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  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: June 2017

Chapter 12 - Non-Neoplastic Disorders of the Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinuses and Nasopharynx

1.Brown-Kelley, A. Hairy or dermoid polypi of the pharynx and nasopharynx. J Laryngol 1918; 33:6570.
2.Jarvis, SJ, Bull, PD. Hairy polyps of the nasopharynx. J Laryngal Otol 2002; 116(6):467469.
3.Zakaria, R, Drinnan, NRT, Natt, RS, Temple, R. Hairy polyp of the nasopharynx causing middle ear effusion. BMJ Case Reports 2011; 3 online publication.
4.Walsh, RM, Philip, G, Salama, NY. Hairy polyp of the oropharynx: an unusual case of intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1996; 34:129134.
5.Jong-lyel, R. Transoral endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal hairy polyp. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2004; 68:10871090.
6.Gambino, M, Cozzi, A, Aceti, P, et al. Two unusual cases of pharyngeal hairy polyp causing intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 37:761762.
7.Herely, E. Pediatric congenital nasal mass. Ear Nose Throat 1991; 70:2833.
8.Morgan, DW, Evans, JNG. Developmental nasal anomalies. J Laryngal Otol 1990; 104:394403.
9.Altissimi, G, Ascani, S, Falcetti, S, et al. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngologica Italica 2009; 29:218221.
10.Heffner, DK. Brain in the middle ear or nasal cavity: heterotopia or encephalocele. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004; 8:252257.
11.Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.
12.Fujioka, M, Tasaki, I, Nakayama, R, et al. Both nasal cerebral heterotopia and encephalocele in the same patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006; 43:112116.
13.Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.
14.Neidzielska, G, Neidzielska, A, Kotowski, M. Nasal ganglioglioma – difficulties in radiological imaging. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008; 72:285287.
15.Penner, CR, Thompson, L. Nasal glial heterotopia: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 10 cases with a review of the literature. Ann Diag Pathol 2003; 7:354359.
16.Charrier, JB, Rouillon, I, Roger, G, et al. Craniofacial dermoids: an embryological theory unifying nasal dermoid sinus cysts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005; 42:5157.
17.Pratt, LW. Midline cysts of nasal dorsum: embryologic origin and treatment. Laryngoscope 1965; 75:968980.
18.Blake, WE, Chow, CW, Holmes, AD, Mears, JG. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts. A retrospective review and discussion of investigation and management. Ann Plast Surg 2006; 57:535540.
19.Singh, V, Sehrawat, S, Kharat, A, Kuber, R. Nasal dermoid cyst with intracranial extension and atretic dermal sinus tract. Med J DY Patil Univ 2012; 5:4750.
20.Cheng, ML, Chang, SD, Pang, D, Adler, JR. Intracranial nasal dermoid cyst associated with colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Case report and new concepts. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:201206.
21.Pivnick, EK, Walter, AW, Lawrence, MD, Smith, ME. Gorlin syndrome associated with midline nasal dermoid cyst. J Med Genet 1996; 33:704706.
22.Wenig, BG, Heffner, DK. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx: a clinicopathologic study of 31 cases. Ann Oto Rhino Laryngol 1995; 104:639645.
23.Gajda, M, Zagolski, O, Jasztal, A, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the anterior nasal septum a rare localization for an unusual tumor in a child: a case report. Cases Journal 2009; 2:81518155.
24.Fitzhugh, VA, Neena, M. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma: a review. Head Neck Pathol 2008; 2:203208.
25.Kessler, HP, Unterman, B. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the maxillary sinus presenting as periapical radiolucency: a case report and review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004; 97:607612.
26.Delbrouk, C, Fernandez Aguilare, S, Choufani, G, Hassid, S. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma associated with nasal polyposis. Am J Otolaryngol 2004; 25:282284.
27.Ozolek, JA, Hunt, JL. Tumor suppressor gene alterations in respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:15761580.
28.Kaneko, C, Inokuchi, A, Kimitsuki, T, et al. Huge hamartoma with inverted papilloma I the nasal cavity. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 1999; 256(suppl. 1):S33–37.
29.Lima, NB, Jankowski, R, Georgel, T, et al. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma must be suspected on CT scan enlargement of olfactory clefts. Rhinology 2006; 44:264269.
30.Baillie, EE, Batsakis, JG. Glandular (seromucinous) hamartoma of the nasopharynx. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1974; 38:760762.
31.Weinreb, I, Gnepp, D, Laver, N, et al. Seromucinous hamartoma: a clinicopathological study of a sinonasal glandular lesion lacking myoepithelial cells. Histopathology 2009; 54:205213.
32.Zarbo, RJ, McClatchey, . Nasopharyngeal hamartoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 1983; 93:494497.
