE, et al. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136:10671070.Google ScholarPubMed
Busuttil, A. Granulomas in nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1975; 89:10871094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolff, M. Granulomas in nasal mucous membranes following local steroid injections. Am J Clin Pathol 1974; 62:775782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coup, AJ, Hopper, IP. Granulomatous lesions in nasal biopsies. Histopathology 1980; 4:293308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakayama, M, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Atypical stromal cells in inflammatory nasal polyps: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis in defining histogenesis. Laryngoscope 1995; 105:127134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odzek, A, Samim, E, Bayiz, U, et al. Antrochoanal polyp in children. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2002; 65:213218.Google Scholar
Aktas, D, Yetiser, S, Gerek, M, et al. Antrochoanal polyps: analysis of 16 cases. Rhinology 1998; 36:8185.Google ScholarPubMed
Chung, SK, Chang, BC, Dhong, HJ. Surgical, radiologic, and histological findings of the antrochoanal polyp. Am J Rhinol 2002; 16:7176.Google Scholar
Batsakis, JG, Sneig, N. Choanal and angiomatous polyps of the sinonasal tract. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:623625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozcan, M, Ozlugedik, S, Ikinciogullari, A. Simultaneous antrochoanal and sphenochoanal polyps: a rare clinical entity. J Laryngol Otol 2005; 119:152154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicollas, R, Facon, F, Sudre-Levillain, I, et al. Pediatric paranasal sinus mucoceles: etiologic factors, management and outcome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006 May; 70:905908.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plikatis, CM, Purzycki, AR, Couture, D, David, LR. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to bifid frontal sinus septum. J Cranio Fac Surg 2010; 21:15251528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, C. Etiology and treatment of frontoethmoidal mucocele. J Laryngal Otol 1981; 95:361375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Close, LG, O’Connor, WE. Sphenoethmoidal mucoceles with intracranial extension. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1983; 91:350357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sagel, S, Davis, S, Campisi, P, Dell, S. Update of respiratory tract disease in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2011; 8:438443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chodhari, R, Mitchison, HM, Meeks, M. Cilia, primary ciliary dyskinesia and molecular genetics. Pediatr Respir Rev 2004; 5:6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Peterson, N, Skovgaard, LT, Nielsen, KG. Lung function in patients with Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a cross sectional and 3-decade longitudinal study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181:12621268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allergy Immunol 2007; 20:103119.Google ScholarPubMed
Min, YG, Shin, JS, Choi, SH, Yoon, CJ. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: ultrastructural defects and clinical features. Rhinology 1995; 33:189193.Google ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Nielsen, KG. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia. Eur Respir J 2011; 37(3):559565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mireau, GW, Agostini, R, Beals, TF et al. The role of electron microscopy in evaluating ciliary dysfunction: report of a workshop. Ultrastructure Pathol 1992; 16:245254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parsons, DS, Greene, BA. A treatment for primary ciliary dyskinesia: efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 1993; 103:12691272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cabral, D, Uribe, A, Benseler, S, et al. Classification, presentation, and initial treatment of Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2009; 60:34133424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belostotsky, V, Shah, V, Dillon, M. Clinical features in 17 diabetic patients with Wegner granulomatosis. Pediatr Nephrol 2002; 17:754761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moorthy, AV, Chesney, RW, Segar, WE, Groshong, T. Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood: prolonged survival following cytotoxic treatment. J Ped 1991:616–618.
Gajic-Veljic, M, Nikolic, M, Peco-Antic, A. Granulomatosis in children: report of three cases with cutaneous manifestations and review of the literature. Pediatric Dermatology, 2013; 30:e37e42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennette, JC, Falk, RJ, Andrassy, K, et al. Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides. Proposal of an international consensus conference. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 122:2631.Google Scholar
Leavitt, RY, Fauci, AS, Bloch, DA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Wegner’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33:11011107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozen, S, Ruperto, N, Dillon, MJ, et al. EULAR / PRES endorsed consensus criteria for the classification of childhood vasculitides. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65:936941.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Von Vietghoff, S, Schreiber, A, Otto, B, et al. Membrane proteinase 3 and Wegner’s granulomatosis. Clin Nephrol 2005; 64:453459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bacciui, A, Baccui, S, Mercante, G, et al. Ear, nose and throat manifestations of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Acta Oto Laryngologica 2006; 126:503509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, PF, McCann, BG. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis in the upper respiratory tract: a mucosa variant of granuloma faciale? A report of three cases. Histopathology 1985; 9:12171225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosarac, O, Luna, MA, Ro, JY, and Ayala, AG, Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract. Ann Diagn Pathol 2008. 12:267270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narayan, J, Douglas-Jones, A. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma faciale: analysis of cellular infiltrate and review of the literature. Ann Oto Rhinol Laryngol 2005; 114:3542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Periera, EM, Millas, I, Reis-Filho, JS, et al. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract: report on the clinicopathologic features of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck 2002; 24:307311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, LDR, Heffner, DK. Sinonasal tract eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. Am J Clin Pathol 2001; 115:243248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paun, S, Lund, VJ, Gallimore, A. Nasal fibrosis: long term followup of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. J Laryngal Otol 2005; 119:119124.Google Scholar
Chan, Y, Kuhn, FA. An update on the classifications, diagnosis, and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009; 17:204208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lusk, R. Pediatric chronic sinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 14:393396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorp, B, McKinney, K, Rose, A, Ebert, C. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2012; 45:631642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benninger, MS, Ferguson, BJ, Hadley, JA, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129(suppl. 3):S1–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Lanza, DC, Kennedy, DW. Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otol Head Neck Surg 2008; 29:372378.Google Scholar
Pelikan, Z, Pelikan, M. Role of nasal allergy in chronic maxillary sinusitis – diagnostic value of nasal challenge with allergen. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1990; 86:484491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramadan, H. Chronic sinusitis in children. Int J Pediatr 2012; 10 epub:15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slack, CL, Dahn, KA, Abzug, MJ, Chan, KH. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in pediatric chronic sinusitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20:247250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Babinski, D, Trawinska – Bartnicka, M. Rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis: not a simple story. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2008; 72:629624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allerg Immunol 2007; 20:103119.Google ScholarPubMed
Rosenfeld, RM, Andes, D, Bhattacharyya, N, et al. Clinical practice guidelines: adult sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007:137 (3 suppl.):S1–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzer, EO, Hamilos, DL, Hadley, JA, et al. Rhinosinusitis: establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004; 131 (6 suppl.):S1–62.Google ScholarPubMed
Park, A, Muntz, H, Smith, M, et al. Pediatric invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in immunocompromised children with cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 133:411416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Idris, N, Lim, L. Nasal eschar: a warning sign for potentially invasive fungal sinusitis in immunocompromised children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012; 34:e134e136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillespie, MB, O’Malley, BW, Francis, HW. An approach to fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in the immunocompromised host. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998; 124:520526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lueg, EA, Ballagh, RH, Forte, V. Analysis of the recent cluster of fungal sinusitis in a Toronto hospital for sick children. J Otolaryngol 1996; 25:366370.Google Scholar
