Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-t7hbd Total loading time: 1.04 Render date: 2022-05-20T18:13:26.339Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

References

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 November 2021

Virginia Oliveros
Affiliation:
Tulane University, Louisiana
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Patronage at Work
Public Jobs and Political Services in Argentina
, pp. 223 - 243
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Acemoglu, Daron and Robinson, James A.. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ahart, Allison M. and Sackett, Paul R.. 2004. “A New Method of Examining Relationships between Individual Difference Measures and Sensitive Behavior Criteria: Evaluating the Unmatched Count Technique.Organizational Research Methods 7 (1): 101–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akhtari, Mitra, Moreira, Diana, and Trucco, Laura. 2017. “Political Turnover, Bureaucratic Turnover, and the Quality of Public Services.Proceedings. Annual Conference on Taxation and Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the National Tax Association 110: 184.Google Scholar
Albertus, Michael. 2015. “The Role of Subnational Politicians in Distributive Politics: Political Bias in Venezuela’s Land Reform under Chávez.Comparative Political Studies 48 (13): 1667–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albertus, Michael, Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto, Magaloni, Beatriz, and Weingast, Barry R.. 2016. “Authoritarian Survival and Poverty Traps: Land Reform in Mexico.World Development 77: 154–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aldrich, John H. 1993. “Rational Choice and Turnout.American Journal of Political Science 37 (1): 246–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alesina, Alberto, Baqir, Reza, and Easterly, William. 2000. “Redistributive Public Employment.Journal of Urban Economics 48 (2): 219–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alesina, Alberto, Danninger, Stephan, and Rostagno, Massimo. 2001. “Redistribution through Public Employment: The Case of Italy.IMF Staff Papers 48 (3): 447–73.Google Scholar
Anderson, Christopher J. and Tverdova, Yuliya V.. 2003. “Corruption, Political Allegiances, and Attitudes toward Government in Contemporary Democracies.American Journal of Political Science 47 (1): 91109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andvig, Jens Chr and Moene, Karl Ove. 1990. “How Corruption May Corrupt.Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 13 (1): 6376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anria, Santiago. 2016. “More Inclusion, Less Liberalism in Bolivia.Journal of Democracy 27 (3): 99108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anria, Santiago 2018. When Movements Become Parties: The Bolivian Mas in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arcidiácono, Malena, Carella, Laura, Gasparini, Leonardo, Gluzmann, Pablo, and Puig, Jorge. 2014. “El Empleo Público En América Latina. Evidencia de Las Encuestas de Hogares.” CAF Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina CAF Documento de Trabajo 2014/05. https://scioteca.caf.com/handle/123456789/711Google Scholar
Ascencio, Sergio and Rueda, Miguel R.. 2019. “Partisan Poll Watchers and Electoral Manipulation.American Political Science Review 113 (3): 727–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auerbach, Adam M. and Thachil, Tariq. 2018. “How Clients Select Brokers: Competition and Choice in India’s Slums.American Political Science Review 112 (4): 775–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auyero, Javier. 2000. “The Logic of Clientelism in Argentina: An Ethnographic Account.Latin American Research Review 35 (3): 5581.Google Scholar
Auyero, Javier 2001. Poor People’s Politics: Peronist Survival Networks and the Legacy of Evita. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Auyero, Javier 2007. Routine Politics and Violence in Argentina: The Gray Zone of State Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auyero, Javier, Lapegna, Pablo, and Poma, Fernanda Page. 2009. “Patronage Politics and Contentious Collective Action: A Recursive Relationship.Latin American Politics and Society 51 (3): 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aytaç, S. Erdem. 2014. “Distributive Politics in a Multiparty System: The Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Turkey.Comparative Political Studies 47 (9): 1211–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aytaç, S. Erdem and Stokes, Susan C.. 2019. Why Bother?: Rethinking Participation in Elections and Protests. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Baker, Andy and Dorr, Dalton. 2019. “Dynamics of Mass Partisanship in Three Latin American Democracies.” In Campaigns and Voters in Developing Democracies: Argentina in Comparative Perspective, edited by Lupu, Noam, Oliveros, Virginia, and Schiumerini, Luis, 89113. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Baldwin, Kate. 2013. “Why Vote with the Chief? Political Connections and Public Goods Provision in Zambia.American Journal of Political Science 57 (4): 794809.Google Scholar