33.Ambrosisi-Spaltro, A, Morandi, L, Spagnolo, D, et al. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases. Virchows Arch. 2010; 457:727734.
34.Graem-Cook, F, Pilch, BZ. Hamartoma of the nose and nasopharynx. Head Neck 1992; 14:321327.
35.Chuang, SS, Lin, CN. Microglandular adenosis arising in chronic paranasal sinusitis. Histopathology 2000; 36:376377.
36.Roffman, E, Bardes, S, Mirani, N. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma and chondroosseous respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract: a case series and report of the literature. Am J Rhinol 2006; 20:586590.
37.Adair, CF, Thompson, LDR, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Lab Invest 1996; 74: Abs557.
38.Williams, S, Brady, K, Adair, C. Chondroosseous and respiratory epithelial hamartomas of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997; 84:185. (Abs)
39.McDermott, MB, Ponder, TB, Dehner, LP. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: an upper respiratory tract analogue of the chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22:425433.
40.Ozolek, JA, Carrau, R, Barnes, EL, Hunt, JL. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in older children and adults: series and immunohistochemical analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129:14441450.
41.Hseuh, C, Hseuh, S, Gonzalez-Crussi, F, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in children: report of 2 cases with review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125:400403.
42.Kim, JE, Kim, HJ, Kim, JH, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: CT and MR imaging findings. Korean J Radiol 2009; 10:416419.
43.Johnson, C, Nagaraj, U, Esguerra, J, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma: radiographic and histopathologic analysis of a rare pediatric tumor. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37:101104.
44.Kim, B, Park, SH, Min, HS, et al. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma of infancy clinically mimicking meningoencephalocele. Pediatr Neurosurg 2004; 40:136140.
45.Silkiss, RZ, Mudvari, SS, Shetlar, D. Ophthalmic presentation of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma in an infant. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2007; 23:243244.
46.Maloney, JR. Nasal polyps, nasal polypectomy, asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Their association in 445 cases of nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1977; 91:837846.
47.Triglia, JM, Nicollas, R. Nasal and sinus polyposis in children. Laryngoscope 1997; 107:963966.
48.Wolf, G, Greistrofer, K, Jebeles, JA. The endoscopic endonasal surgical technique in treatment of chronic recurring sinusitis in children. Rhinology 1995; 33:97103.
49.Stern, RC, Boat, TF, Wood, RE, et al. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136:10671070.
50.Busuttil, A. Granulomas in nasal polyps. J Laryngal Otol 1975; 89:10871094.
51.Wolff, M. Granulomas in nasal mucous membranes following local steroid injections. Am J Clin Pathol 1974; 62:775782.
52.Coup, AJ, Hopper, IP. Granulomatous lesions in nasal biopsies. Histopathology 1980; 4:293308.
53.Nakayama, M, Wenig, BM, Heffner, DK. Atypical stromal cells in inflammatory nasal polyps: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis in defining histogenesis. Laryngoscope 1995; 105:127134.
54.Odzek, A, Samim, E, Bayiz, U, et al. Antrochoanal polyp in children. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2002; 65:213218.
55.Aktas, D, Yetiser, S, Gerek, M, et al. Antrochoanal polyps: analysis of 16 cases. Rhinology 1998; 36:8185.
56.Chung, SK, Chang, BC, Dhong, HJ. Surgical, radiologic, and histological findings of the antrochoanal polyp. Am J Rhinol 2002; 16:7176.
57.Batsakis, JG, Sneig, N. Choanal and angiomatous polyps of the sinonasal tract. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992; 101:623625.
58.Ozcan, M, Ozlugedik, S, Ikinciogullari, A. Simultaneous antrochoanal and sphenochoanal polyps: a rare clinical entity. J Laryngol Otol 2005; 119:152154.
59.Nicollas, R, Facon, F, Sudre-Levillain, I, et al. Pediatric paranasal sinus mucoceles: etiologic factors, management and outcome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006 May; 70:905908.
60.Plikatis, CM, Purzycki, AR, Couture, D, David, LR. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to bifid frontal sinus septum. J Cranio Fac Surg 2010; 21:15251528.
61.Evans, C. Etiology and treatment of frontoethmoidal mucocele. J Laryngal Otol 1981; 95:361375.
62.Close, LG, O’Connor, WE. Sphenoethmoidal mucoceles with intracranial extension. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1983; 91:350357.
63.Sagel, S, Davis, S, Campisi, P, Dell, S. Update of respiratory tract disease in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2011; 8:438443.
64.Chodhari, R, Mitchison, HM, Meeks, M. Cilia, primary ciliary dyskinesia and molecular genetics. Pediatr Respir Rev 2004; 5:6976.
65.Marthin, JK, Peterson, N, Skovgaard, LT, Nielsen, KG. Lung function in patients with Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a cross sectional and 3-decade longitudinal study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181:12621268.