Choi, SS, Milmoe, GJ, Dinndrof, PA, et al. Invasive aspergillus sinusitis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995; 121:11881192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chakabarti, A, Denning, DW, Ferguson, BJ, et al. Fungal rhinosinusitis: a categorization and definitional schema addressing current controversies. Laryngoscope 2009; 119:18091818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeShazo, RD, Chapin, K, Swain, RE. Fungal sinusitis. New England J Med 1997; 337:254259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fergusson, BJ. Definitions of fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:227235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeShazo, RD, O’Brien, M, Chapin, K, et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of sinus mycetoma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 99:475485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, P, Weber, R. Fungus balls of the paranasal sinuses: a review. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 2007; 264:461470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marple, BF. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: current theories and management strategies. Laryngoscope 2001; 111:10061019.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honser, SM, Corey, JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis: pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:399408.Google Scholar
Nussenbaum, B, Marple, BF, Schwade, ND. Characteristics of bony erosion in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 124:150154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Millar, JW, Johnston, A, Lamb, D. Allergic aspergillosis of the maxillary sinuses {Abstract}. Thorax 1981; 36:710.Google Scholar
Katzenstein, AA, Sale, SR, Greenberger, PA. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis: a newly recognized form of sinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983; 72:8993.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994; 111:580588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kupfurberg, SB, Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Prognosis for allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 117:3541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karunaratne, WAE. Rhinosporidiosis in Man. University of London: Athlone Press; 1964.Google Scholar
Arseecularatne, SN. Recent advances in rhinosporidiosis and Rhinosporidium Seeberi. Indian J Med Micobiol 2002; 20:119131.Google Scholar
Raveenthiran, V. Metastatic rhinosporidioma in a child. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41:853855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madke, B, Mahajan, S, Kharkar, V, et al. Disseminated cutaneous with nasopharyngeal rhinosporidiosis: light microscopy changes following dapsone therapy. Australias Dermatol, 2011; 52:e4–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Batsakis, JG, el-Naggar, AK. Rhinoscleroma and rhinosporidiosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:879882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verma, G, Kanawaty, D, Hyland, R. Rhinoscleroma causing upper airway obstruction. Can Respir J 2005; 12:4345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imbiriba, EB, Hurtado-Guerrero, JC, Garnelo, L, et al. Epidemiological profile of leprosy in children under 15 in Manaus (Northern Brazil), 1998–2005. Rev Saude Publica Dec 2008; 42:10211026.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNabb, SJ, Jajosky, RA, Hall-Baker, PA, et al. Summary of notifiable diseases–United States, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Mar 21, 2008; 55:192.Google ScholarPubMed
Srinivasan, S, Nehru, VI, Mann, SB, et al. CT findings in involvement of paranasal sinuses by lepromatous leprosy. Br J Radiol 1999; 72:271273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barton, RP, McDougall, AC. The paranasal sinuses in lepromatous leprosy. Lepr India 1979; 51:481485.Google ScholarPubMed
Almeida, EC, Martinez, AN, Maniero, VC et al. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA by PCR in blood and nasal secretion of Brazilian household contacts. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004; 99:509511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bulengo-Ransby, SM, Headington, JT, Cantu-Gonzalez, G, Rasmussen, JE. Staphylococcal botryomycosis and hyperimmunoglobulin E (Job’s) syndrome in an infant. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28:109111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atznelsen, D, Vawter, G, Foley, G, Shwachman, H. Botryomycosis, a complication in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1964; 65:525539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buescher, ES, Hebert, A, Rapini, RP. Staphylococcal botryomycosis in a patient with the hyperimmunoglobulin E-recurrent infection syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988; 7:431433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gavin, PJ, Das, L, Chadwick, EG, Yogev, R. Botryomycosis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000; 19:900901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonifaz, A, Carrasco, E. Botryomycosis. Int J Dermatol 1996; 35:381388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Talari, SA, Talaei, R, Shajari, G, et al. Childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis report of 117 cases from Iran. Korean J Parasitol, 2006; 44:355360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kafetzis, D A. An overview of pediatric leishmaniasis. J Postgrad Med 2003; 49:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Machado, PR, Ampuero, J, Guimaraes, LH, et al. Miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil: a randomized and controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010; 4(12):e912.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berman, J. Clinical status of agents being developed for leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 14(11):13371346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bimal, S, Das, VN, Sinha, PK, et al. Usefulness of the direct agglutination test in the early detection of subclinical Leishmania donovani infection: a community-based study. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2005; 99:743749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bassichis, BA, Thomas, JR. Foreign body inclusion cyst presenting in the lateral nasal sidewall 1 year after rhinoplasty. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2003; 5:530532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rettinger, G, Steininger, H. Lipogranulomas as complications of septorhinoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 123:809814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Culviner, WT, Leonard, DW, Wihlsmen, CL, Bolger, WE. Experimental myospherulosis of the paranasal sinuses: a histologic rabbit study. Am J Rhinol 2000; 14:131137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kyriakos, M. Myospherulosis of the paranasal sinuses, nose and middle ear. A possible iatrogenic disease. Am J Clin Pathol. 1977; 67:118130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sindwani, R, Cohen, JT, Pilch, BZ, Metson, RB. Myospherulosis following sinus surgery: pathological curiosity or important clinical entity? Laryngoscope 2003; 113:11231127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown-Kelley, A. Hairy or dermoid polypi of the pharynx and nasopharynx. J Laryngol 1918; 33:6570.Google Scholar
Jarvis, SJ, Bull, PD. Hairy polyps of the nasopharynx. J Laryngal Otol 2002; 116(6):467469.Google ScholarPubMed
Zakaria, R, Drinnan, NRT, Natt, RS, Temple, R. Hairy polyp of the nasopharynx causing middle ear effusion. BMJ Case Reports 2011; 3 online publication.Google Scholar
Walsh, RM, Philip, G, Salama, NY. Hairy polyp of the oropharynx: an unusual case of intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1996; 34:129134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jong-lyel, R. Transoral endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal hairy polyp. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2004; 68:10871090.Google Scholar
Gambino, M, Cozzi, A, Aceti, P, et al. Two unusual cases of pharyngeal hairy polyp causing intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 37:761762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herely, E. Pediatric congenital nasal mass. Ear Nose Throat 1991; 70:2833.Google Scholar
Morgan, DW, Evans, JNG. Developmental nasal anomalies. J Laryngal Otol 1990; 104:394403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Altissimi, G, Ascani, S, Falcetti, S, et al. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngologica Italica 2009; 29:218221.Google ScholarPubMed
Heffner, DK. Brain in the middle ear or nasal cavity: heterotopia or encephalocele. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004; 8:252257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fujioka, M, Tasaki, I, Nakayama, R, et al. Both nasal cerebral heterotopia and encephalocele in the same patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006; 43:112116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neidzielska, G, Neidzielska, A, Kotowski, M. Nasal ganglioglioma – difficulties in radiological imaging. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008; 72:285287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Penner, CR, Thompson, L. Nasal glial heterotopia: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 10 cases with a review of the literature. Ann Diag Pathol 2003; 7:354359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charrier, JB, Rouillon, I, Roger, G, et al. Craniofacial dermoids: an embryological theory unifying nasal dermoid sinus cysts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005; 42:5157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, LW. Midline cysts of nasal dorsum: embryologic origin and treatment. Laryngoscope 1965; 75:968980.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blake, WE, Chow, CW, Holmes, AD, Mears, JG. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts. A retrospective review and discussion of investigation and management. Ann Plast Surg 2006; 57:535540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, V, Sehrawat, S, Kharat, A, Kuber, R. Nasal dermoid cyst with intracranial extension and atretic dermal sinus tract. Med J DY Patil Univ 2012; 5:4750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, ML, Chang, SD, Pang, D, Adler, JR. Intracranial nasal dermoid cyst associated with colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Case report and new concepts. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:201206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pivnick, EK, Walter, AW, Lawrence, MD, Smith, ME. Gorlin syndrome associated with midline nasal dermoid cyst. J Med Genet 1996; 33:704706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wenig, BG, Heffner, DK. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx: a clinicopathologic study of 31 cases. Ann Oto Rhino Laryngol 1995; 104:639645.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gajda, M, Zagolski, O, Jasztal, A, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the anterior nasal septum a rare localization for an unusual tumor in a child: a case report. Cases Journal 2009; 2:81518155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzhugh, VA, Neena, M. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma: a review. Head Neck Pathol 2008; 2:203208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, HP, Unterman, B. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the maxillary sinus presenting as periapical radiolucency: a case report and review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004; 97:607612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delbrouk, C, Fernandez Aguilare, S, Choufani, G, Hassid, S. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma associated with nasal polyposis. Am J Otolaryngol 2004; 25:282284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozolek, JA, Hunt, JL. Tumor suppressor gene alterations in respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:15761580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaneko, C, Inokuchi, A, Kimitsuki, T, et al. Huge hamartoma with inverted papilloma I the nasal cavity. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 1999; 256(suppl. 1):S33–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lima, NB, Jankowski, R, Georgel, T, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma must be suspected on CT scan enlargement of olfactory clefts. Rhinology 2006; 44:264269.Google ScholarPubMed
Baillie, EE, Batsakis, JG. Glandular (seromucinous) hamartoma of the nasopharynx. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1974; 38:760762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinreb, I, Gnepp, D, Laver, N, et al. Seromucinous hamartoma: a clinicopathological study of a sinonasal glandular lesion lacking myoepithelial cells. Histopathology 2009; 54:205213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zarbo, RJ, McClatchey, . Nasopharyngeal hamartoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 1983; 93:494497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ambrosisi-Spaltro, A, Morandi, L, Spagnolo, D, et al. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases. Virchows Arch. 2010; 457:727734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graem-Cook, F, Pilch, BZ. Hamartoma of the nose and nasopharynx. Head Neck 1992; 14:321327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chuang, SS, Lin, CN. Microglandular adenosis arising in chronic paranasal sinusitis. Histopathology 2000; 36:376377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roffman, E, Bardes, S, Mirani, N. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma and chondroosseous respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract: a case series and report of the literature. Am J Rhinol 2006; 20:586590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adair, CF, Thompson, LDR, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Lab Invest 1996; 74: Abs557.Google Scholar
Williams, S, Brady, K, Adair, C. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997; 84:185. (Abs)Google Scholar
McDermott, MB, Ponder, TB, Dehner, LP. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: an upper respiratory tract analogue of the chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22:425433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozolek, JA, Carrau, R, Barnes, EL, Hunt, JL. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in older children and adults: series and immunohistochemical analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129:14441450.Google ScholarPubMed
Hseuh, C, Hseuh, S, Gonzalez-Crussi, F, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in children: report of 2 cases with review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125:400403.Google Scholar
Kim, JE, Kim, HJ, Kim, JH, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: CT and MR imaging findings. Korean J Radiol 2009; 10:416419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, C, Nagaraj, U, Esguerra, J, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: radiographic and histopathologic analysis of a rare pediatric tumor. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37:101104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, B, Park, SH, Min, HS, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma of infancy clinically mimicking meningoencephalocele. Pediatr Neurosurg 2004; 40:136140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silkiss, RZ, Mudvari, SS, Shetlar, D. Ophthalmic presentation of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in an infant. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2007; 23:243244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maloney, JR. Nasal polyps, nasal polypectomy, asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Their association in 445 cases of nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1977; 91:837846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triglia, JM, Nicollas, R. Nasal and sinus polyposis in children. Laryngoscope 1997; 107:963966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, G, Greistrofer, K, Jebeles, JA. The endoscopic endonasal surgical technique in treatment of chronic recurring sinusitis in children. Rhinology 1995; 33:97103.Google Scholar
Stern, RC, Boat, TF, Wood, RE, et al. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136:10671070.Google ScholarPubMed
Busuttil, A. Granulomas in nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1975; 89:10871094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolff, M. Granulomas in nasal mucous membranes following local steroid injections. Am J Clin Pathol 1974; 62:775782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coup, AJ, Hopper, IP. Granulomatous lesions in nasal biopsies. Histopathology 1980; 4:293308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakayama, M, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Atypical stromal cells in inflammatory nasal polyps: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis in defining histogenesis. Laryngoscope 1995; 105:127134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odzek, A, Samim, E, Bayiz, U, et al. Antrochoanal polyp in children. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2002; 65:213218.Google Scholar
Aktas, D, Yetiser, S, Gerek, M, et al. Antrochoanal polyps: analysis of 16 cases. Rhinology 1998; 36:8185.Google ScholarPubMed
Chung, SK, Chang, BC, Dhong, HJ. Surgical, radiologic, and histological findings of the antrochoanal polyp. Am J Rhinol 2002; 16:7176.Google Scholar
Batsakis, JG, Sneig, N. Choanal and angiomatous polyps of the sinonasal tract. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:623625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozcan, M, Ozlugedik, S, Ikinciogullari, A. Simultaneous antrochoanal and sphenochoanal polyps: a rare clinical entity. J Laryngol Otol 2005; 119:152154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicollas, R, Facon, F, Sudre-Levillain, I, et al. Pediatric paranasal sinus mucoceles: etiologic factors, management and outcome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006 May; 70:905908.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plikatis, CM, Purzycki, AR, Couture, D, David, LR. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to bifid frontal sinus septum. J Cranio Fac Surg 2010; 21:15251528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, C. Etiology and treatment of frontoethmoidal mucocele. J Laryngal Otol 1981; 95:361375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Close, LG, O’Connor, WE. Sphenoethmoidal mucoceles with intracranial extension. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1983; 91:350357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sagel, S, Davis, S, Campisi, P, Dell, S. Update of respiratory tract disease in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2011; 8:438443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chodhari, R, Mitchison, HM, Meeks, M. Cilia, primary ciliary dyskinesia and molecular genetics. Pediatr Respir Rev 2004; 5:6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Peterson, N, Skovgaard, LT, Nielsen, KG. Lung function in patients with Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a cross sectional and 3-decade longitudinal study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181:12621268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allergy Immunol 2007; 20:103119.Google ScholarPubMed
Min, YG, Shin, JS, Choi, SH, Yoon, CJ. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: ultrastructural defects and clinical features. Rhinology 1995; 33:189193.Google ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Nielsen, KG. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia. Eur Respir J 2011; 37(3):559565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mireau, GW, Agostini, R, Beals, TF et al. The role of electron microscopy in evaluating ciliary dysfunction: report of a workshop. Ultrastructure Pathol 1992; 16:245254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parsons, DS, Greene, BA. A treatment for primary ciliary dyskinesia: efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 1993; 103:12691272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cabral, D, Uribe, A, Benseler, S, et al. Classification, presentation, and initial treatment of Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2009; 60:34133424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belostotsky, V, Shah, V, Dillon, M. Clinical features in 17 diabetic patients with Wegner granulomatosis. Pediatr Nephrol 2002; 17:754761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moorthy, AV, Chesney, RW, Segar, WE, Groshong, T. Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood: prolonged survival following cytotoxic treatment. J Ped 1991:616–618.