Baldwin, Kate 2015. The Paradox of Traditional Chiefs in Democratic Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bambaci, Juliana, Spiller, Pablo T., and Tommasi, Mariano. 2007. “The Bureaucracy.” In The Institutional Foundations of Public Policy: A Transactions Theory and an Application to Argentina, edited by Spiller, Pablo T. and Tommasi, Mariano, 156–81. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Banfield, Edward C. and Wilson, James Q.. 1963. City Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Behrend, Jacqueline. 2011. “The Unevenness of Democracy at the Subnational Level: Provincial Closed Games in Argentina.Latin American Research Review 46 (1): 150–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bersch, Katherine, Praça, Sérgio, and Taylor, Matthew M.. 2017. “State Capacity, Bureaucratic Politicization, and Corruption in the Brazilian State.Governance 30 (1): 105–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Besley, Timothy, Persson, Torsten, and Sturm, Daniel M.. 2010. “Political Competition, Policy and Growth: Theory and Evidence from the US.The Review of Economic Studies 77 (4): 1329–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blair, Graeme and Imai, Kosuke. 2012. “Statistical Analysis of List Experiments.Political Analysis 20 (1): 4777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boix, Carles. 2003. Democracy and Redistribution. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boone, Catherine. 2011. “Politically Allocated Land Rights and the Geography of Electoral Violence: The Case of Kenya in the 1990s.Comparative Political Studies 44 (10): 1311–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boräng, Frida, Cornell, Agnes, Grimes, Marcia, and Schuster, Christian. 2018. “Cooking the Books: Bureaucratic Politicization and Policy Knowledge.Governance 31 (1): 726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bozçağa, Tuğba and Holland, Alisha C.. 2018. “Enforcement Process Tracing: Forbearance and Dilution in Urban Colombia and Turkey.Studies in Comparative International Development 53 (3): 300–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brassiolo, Pablo, Estrada, Ricardo, and Fajardo, Gustavo. 2020. “My (Running) Mate, the Mayor: Political Ties and Access to Public Sector Jobs in Ecuador.Journal of Public Economics 191: 104286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brierley, Sarah. 2021. “Combining Patronage and Merit in Public Sector Recruitment.” Journal of Politics 83 (1): 182–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brierley, Sarah and Nathan, Noah L.. 2019. “The Connections of Party Brokers.” Working Paper. www.sarahbrierley.com/publication/connections/connections.pdfGoogle Scholar
Brollo, Fernanda, Forquesato, Pedro, and Gozzi, Juan. 2017. “To the Victor Belongs the Spoils? Party Membership and Public Sector Employment in Brazil.” Working Paper. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3028937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brollo, Fernanda, Kaufmann, Katja, and Eliana, La Ferrara. 2020. “The Political Economy of Program Enforcement: Evidence from Brazil.Journal of the European Economic Association 18 (2): 750–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brollo, Fernanda and Troiano, Ugo. 2016. “What Happens When a Woman Wins an Election? Evidence from Close Races in Brazil.Journal of Development Economics 122: 2845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Vonda. 2011. “How Governments Abuse Advertisement in Latin America.” Open Society Foundations. www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/how-governments-abuse-advertising-latin-americaGoogle Scholar
Brusco, Valeria, Nazareno, Marcelo, and Stokes, Susan C.. 2004. “Vote Buying in Argentina.Latin American Research Review 39 (2): 6688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callen, Michael, Gulzar, Saad, Hasanain, Syed Ali, and Khan, Muhammad Yasir. 2016. “The Political Economy of Public Employee Absence: Experimental Evidence from Pakistan.” NBER Working Paper No. 22340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callen, Michael, Gulzar, Saad, and Rezaee, Arman. 2020. “Can Political Alignment Be Costly?The Journal of Politics 82 (2): 612–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calvo, Ernesto and Micozzi, Juan Pablo. 2005. “The Governor’s Backyard: A Seat‐Vote Model of Electoral Reform for Subnational Multiparty Races.Journal of Politics 67 (4): 1050–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calvo, Ernesto and Murillo, María Victoria. 2004. “Who Delivers? Partisan Clients in the Argentine Electoral Market.American Journal of Political Science 48 (4): 742–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calvo, Ernesto and Murillo, María Victoria 2013. “When Parties Meet Voters Assessing Political Linkages Through Partisan Networks and Distributive Expectations in Argentina and Chile.Comparative Political Studies 46 (7): 851–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calvo, Ernesto and Murillo, María Victoria 2019. Non‐Policy Politics: Richer Voter, Poorer Voter, and the Diversification of Parties’ Electoral Offers. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calvo, Ernesto and Ujhelyi, Gergely. 2012. “Political Screening: Theory and Evidence from the Argentine Public Sector.” Working Paper. https://ideas.repec.org/p/hou/wpaper/201303201.htmlGoogle Scholar