66.Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allergy Immunol 2007; 20:103119.
67.Min, YG, Shin, JS, Choi, SH, Yoon, CJ. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: ultrastructural defects and clinical features. Rhinology 1995; 33:189193.
68.Marthin, JK, Nielsen, KG. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia. Eur Respir J 2011; 37(3):559565.
69.Mireau, GW, Agostini, R, Beals, TF et al. The role of electron microscopy in evaluating ciliary dysfunction: report of a workshop. Ultrastructure Pathol 1992; 16:245254.
70.Parsons, DS, Greene, BA. A treatment for primary ciliary dyskinesia: efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 1993; 103:12691272.
71.Cabral, D, Uribe, A, Benseler, S, et al. Classification, presentation, and initial treatment of Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2009; 60:34133424.
72.Belostotsky, V, Shah, V, Dillon, M. Clinical features in 17 diabetic patients with Wegner granulomatosis. Pediatr Nephrol 2002; 17:754761.
73.Moorthy, AV, Chesney, RW, Segar, WE, Groshong, T. Wegner’s granulomatosis in childhood: prolonged survival following cytotoxic treatment. J Ped 1991:616–618.
74.Gajic-Veljic, M, Nikolic, M, Peco-Antic, A. Granulomatosis in children: report of three cases with cutaneous manifestations and review of the literature. Pediatric Dermatology, 2013; 30:e37e42.
75.Jennette, JC, Falk, RJ, Andrassy, K, et al. Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides. Proposal of an international consensus conference. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 122:2631.
76.Leavitt, RY, Fauci, AS, Bloch, DA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Wegner’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33:11011107.
77.Ozen, S, Ruperto, N, Dillon, MJ, et al. EULAR / PRES endorsed consensus criteria for the classification of childhood vasculitides. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65:936941.
78.Von Vietghoff, S, Schreiber, A, Otto, B, et al. Membrane proteinase 3 and Wegner’s granulomatosis. Clin Nephrol 2005; 64:453459.
79.Bacciui, A, Baccui, S, Mercante, G, et al. Ear, nose and throat manifestations of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Acta Oto Laryngologica 2006; 126:503509.
80.Roberts, PF, McCann, BG. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis in the upper respiratory tract: a mucosa variant of granuloma faciale? A report of three cases. Histopathology 1985; 9:12171225.
81.Kosarac, O, Luna, MA, Ro, JY, and Ayala, AG, Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract. Ann Diagn Pathol 2008. 12:267270.
82.Narayan, J, Douglas-Jones, A. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma faciale: analysis of cellular infiltrate and review of the literature. Ann Oto Rhinol Laryngol 2005; 114:3542.
83.Periera, EM, Millas, I, Reis-Filho, JS, et al. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract: report on the clinicopathologic features of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck 2002; 24:307311.
84.Thompson, LDR, Heffner, DK. Sinonasal tract eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. Am J Clin Pathol 2001; 115:243248.
85.Paun, S, Lund, VJ, Gallimore, A. Nasal fibrosis: long term followup of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. J Laryngal Otol 2005; 119:119124.
86.Chan, Y, Kuhn, FA. An update on the classifications, diagnosis, and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009; 17:204208.
87.Lusk, R. Pediatric chronic sinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 14:393396.
88.Thorp, B, McKinney, K, Rose, A, Ebert, C. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2012; 45:631642.
89.Benninger, MS, Ferguson, BJ, Hadley, JA, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129(suppl. 3):S1–32.
90.Lanza, DC, Kennedy, DW. Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otol Head Neck Surg 2008; 29:372378.
91.Pelikan, Z, Pelikan, M. Role of nasal allergy in chronic maxillary sinusitis – diagnostic value of nasal challenge with allergen. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1990; 86:484491.
92.Ramadan, H. Chronic sinusitis in children. Int J Pediatr 2012; 10 epub:15.
93.Slack, CL, Dahn, KA, Abzug, MJ, Chan, KH. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in pediatric chronic sinusitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20:247250.
94.Babinski, D, Trawinska – Bartnicka, M. Rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis: not a simple story. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2008; 72:629624.
95.Baroody, FM. Mucociliary transport in chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Allerg Immunol 2007; 20:103119.
96.Rosenfeld, RM, Andes, D, Bhattacharyya, N, et al. Clinical practice guidelines: adult sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007:137 (3 suppl.):S1–31.
97.Meltzer, EO, Hamilos, DL, Hadley, JA, et al. Rhinosinusitis: establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004; 131 (6 suppl.):S1–62.
98.Park, A, Muntz, H, Smith, M, et al. Pediatric invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in immunocompromised children with cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 133:411416.