Gajic-Veljic, M, Nikolic, M, Peco-Antic, A. Granulomatosis in children: report of three cases with cutaneous manifestations and review of the literature. Pediatric Dermatology, 2013; 30:e37e42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennette, JC, Falk, RJ, Andrassy, K, et al. Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides. Proposal of an international consensus conference. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 122:2631.Google Scholar
Leavitt, RY, Fauci, AS, Bloch, DA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Wegner’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33:11011107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozen, S, Ruperto, N, Dillon, MJ, et al. EULAR / PRES endorsed consensus criteria for the classification of childhood vasculitides. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65:936941.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Von Vietghoff, S, Schreiber, A, Otto, B, et al. Membrane proteinase 3 and Wegner’s granulomatosis. Clin Nephrol 2005; 64:453459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bacciui, A, Baccui, S, Mercante, G, et al. Ear, nose and throat manifestations of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Acta Oto Laryngologica 2006; 126:503509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, PF, McCann, BG. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis in the upper respiratory tract: a mucosa variant of granuloma faciale? A report of three cases. Histopathology 1985; 9:12171225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosarac, O, Luna, MA, Ro, JY, and Ayala, AG, Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract. Ann Diagn Pathol 2008. 12:267270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narayan, J, Douglas-Jones, A. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma faciale: analysis of cellular infiltrate and review of the literature. Ann Oto Rhinol Laryngol 2005; 114:3542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Periera, EM, Millas, I, Reis-Filho, JS, et al. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract: report on the clinicopathologic features of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck 2002; 24:307311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, LDR, Heffner, DK. Sinonasal tract eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. Am J Clin Pathol 2001; 115:243248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paun, S, Lund, VJ, Gallimore, A. Nasal fibrosis: long term followup of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. J Laryngal Otol 2005; 119:119124.Google Scholar
Chan, Y, Kuhn, FA. An update on the classifications, diagnosis, and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009; 17:204208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lusk, R. Pediatric chronic sinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 14:393396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorp, B, McKinney, K, Rose, A, Ebert, C. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2012; 45:631642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benninger, MS, Ferguson, BJ, Hadley, JA, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129(suppl. 3):S1–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Lanza, DC, Kennedy, DW. Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otol Head Neck Surg 2008; 29:372378.Google Scholar
Pelikan, Z, Pelikan, M. Role of nasal allergy in chronic maxillary sinusitis – diagnostic value of nasal challenge with allergen. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1990; 86:484491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramadan, H. Chronic sinusitis in children. Int J Pediatr 2012; 10 epub:15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slack, CL, Dahn, KA, Abzug, MJ, Chan, KH. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in pediatric chronic sinusitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20:247250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Babinski, D, Trawinska – Bartnicka, M. Rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis: not a simple story. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2008; 72:629624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allerg Immunol 2007; 20:103119.Google ScholarPubMed
Rosenfeld, RM, Andes, D, Bhattacharyya, N, et al. Clinical practice guidelines: adult sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007:137 (3 suppl.):S1–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzer, EO, Hamilos, DL, Hadley, JA, et al. Rhinosinusitis: establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004; 131 (6 suppl.):S1–62.Google ScholarPubMed
Park, A, Muntz, H, Smith, M, et al. Pediatric invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in immunocompromised children with cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 133:411416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Idris, N, Lim, L. Nasal eschar: a warning sign for potentially invasive fungal sinusitis in immunocompromised children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012; 34:e134e136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillespie, MB, O’Malley, BW, Francis, HW. An approach to fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in the immunocompromised host. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998; 124:520526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lueg, EA, Ballagh, RH, Forte, V. Analysis of the recent cluster of fungal sinusitis in a Toronto hospital for sick children. J Otolaryngol 1996; 25:366370.Google Scholar
Choi, SS, Milmoe, GJ, Dinndrof, PA, et al. Invasive aspergillus sinusitis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995; 121:11881192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chakabarti, A, Denning, DW, Ferguson, BJ, et al. Fungal rhinosinusitis: a categorization and definitional schema addressing current controversies. Laryngoscope 2009; 119:18091818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeShazo, RD, Chapin, K, Swain, RE. Fungal sinusitis. New England J Med 1997; 337:254259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fergusson, BJ. Definitions of fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:227235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeShazo, RD, O’Brien, M, Chapin, K, et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of sinus mycetoma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 99:475485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, P, Weber, R. Fungus balls of the paranasal sinuses: a review. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 2007; 264:461470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marple, BF. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: current theories and management strategies. Laryngoscope 2001; 111:10061019.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honser, SM, Corey, JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis: pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:399408.Google Scholar
Nussenbaum, B, Marple, BF, Schwade, ND. Characteristics of bony erosion in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 124:150154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Millar, JW, Johnston, A, Lamb, D. Allergic aspergillosis of the maxillary sinuses {Abstract}. Thorax 1981; 36:710.Google Scholar
Katzenstein, AA, Sale, SR, Greenberger, PA. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis: a newly recognized form of sinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983; 72:8993.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994; 111:580588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kupfurberg, SB, Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Prognosis for allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 117:3541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karunaratne, WAE. Rhinosporidiosis in Man. University of London: Athlone Press; 1964.Google Scholar
Arseecularatne, SN. Recent advances in rhinosporidiosis and Rhinosporidium Seeberi. Indian J Med Micobiol 2002; 20:119131.Google Scholar
Raveenthiran, V. Metastatic rhinosporidioma in a child. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41:853855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madke, B, Mahajan, S, Kharkar, V, et al. Disseminated cutaneous with nasopharyngeal rhinosporidiosis: light microscopy changes following dapsone therapy. Australias Dermatol, 2011; 52:e4–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Batsakis, JG, el-Naggar, AK. Rhinoscleroma and rhinosporidiosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:879882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verma, G, Kanawaty, D, Hyland, R. Rhinoscleroma causing upper airway obstruction. Can Respir J 2005; 12:4345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imbiriba, EB, Hurtado-Guerrero, JC, Garnelo, L, et al. Epidemiological profile of leprosy in children under 15 in Manaus (Northern Brazil), 1998–2005. Rev Saude Publica Dec 2008; 42:10211026.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNabb, SJ, Jajosky, RA, Hall-Baker, PA, et al. Summary of notifiable diseases–United States, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Mar 21, 2008; 55:192.Google ScholarPubMed
Srinivasan, S, Nehru, VI, Mann, SB, et al. CT findings in involvement of paranasal sinuses by lepromatous leprosy. Br J Radiol 1999; 72:271273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barton, RP, McDougall, AC. The paranasal sinuses in lepromatous leprosy. Lepr India 1979; 51:481485.Google ScholarPubMed