Camp, Edwin. 2017. “Cultivating Effective Brokers: A Party Leader’s Dilemma.British Journal of Political Science 47 (3): 521–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantú, Francisco. 2019. “Groceries for Votes: The Electoral Returns of Vote Buying.The Journal of Politics 81 (3): 790804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casas, Agustín, Díaz, Guillermo, and Trindade, André. 2017. “Who Monitors the Monitor? Effect of Party Observers on Electoral Outcomes.Journal of Public Economics 145: 136–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chambers-Ju, Christopher. 2017. “Protest or Politics? Varieties of Teacher Representation in Latin America.” PhD dissertation, UC Berkeley.Google Scholar
Chambers-Ju, Christopher 2021. “Adjustment Policies, Union Structures, and Strategies of Mobilization: Teacher Politics in Mexico and Argentina.Comparative Politics 53 (2): 185207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chamorro, Catalina and Rosende, Patricio. 2018. “Empleo Público en Chile: Nudos críticos, desafíos y líneas de desarrollo para una agenda 2030.” Ministerio de Hacienda, Gobierno de Chile. http://biblioteca.digital.gob.cl/handle/123456789/3659.Google Scholar
Chandra, Kanchan. 2004. Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Head Counts in India. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chandra, Kanchan 2007. “Counting Heads: A Theory of Voter and Elite Behavior in Patronage Democracies.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 84109. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charron, Nicholas, Dahlström, Carl, Fazekas, Mihály, and Lapuente, Victor. 2017. “Careers, Connections, and Corruption Risks: Investigating the Impact of Bureaucratic Meritocracy on Public Procurement Processes.The Journal of Politics 79 (1): 89104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chattharakul, Anyarat. 2010. “Thai Electoral Campaigning: Vote-Canvassing Networks and Hybrid Voting.Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 29 (4): 6795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauchard, Simon. 2018. “Electoral Handouts in Mumbai Elections.Asian Survey 58 (2): 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chávez, Rebecca Bill. 2003. “The Construction of the Rule of Law in Argentina: A Tale of Two Provinces.Comparative Politics 35 (4): 417–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chávez, Rebecca Bill. 2007. “The Appointment and Removal Process for Judges in Argentina: The Role of Judicial Councils and Impeachment Juries in Promoting Judicial Independence.Latin American Politics and Society 49 (2): 3358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chong, Dennis. 1991. Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chubb, Judith. 1981. “The Social Bases of an Urban Political Machine: The Case of Palermo.Political Science Quarterly 96 (1): 107–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chubb, Judith 1982. Patronage, Power and Poverty in Southern Italy: A Tale of Two Cities. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Cingolani, Luciana, Thomsson, Kaj, and Denis, de Crombrugghe. 2015. “Minding Weber More Than Ever? The Impacts of State Capacity and Bureaucratic Autonomy on Development Goals.World Development 72: 191207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Mollie J. 2018. “Protesting via the Null Ballot: An Assessment of the Decision to Cast an Invalid Vote in Latin America.Political Behavior 40 (2): 395414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colonnelli, Emanuele, Prem, Mounu, and Teso, Edoardo. 2018. “Patronage and Selection in Public Sector Organizations.” Working Paper. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2942495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooperman, Alicia Dailey. 2019. “Trading Favors: Local Politics and Development in Brazil.” PhD Dissertation. Columbia University.Google Scholar
Corbacho, Ana, Gingerich, Daniel W., Oliveros, Virginia, and Ruiz‐Vega, Mauricio. 2016. “Corruption as a Self‐Fulfilling Prophecy: Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Costa Rica.American Journal of Political Science 60 (4): 1077–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornell, Agnes. 2014. “Why Bureaucratic Stability Matters for the Implementation of Democratic Governance Programs.Governance 27 (2): 191214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornell, Agnes and Grimes, Marcia. 2015. “Institutions as Incentives for Civic Action: Bureaucratic Structures, Civil Society, and Disruptive Protests.The Journal of Politics 77 (3): 664–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corstange, Daniel. 2009. “Sensitive Questions, Truthful Answers? Modeling the List Experiment with LISTIT.Political Analysis 17 (1): 4563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Velarde, Cortázar, Carlos, Juan, Fuenzalida, Javier, and Lafuente, Mariano. 2016. “Merit-Based Selection of Public Managers: Better Public Sector Performance.” Inter-American Development Bank. https://publications.iadb.org/en/merit-based-selection-public-managers-better-public-sector-performance-exploratory-studyGoogle Scholar