99.Idris, N, Lim, L. Nasal eschar: a warning sign for potentially invasive fungal sinusitis in immunocompromised children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012; 34:e134e136.
100.Gillespie, MB, O’Malley, BW, Francis, HW. An approach to fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in the immunocompromised host. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998; 124:520526.
101.Lueg, EA, Ballagh, RH, Forte, V. Analysis of the recent cluster of fungal sinusitis in a Toronto hospital for sick children. J Otolaryngol 1996; 25:366370.
102.Choi, SS, Milmoe, GJ, Dinndrof, PA, et al. Invasive aspergillus sinusitis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995; 121:11881192.
103.Chakabarti, A, Denning, DW, Ferguson, BJ, et al. Fungal rhinosinusitis: a categorization and definitional schema addressing current controversies. Laryngoscope 2009; 119:18091818.
104.DeShazo, RD, Chapin, K, Swain, RE. Fungal sinusitis. New England J Med 1997; 337:254259.
105.Fergusson, BJ. Definitions of fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:227235.
106.DeShazo, RD, O’Brien, M, Chapin, K, et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of sinus mycetoma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 99:475485.
107.Grosjean, P, Weber, R. Fungus balls of the paranasal sinuses: a review. Eur Arch Otolaryngol 2007; 264:461470.
108.Marple, BF. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: current theories and management strategies. Laryngoscope 2001; 111:10061019.
109.Honser, SM, Corey, JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis: pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33:399408.
110.Nussenbaum, B, Marple, BF, Schwade, ND. Characteristics of bony erosion in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 124:150154.
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113.Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994; 111:580588.
114.Kupfurberg, SB, Bent, JP, Kuhn, FA. Prognosis for allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 117:3541.
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1.Brown-Kelley, A. Hairy or dermoid polypi of the pharynx and nasopharynx. J Laryngol 1918; 33:6570.
2.Jarvis, SJ, Bull, PD. Hairy polyps of the nasopharynx. J Laryngal Otol 2002; 116(6):467469.
3.Zakaria, R, Drinnan, NRT, Natt, RS, Temple, R. Hairy polyp of the nasopharynx causing middle ear effusion. BMJ Case Reports 2011; 3 online publication.
4.Walsh, RM, Philip, G, Salama, NY. Hairy polyp of the oropharynx: an unusual case of intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1996; 34:129134.
5.Jong-lyel, R. Transoral endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal hairy polyp. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 2004; 68:10871090.
6.Gambino, M, Cozzi, A, Aceti, P, et al. Two unusual cases of pharyngeal hairy polyp causing intermittent neonatal airway obstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 37:761762.
7.Herely, E. Pediatric congenital nasal mass. Ear Nose Throat 1991; 70:2833.
8.Morgan, DW, Evans, JNG. Developmental nasal anomalies. J Laryngal Otol 1990; 104:394403.
9.Altissimi, G, Ascani, S, Falcetti, S, et al. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngologica Italica 2009; 29:218221.
10.Heffner, DK. Brain in the middle ear or nasal cavity: heterotopia or encephalocele. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004; 8:252257.
11.Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.
12.Fujioka, M, Tasaki, I, Nakayama, R, et al. Both nasal cerebral heterotopia and encephalocele in the same patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006; 43:112116.
13.Yeoh, GP, Bale, PM, de Silva, M. Nasal cerebral heterotopia: the so-called nasal glioma or sequestered encephalocele and its variants. Pediatr Pathol 1989; 9:531549.
14.Neidzielska, G, Neidzielska, A, Kotowski, M. Nasal ganglioglioma – difficulties in radiological imaging. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008; 72:285287.
15.Penner, CR, Thompson, L. Nasal glial heterotopia: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 10 cases with a review of the literature. Ann Diag Pathol 2003; 7:354359.
16.Charrier, JB, Rouillon, I, Roger, G, et al. Craniofacial dermoids: an embryological theory unifying nasal dermoid sinus cysts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005; 42:5157.
17.Pratt, LW. Midline cysts of nasal dorsum: embryologic origin and treatment. Laryngoscope 1965; 75:968980.
18.Blake, WE, Chow, CW, Holmes, AD, Mears, JG. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts. A retrospective review and discussion of investigation and management. Ann Plast Surg 2006; 57:535540.
19.Singh, V, Sehrawat, S, Kharat, A, Kuber, R. Nasal dermoid cyst with intracranial extension and atretic dermal sinus tract. Med J DY Patil Univ 2012; 5:4750.
20.Cheng, ML, Chang, SD, Pang, D, Adler, JR. Intracranial nasal dermoid cyst associated with colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Case report and new concepts. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:201206.
21.Pivnick, EK, Walter, AW, Lawrence, MD, Smith, ME. Gorlin syndrome associated with midline nasal dermoid cyst. J Med Genet 1996; 33:704706.
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