Almeida, EC, Martinez, AN, Maniero, VC et al. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA by PCR in blood and nasal secretion of Brazilian household contacts. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004; 99:509511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bulengo-Ransby, SM, Headington, JT, Cantu-Gonzalez, G, Rasmussen, JE. Staphylococcal botryomycosis and hyperimmunoglobulin E (Job’s) syndrome in an infant. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28:109111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atznelsen, D, Vawter, G, Foley, G, Shwachman, H. Botryomycosis, a complication in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1964; 65:525539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buescher, ES, Hebert, A, Rapini, RP. Staphylococcal botryomycosis in a patient with the hyperimmunoglobulin E-recurrent infection syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988; 7:431433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gavin, PJ, Das, L, Chadwick, EG, Yogev, R. Botryomycosis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000; 19:900901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonifaz, A, Carrasco, E. Botryomycosis. Int J Dermatol 1996; 35:381388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Talari, SA, Talaei, R, Shajari, G, et al. Childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis report of 117 cases from Iran. Korean J Parasitol, 2006; 44:355360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kafetzis, D A. An overview of pediatric leishmaniasis. J Postgrad Med 2003; 49:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Machado, PR, Ampuero, J, Guimaraes, LH, et al. Miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil: a randomized and controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010; 4(12):e912.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berman, J. Clinical status of agents being developed for leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 14(11):13371346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bimal, S, Das, VN, Sinha, PK, et al. Usefulness of the direct agglutination test in the early detection of subclinical Leishmania donovani infection: a community-based study. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2005; 99:743749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bassichis, BA, Thomas, JR. Foreign body inclusion cyst presenting in the lateral nasal sidewall 1 year after rhinoplasty. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2003; 5:530532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rettinger, G, Steininger, H. Lipogranulomas as complications of septorhinoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 123:809814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Culviner, WT, Leonard, DW, Wihlsmen, CL, Bolger, WE. Experimental myospherulosis of the paranasal sinuses: a histologic rabbit study. Am J Rhinol 2000; 14:131137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kyriakos, M. Myospherulosis of the paranasal sinuses, nose and middle ear. A possible iatrogenic disease. Am J Clin Pathol. 1977; 67:118130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sindwani, R, Cohen, JT, Pilch, BZ, Metson, RB. Myospherulosis following sinus surgery: pathological curiosity or important clinical entity? Laryngoscope 2003; 113:11231127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown-Kelley, A. Hairy or dermoid polypi of the pharynx and nasopharynx. J Laryngol 1918; 33:6570.Google Scholar
Jarvis, SJ, Bull, PD. Hairy polyps of the nasopharynx. J Laryngal Otol 2002; 116(6):467469.Google ScholarPubMed
Zakaria, R, Drinnan, NRT, Natt, RS, Temple, R. Hairy polyp of the nasopharynx causing middle ear effusion. BMJ Case Reports 2011; 3 online publication.Google Scholar
Walsh, RM, Philip, G, Salama, NY. Hairy polyp of the oropharynx: an unusual case of intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1996; 34:129134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jong-lyel, R. Transoral endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal hairy polyp. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2004; 68:10871090.Google Scholar
Gambino, M, Cozzi, A, Aceti, P, et al. Two unusual cases of pharyngeal hairy polyp causing intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 37:761762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herely, E. Pediatric congenital nasal mass. Ear Nose Throat 1991; 70:2833.Google Scholar
Morgan, DW, Evans, JNG. Developmental nasal anomalies. J Laryngal Otol 1990; 104:394403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Altissimi, G, Ascani, S, Falcetti, S, et al. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngologica Italica 2009; 29:218221.Google ScholarPubMed
Heffner, DK. Brain in the middle ear or nasal cavity: heterotopia or encephalocele. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004; 8:252257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fujioka, M, Tasaki, I, Nakayama, R, et al. Both nasal cerebral heterotopia and encephalocele in the same patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006; 43:112116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neidzielska, G, Neidzielska, A, Kotowski, M. Nasal ganglioglioma – difficulties in radiological imaging. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008; 72:285287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Penner, CR, Thompson, L. Nasal glial heterotopia: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 10 cases with a review of the literature. Ann Diag Pathol 2003; 7:354359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charrier, JB, Rouillon, I, Roger, G, et al. Craniofacial dermoids: an embryological theory unifying nasal dermoid sinus cysts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005; 42:5157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, LW. Midline cysts of nasal dorsum: embryologic origin and treatment. Laryngoscope 1965; 75:968980.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blake, WE, Chow, CW, Holmes, AD, Mears, JG. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts. A retrospective review and discussion of investigation and management. Ann Plast Surg 2006; 57:535540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, V, Sehrawat, S, Kharat, A, Kuber, R. Nasal dermoid cyst with intracranial extension and atretic dermal sinus tract. Med J DY Patil Univ 2012; 5:4750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, ML, Chang, SD, Pang, D, Adler, JR. Intracranial nasal dermoid cyst associated with colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Case report and new concepts. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:201206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pivnick, EK, Walter, AW, Lawrence, MD, Smith, ME. Gorlin syndrome associated with midline nasal dermoid cyst. J Med Genet 1996; 33:704706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wenig, BG, Heffner, DK. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx: a clinicopathologic study of 31 cases. Ann Oto Rhino Laryngol 1995; 104:639645.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gajda, M, Zagolski, O, Jasztal, A, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the anterior nasal septum a rare localization for an unusual tumor in a child: a case report. Cases Journal 2009; 2:81518155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzhugh, VA, Neena, M. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma: a review. Head Neck Pathol 2008; 2:203208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, HP, Unterman, B. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the maxillary sinus presenting as periapical radiolucency: a case report and review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004; 97:607612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delbrouk, C, Fernandez Aguilare, S, Choufani, G, Hassid, S. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma associated with nasal polyposis. Am J Otolaryngol 2004; 25:282284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozolek, JA, Hunt, JL. Tumor suppressor gene alterations in respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:15761580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaneko, C, Inokuchi, A, Kimitsuki, T, et al. Huge hamartoma with inverted papilloma I the nasal cavity. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 1999; 256(suppl. 1):S33–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lima, NB, Jankowski, R, Georgel, T, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma must be suspected on CT scan enlargement of olfactory clefts. Rhinology 2006; 44:264269.Google ScholarPubMed
Baillie, EE, Batsakis, JG. Glandular (seromucinous) hamartoma of the nasopharynx. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1974; 38:760762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinreb, I, Gnepp, D, Laver, N, et al. Seromucinous hamartoma: a clinicopathological study of a sinonasal glandular lesion lacking myoepithelial cells. Histopathology 2009; 54:205213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zarbo, RJ, McClatchey, . Nasopharyngeal hamartoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 1983; 93:494497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ambrosisi-Spaltro, A, Morandi, L, Spagnolo, D, et al. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases. Virchows Arch. 2010; 457:727734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graem-Cook, F, Pilch, BZ. Hamartoma of the nose and nasopharynx. Head Neck 1992; 14:321327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chuang, SS, Lin, CN. Microglandular adenosis arising in chronic paranasal sinusitis. Histopathology 2000; 36:376377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roffman, E, Bardes, S, Mirani, N. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma and chondroosseous respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract: a case series and report of the literature. Am J Rhinol 2006; 20:586590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adair, CF, Thompson, LDR, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Lab Invest 1996; 74: Abs557.Google Scholar
Williams, S, Brady, K, Adair, C. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997; 84:185. (Abs)Google Scholar
McDermott, MB, Ponder, TB, Dehner, LP. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: an upper respiratory tract analogue of the chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22:425433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozolek, JA, Carrau, R, Barnes, EL, Hunt, JL. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in older children and adults: series and immunohistochemical analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129:14441450.Google ScholarPubMed
Hseuh, C, Hseuh, S, Gonzalez-Crussi, F, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in children: report of 2 cases with review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125:400403.Google Scholar
Kim, JE, Kim, HJ, Kim, JH, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: CT and MR imaging findings. Korean J Radiol 2009; 10:416419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, C, Nagaraj, U, Esguerra, J, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: radiographic and histopathologic analysis of a rare pediatric tumor. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37:101104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, B, Park, SH, Min, HS, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma of infancy clinically mimicking meningoencephalocele. Pediatr Neurosurg 2004; 40:136140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silkiss, RZ, Mudvari, SS, Shetlar, D. Ophthalmic presentation of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in an infant. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2007; 23:243244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maloney, JR. Nasal polyps, nasal polypectomy, asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Their association in 445 cases of nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1977; 91:837846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triglia, JM, Nicollas, R. Nasal and sinus polyposis in children. Laryngoscope 1997; 107:963966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, G, Greistrofer, K, Jebeles, JA. The endoscopic endonasal surgical technique in treatment of chronic recurring sinusitis in children. Rhinology 1995; 33:97103.Google Scholar
Stern, RC, Boat, TF, Wood, RE, et al. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136:10671070.Google ScholarPubMed
Busuttil, A. Granulomas in nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1975; 89:10871094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolff, M. Granulomas in nasal mucous membranes following local steroid injections. Am J Clin Pathol 1974; 62:775782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coup, AJ, Hopper, IP. Granulomatous lesions in nasal biopsies. Histopathology 1980; 4:293308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakayama, M, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Atypical stromal cells in inflammatory nasal polyps: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis in defining histogenesis. Laryngoscope 1995; 105:127134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odzek, A, Samim, E, Bayiz, U, et al. Antrochoanal polyp in children. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2002; 65:213218.Google Scholar
Aktas, D, Yetiser, S, Gerek, M, et al. Antrochoanal polyps: analysis of 16 cases. Rhinology 1998; 36:8185.Google ScholarPubMed
Chung, SK, Chang, BC, Dhong, HJ. Surgical, radiologic, and histological findings of the antrochoanal polyp. Am J Rhinol 2002; 16:7176.Google Scholar
Batsakis, JG, Sneig, N. Choanal and angiomatous polyps of the sinonasal tract. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:623625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozcan, M, Ozlugedik, S, Ikinciogullari, A. Simultaneous antrochoanal and sphenochoanal polyps: a rare clinical entity. J Laryngol Otol 2005; 119:152154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicollas, R, Facon, F, Sudre-Levillain, I, et al. Pediatric paranasal sinus mucoceles: etiologic factors, management and outcome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006 May; 70:905908.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plikatis, CM, Purzycki, AR, Couture, D, David, LR. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to bifid frontal sinus septum. J Cranio Fac Surg 2010; 21:15251528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, C. Etiology and treatment of frontoethmoidal mucocele. J Laryngal Otol 1981; 95:361375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Close, LG, O’Connor, WE. Sphenoethmoidal mucoceles with intracranial extension. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1983; 91:350357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sagel, S, Davis, S, Campisi, P, Dell, S. Update of respiratory tract disease in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2011; 8:438443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chodhari, R, Mitchison, HM, Meeks, M. Cilia, primary ciliary dyskinesia and molecular genetics. Pediatr Respir Rev 2004; 5:6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Peterson, N, Skovgaard, LT, Nielsen, KG. Lung function in patients with Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a cross sectional and 3-decade longitudinal study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181:12621268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allergy Immunol 2007; 20:103119.Google ScholarPubMed
Min, YG, Shin, JS, Choi, SH, Yoon, CJ. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: ultrastructural defects and clinical features. Rhinology 1995; 33:189193.Google ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Nielsen, KG. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia. Eur Respir J 2011; 37(3):559565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mireau, GW, Agostini, R, Beals, TF et al. The role of electron microscopy in evaluating ciliary dysfunction: report of a workshop. Ultrastructure Pathol 1992; 16:245254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parsons, DS, Greene, BA. A treatment for primary ciliary dyskinesia: efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 1993; 103:12691272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cabral, D, Uribe, A, Benseler, S, et al. Classification, presentation, and initial treatment of Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2009; 60:34133424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belostotsky, V, Shah, V, Dillon, M. Clinical features in 17 diabetic patients with Wegner granulomatosis. Pediatr Nephrol 2002; 17:754761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moorthy, AV, Chesney, RW, Segar, WE, Groshong, T. Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood: prolonged survival following cytotoxic treatment. J Ped 1991:616–618.
Gajic-Veljic, M, Nikolic, M, Peco-Antic, A. Granulomatosis in children: report of three cases with cutaneous manifestations and review of the literature. Pediatric Dermatology, 2013; 30:e37e42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennette, JC, Falk, RJ, Andrassy, K, et al. Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides. Proposal of an international consensus conference. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 122:2631.Google Scholar
Leavitt, RY, Fauci, AS, Bloch, DA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Wegner’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33:11011107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozen, S, Ruperto, N, Dillon, MJ, et al. EULAR / PRES endorsed consensus criteria for the classification of childhood vasculitides. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65:936941.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Von Vietghoff, S, Schreiber, A, Otto, B, et al. Membrane proteinase 3 and Wegner’s granulomatosis. Clin Nephrol 2005; 64:453459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bacciui, A, Baccui, S, Mercante, G, et al. Ear, nose and throat manifestations of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Acta Oto Laryngologica 2006; 126:503509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, PF, McCann, BG. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis in the upper respiratory tract: a mucosa variant of granuloma faciale? A report of three cases. Histopathology 1985; 9:12171225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosarac, O, Luna, MA, Ro, JY, and Ayala, AG, Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract. Ann Diagn Pathol 2008. 12:267270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narayan, J, Douglas-Jones, A. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma faciale: analysis of cellular infiltrate and review of the literature. Ann Oto Rhinol Laryngol 2005; 114:3542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Periera, EM, Millas, I, Reis-Filho, JS, et al. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract: report on the clinicopathologic features of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck 2002; 24:307311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, LDR, Heffner, DK. Sinonasal tract eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. Am J Clin Pathol 2001; 115:243248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paun, S, Lund, VJ, Gallimore, A. Nasal fibrosis: long term followup of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. J Laryngal Otol 2005; 119:119124.Google Scholar
Chan, Y, Kuhn, FA. An update on the classifications, diagnosis, and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009; 17:204208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lusk, R. Pediatric chronic sinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 14:393396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorp, B, McKinney, K, Rose, A, Ebert, C. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2012; 45:631642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benninger, MS, Ferguson, BJ, Hadley, JA, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129(suppl. 3):S1–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Lanza, DC, Kennedy, DW. Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otol Head Neck Surg 2008; 29:372378.Google Scholar
Pelikan, Z, Pelikan, M. Role of nasal allergy in chronic maxillary sinusitis – diagnostic value of nasal challenge with allergen. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1990; 86:484491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramadan, H. Chronic sinusitis in children. Int J Pediatr 2012; 10 epub:15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slack, CL, Dahn, KA, Abzug, MJ, Chan, KH. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in pediatric chronic sinusitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20:247250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Babinski, D, Trawinska – Bartnicka, M. Rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis: not a simple story. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2008; 72:629624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allerg Immunol 2007; 20:103119.Google ScholarPubMed
Rosenfeld, RM, Andes, D, Bhattacharyya, N, et al. Clinical practice guidelines: adult sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007:137 (3 suppl.):S1–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzer, EO, Hamilos, DL, Hadley, JA, et al. Rhinosinusitis: establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004; 131 (6 suppl.):S1–62.Google ScholarPubMed
Park, A, Muntz, H, Smith, M, et al. Pediatric invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in immunocompromised children with cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 133:411416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Idris, N, Lim, L. Nasal eschar: a warning sign for potentially invasive fungal sinusitis in immunocompromised children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012; 34:e134e136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillespie, MB, O’Malley, BW, Francis, HW. An approach to fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in the immunocompromised host. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998; 124:520526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lueg, EA, Ballagh, RH, Forte, V. Analysis of the recent cluster of fungal sinusitis in a Toronto hospital for sick children. J Otolaryngol 1996; 25:366370.Google Scholar
Choi, SS, Milmoe, GJ, Dinndrof, PA, et al. Invasive aspergillus sinusitis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995; 121:11881192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chakabarti, A, Denning, DW, Ferguson, BJ, et al. Fungal rhinosinusitis: a categorization and definitional schema addressing current controversies. Laryngoscope 2009; 119:18091818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeShazo, RD, Chapin, K, Swain, RE. Fungal sinusitis. New England J Med 1997; 337:254259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fergusson, BJ. Definitions of fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:227235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeShazo, RD, O’Brien, M, Chapin, K, et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of sinus mycetoma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 99:475485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, P, Weber, R. Fungus balls of the paranasal sinuses: a review. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 2007; 264:461470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marple, BF. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: current theories and management strategies. Laryngoscope 2001; 111:10061019.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honser, SM, Corey, JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis: pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:399408.Google Scholar
Nussenbaum, B, Marple, BF, Schwade, ND. Characteristics of bony erosion in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 124:150154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Millar, JW, Johnston, A, Lamb, D. Allergic aspergillosis of the maxillary sinuses {Abstract}. Thorax 1981; 36:710.Google Scholar
Katzenstein, AA, Sale, SR, Greenberger, PA. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis: a newly recognized form of sinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983; 72:8993.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994; 111:580588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kupfurberg, SB, Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Prognosis for allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 117:3541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karunaratne, WAE. Rhinosporidiosis in Man. University of London: Athlone Press; 1964.Google Scholar
Arseecularatne, SN. Recent advances in rhinosporidiosis and Rhinosporidium Seeberi. Indian J Med Micobiol 2002; 20:119131.Google Scholar
Raveenthiran, V. Metastatic rhinosporidioma in a child. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41:853855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madke, B, Mahajan, S, Kharkar, V, et al. Disseminated cutaneous with nasopharyngeal rhinosporidiosis: light microscopy changes following dapsone therapy. Australias Dermatol, 2011; 52:e4–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Batsakis, JG, el-Naggar, AK. Rhinoscleroma and rhinosporidiosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:879882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verma, G, Kanawaty, D, Hyland, R. Rhinoscleroma causing upper airway obstruction. Can Respir J 2005; 12:4345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imbiriba, EB, Hurtado-Guerrero, JC, Garnelo, L, et al. Epidemiological profile of leprosy in children under 15 in Manaus (Northern Brazil), 1998–2005. Rev Saude Publica Dec 2008; 42:10211026.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNabb, SJ, Jajosky, RA, Hall-Baker, PA, et al. Summary of notifiable diseases–United States, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Mar 21, 2008; 55:192.Google ScholarPubMed
Srinivasan, S, Nehru, VI, Mann, SB, et al. CT findings in involvement of paranasal sinuses by lepromatous leprosy. Br J Radiol 1999; 72:271273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barton, RP, McDougall, AC. The paranasal sinuses in lepromatous leprosy. Lepr India 1979; 51:481485.Google ScholarPubMed
Almeida, EC, Martinez, AN, Maniero, VC et al. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA by PCR in blood and nasal secretion of Brazilian household contacts. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004; 99:509511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bulengo-Ransby, SM, Headington, JT, Cantu-Gonzalez, G, Rasmussen, JE. Staphylococcal botryomycosis and hyperimmunoglobulin E (Job’s) syndrome in an infant. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28:109111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atznelsen, D, Vawter, G, Foley, G, Shwachman, H. Botryomycosis, a complication in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1964; 65:525539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buescher, ES, Hebert, A, Rapini, RP. Staphylococcal botryomycosis in a patient with the hyperimmunoglobulin E-recurrent infection syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988; 7:431433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gavin, PJ, Das, L, Chadwick, EG, Yogev, R. Botryomycosis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000; 19:900901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonifaz, A, Carrasco, E. Botryomycosis. Int J Dermatol 1996; 35:381388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Talari, SA, Talaei, R, Shajari, G, et al. Childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis report of 117 cases from Iran. Korean J Parasitol, 2006; 44:355360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kafetzis, D A. An overview of pediatric leishmaniasis. J Postgrad Med 2003; 49:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Machado, PR, Ampuero, J, Guimaraes, LH, et al. Miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil: a randomized and controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010; 4(12):e912.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berman, J. Clinical status of agents being developed for leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 14(11):13371346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bimal, S, Das, VN, Sinha, PK, et al. Usefulness of the direct agglutination test in the early detection of subclinical Leishmania donovani infection: a community-based study. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2005; 99:743749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bassichis, BA, Thomas, JR. Foreign body inclusion cyst presenting in the lateral nasal sidewall 1 year after rhinoplasty. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2003; 5:530532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rettinger, G, Steininger, H. Lipogranulomas as complications of septorhinoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 123:809814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Culviner, WT, Leonard, DW, Wihlsmen, CL, Bolger, WE. Experimental myospherulosis of the paranasal sinuses: a histologic rabbit study. Am J Rhinol 2000; 14:131137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kyriakos, M. Myospherulosis of the paranasal sinuses, nose and middle ear. A possible iatrogenic disease. Am J Clin Pathol. 1977; 67:118130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sindwani, R, Cohen, JT, Pilch, BZ, Metson, RB. Myospherulosis following sinus surgery: pathological curiosity or important clinical entity? Laryngoscope 2003; 113:11231127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown-Kelley, A. Hairy or dermoid polypi of the pharynx and nasopharynx. J Laryngol 1918; 33:6570.Google Scholar
Jarvis, SJ, Bull, PD. Hairy polyps of the nasopharynx. J Laryngal Otol 2002; 116(6):467469.Google ScholarPubMed
Zakaria, R, Drinnan, NRT, Natt, RS, Temple, R. Hairy polyp of the nasopharynx causing middle ear effusion. BMJ Case Reports 2011; 3 online publication.Google Scholar
Walsh, RM, Philip, G, Salama, NY. Hairy polyp of the oropharynx: an unusual case of intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1996; 34:129134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jong-lyel, R. Transoral endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal hairy polyp. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2004; 68:10871090.Google Scholar
Gambino, M, Cozzi, A, Aceti, P, et al. Two unusual cases of pharyngeal hairy polyp causing intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 37:761762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herely, E. Pediatric congenital nasal mass. Ear Nose Throat 1991; 70:2833.Google Scholar
Morgan, DW, Evans, JNG. Developmental nasal anomalies. J Laryngal Otol 1990; 104:394403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Altissimi, G, Ascani, S, Falcetti, S, et al. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngologica Italica 2009; 29:218221.Google ScholarPubMed
Heffner, DK. Brain in the middle ear or nasal cavity: heterotopia or encephalocele. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004; 8:252257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fujioka, M, Tasaki, I, Nakayama, R, et al. Both nasal cerebral heterotopia and encephalocele in the same patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006; 43:112116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neidzielska, G, Neidzielska, A, Kotowski, M. Nasal ganglioglioma – difficulties in radiological imaging. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008; 72:285287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Penner, CR, Thompson, L. Nasal glial heterotopia: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 10 cases with a review of the literature. Ann Diag Pathol 2003; 7:354359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charrier, JB, Rouillon, I, Roger, G, et al. Craniofacial dermoids: an embryological theory unifying nasal dermoid sinus cysts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005; 42:5157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, LW. Midline cysts of nasal dorsum: embryologic origin and treatment. Laryngoscope 1965; 75:968980.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blake, WE, Chow, CW, Holmes, AD, Mears, JG. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts. A retrospective review and discussion of investigation and management. Ann Plast Surg 2006; 57:535540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, V, Sehrawat, S, Kharat, A, Kuber, R. Nasal dermoid cyst with intracranial extension and atretic dermal sinus tract. Med J DY Patil Univ 2012; 5:4750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, ML, Chang, SD, Pang, D, Adler, JR. Intracranial nasal dermoid cyst associated with colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Case report and new concepts. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:201206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pivnick, EK, Walter, AW, Lawrence, MD, Smith, ME. Gorlin syndrome associated with midline nasal dermoid cyst. J Med Genet 1996; 33:704706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wenig, BG, Heffner, DK. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx: a clinicopathologic study of 31 cases. Ann Oto Rhino Laryngol 1995; 104:639645.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gajda, M, Zagolski, O, Jasztal, A, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the anterior nasal septum a rare localization for an unusual tumor in a child: a case report. Cases Journal 2009; 2:81518155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzhugh, VA, Neena, M. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma: a review. Head Neck Pathol 2008; 2:203208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, HP, Unterman, B. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the maxillary sinus presenting as periapical radiolucency: a case report and review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004; 97:607612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delbrouk, C, Fernandez Aguilare, S, Choufani, G, Hassid, S. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma associated with nasal polyposis. Am J Otolaryngol 2004; 25:282284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozolek, JA, Hunt, JL. Tumor suppressor gene alterations in respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:15761580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaneko, C, Inokuchi, A, Kimitsuki, T, et al. Huge hamartoma with inverted papilloma I the nasal cavity. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 1999; 256(suppl. 1):S33–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lima, NB, Jankowski, R, Georgel, T, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma must be suspected on CT scan enlargement of olfactory clefts. Rhinology 2006; 44:264269.Google ScholarPubMed
Baillie, EE, Batsakis, JG. Glandular (seromucinous) hamartoma of the nasopharynx. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1974; 38:760762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinreb, I, Gnepp, D, Laver, N, et al. Seromucinous hamartoma: a clinicopathological study of a sinonasal glandular lesion lacking myoepithelial cells. Histopathology 2009; 54:205213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zarbo, RJ, McClatchey, . Nasopharyngeal hamartoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 1983; 93:494497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ambrosisi-Spaltro, A, Morandi, L, Spagnolo, D, et al. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases. Virchows Arch. 2010; 457:727734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graem-Cook, F, Pilch, BZ. Hamartoma of the nose and nasopharynx. Head Neck 1992; 14:321327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chuang, SS, Lin, CN. Microglandular adenosis arising in chronic paranasal sinusitis. Histopathology 2000; 36:376377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roffman, E, Bardes, S, Mirani, N. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma and chondroosseous respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract: a case series and report of the literature. Am J Rhinol 2006; 20:586590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adair, CF, Thompson, LDR, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Lab Invest 1996; 74: Abs557.Google Scholar
Williams, S, Brady, K, Adair, C. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997; 84:185. (Abs)Google Scholar
McDermott, MB, Ponder, TB, Dehner, LP. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: an upper respiratory tract analogue of the chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22:425433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozolek, JA, Carrau, R, Barnes, EL, Hunt, JL. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in older children and adults: series and immunohistochemical analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129:14441450.Google ScholarPubMed
Hseuh, C, Hseuh, S, Gonzalez-Crussi, F, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in children: report of 2 cases with review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125:400403.Google Scholar
Kim, JE, Kim, HJ, Kim, JH, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: CT and MR imaging findings. Korean J Radiol 2009; 10:416419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, C, Nagaraj, U, Esguerra, J, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: radiographic and histopathologic analysis of a rare pediatric tumor. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37:101104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, B, Park, SH, Min, HS, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma of infancy clinically mimicking meningoencephalocele. Pediatr Neurosurg 2004; 40:136140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silkiss, RZ, Mudvari, SS, Shetlar, D. Ophthalmic presentation of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in an infant. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2007; 23:243244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maloney, JR. Nasal polyps, nasal polypectomy, asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Their association in 445 cases of nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1977; 91:837846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triglia, JM, Nicollas, R. Nasal and sinus polyposis in children. Laryngoscope 1997; 107:963966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, G, Greistrofer, K, Jebeles, JA. The endoscopic endonasal surgical technique in treatment of chronic recurring sinusitis in children. Rhinology 1995; 33:97103.Google Scholar
Stern, RC, Boat, TF, Wood, RE, et al. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136:10671070.Google ScholarPubMed
Busuttil, A. Granulomas in nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1975; 89:10871094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolff, M. Granulomas in nasal mucous membranes following local steroid injections. Am J Clin Pathol 1974; 62:775782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coup, AJ, Hopper, IP. Granulomatous lesions in nasal biopsies. Histopathology 1980; 4:293308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakayama, M, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Atypical stromal cells in inflammatory nasal polyps: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis in defining histogenesis. Laryngoscope 1995; 105:127134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odzek, A, Samim, E, Bayiz, U, et al. Antrochoanal polyp in children. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2002; 65:213218.Google Scholar
Aktas, D, Yetiser, S, Gerek, M, et al. Antrochoanal polyps: analysis of 16 cases. Rhinology 1998; 36:8185.Google ScholarPubMed
Chung, SK, Chang, BC, Dhong, HJ. Surgical, radiologic, and histological findings of the antrochoanal polyp. Am J Rhinol 2002; 16:7176.Google Scholar
Batsakis, JG, Sneig, N. Choanal and angiomatous polyps of the sinonasal tract. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:623625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozcan, M, Ozlugedik, S, Ikinciogullari, A. Simultaneous antrochoanal and sphenochoanal polyps: a rare clinical entity. J Laryngol Otol 2005; 119:152154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicollas, R, Facon, F, Sudre-Levillain, I, et al. Pediatric paranasal sinus mucoceles: etiologic factors, management and outcome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006 May; 70:905908.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plikatis, CM, Purzycki, AR, Couture, D, David, LR. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to bifid frontal sinus septum. J Cranio Fac Surg 2010; 21:15251528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, C. Etiology and treatment of frontoethmoidal mucocele. J Laryngal Otol 1981; 95:361375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Close, LG, O’Connor, WE. Sphenoethmoidal mucoceles with intracranial extension. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1983; 91:350357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sagel, S, Davis, S, Campisi, P, Dell, S. Update of respiratory tract disease in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2011; 8:438443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chodhari, R, Mitchison, HM, Meeks, M. Cilia, primary ciliary dyskinesia and molecular genetics. Pediatr Respir Rev 2004; 5:6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Peterson, N, Skovgaard, LT, Nielsen, KG. Lung function in patients with Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a cross sectional and 3-decade longitudinal study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181:12621268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allergy Immunol 2007; 20:103119.Google ScholarPubMed
Min, YG, Shin, JS, Choi, SH, Yoon, CJ. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: ultrastructural defects and clinical features. Rhinology 1995; 33:189193.Google ScholarPubMed
Marthin, JK, Nielsen, KG. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia. Eur Respir J 2011; 37(3):559565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mireau, GW, Agostini, R, Beals, TF et al. The role of electron microscopy in evaluating ciliary dysfunction: report of a workshop. Ultrastructure Pathol 1992; 16:245254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parsons, DS, Greene, BA. A treatment for primary ciliary dyskinesia: efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 1993; 103:12691272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cabral, D, Uribe, A, Benseler, S,