Velarde, Cortázar, Carlos, Juan, Lafuente, Mariano, and Sanginés, Mario, eds. 2014. A Decade of Civil Service Civil Reforms in Latin America (2004–13). Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Corvalan, Alejandro, Cox, Paulo, and Osorio, Rodrigo. 2018. “Indirect Political Budget Cycles: Evidence from Chilean Municipalities.Journal of Development Economics 133: 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coutts, Elisabeth and Jann, Ben. 2011. “Sensitive Questions in Online Surveys: Experimental Results for the Randomized Response Technique (RRT) and the Unmatched Count Technique (UCT).Sociological Methods & Research 40 (1): 169–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cox, Gary W. and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1986. “Electoral Politics as a Redistributive Game.The Journal of Politics 48 (2): 370–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cruz, Cesi. 2015. “Vote Secrecy and Democracy in the Philippines.” In Building Inclusive Democracies In ASEAN, edited by Mendoza, Ronald U., Beja Jr, Edsel L., Teehankee, Julio C., La Viña, Antonio G. M., and Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe, 3952. Manila, Philippines: Anvil Publishing.Google Scholar
Cruz, Cesi 2019. “Social Networks and the Targeting of Vote Buying.Comparative Political Studies 52 (3): 382411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cruz, Cesi and Keefer, Philip. 2015. “Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform.Comparative Political Studies 48 (14): 1942–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlberg, Stefan, Dahlström, Carl, Sundin, Petrus, and Teorell, J.. 2013. “The Quality of Government Expert Survey 2008–2011: A Report.” QoG Working Paper Series 15.Google Scholar
Dahlström, Carl and Lapuente, Victor. 2017. Organizing Leviathan: Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Making of Good Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlström, Carl, Lapuente, Victor, and Teorell, Jan. 2012. “The Merit of Meritocratization: Politics, Bureaucracy, and the Institutional Deterrents of Corruption.Political Research Quarterly 65 (3): 656–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalton, Dan R., Wimbush, James C., and Daily, Catherine M.. 1994. “Using the Unmatched Count Technique (UCT) to Estimate Base Rates for Sensitive Behavior.Personnel Psychology 47 (4): 817–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De La, O. and Ana, L. 2013. “Do Conditional Cash Transfers Affect Electoral Behavior? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Mexico.American Journal of Political Science 57 (1): 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De La, O. and Ana, L. 2015. Crafting Policies to End Poverty in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De La, O., Ana, L., and Rodden, Jonathan A.. 2008. “Does Religion Distract the Poor? Income and Issue Voting around the World.Comparative Political Studies 41 (4–5): 437–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De la Torre, Carlos and Conaghan, Catherine. 2009. “The Hybrid Campaign: Tradition and Modernity in Ecuador’s 2006 Presidential Election.The International Journal of Press/Politics 14 (3): 335–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Luca, Miguel, Jones, Mark P., and Tula, María Inés. 2002. “Back Rooms or Ballot Boxes? Candidate Nomination in Argentina.Comparative Political Studies 35 (4): 413–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Luca, Miguel, Jones, Mark, and Tula, María Inés. 2006. “Machine Politics and Party Primaries: The Uses and Consequences of Primaries within a Clientelist Political System.” Paper Prepared for Conference of the Mobilizing Democracy Group of the American Political Science Association, New York.Google Scholar
Desposato, Scott W. 2007. “How Does Vote Buying Shape the Legislative Arena?” In Elections for Sale: The Causes and Consequences of Vote Buying, edited by Schaffer, Frederic Charles, 101–22. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto, Estévez, Federico, and Magaloni, Beatriz. 2016. The Political Logic of Poverty Relief: Electoral Strategies and Social Policy in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dirección de Presupuestos del Ministerio de Hacienda (Chile). 2019. “Informe Anual Del Empleo Público 2018.” www.dipres.cl/598/articles-198056_doc_pdf.pdfGoogle Scholar
Domínguez, Lucila. 2017. “Primarias Obligatorias Subnacionales En Argentina (2003–2015).” Thesis UTDT. Buenos Aires. https://repositorio.utdt.edu/bitstream/handle/utdt/6526/LCP_2017_Dom%C3%ADnguez.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=yGoogle Scholar
Driscoll, Barry. 2018. “Why Political Competition Can Increase Patronage.Studies in Comparative International Development 53 (4): 404–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druckman, James N., Green, Donald P., Kuklinski, James H., and Lupia, Arthur. 2006. “The Growth and Development of Experimental Research in Political Science.American Political Science Review 100 (4): 627–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eaton, Kent and Chambers-Ju., Christopher 2014. “Teachers, Mayors, and the Transformation of Clientelism in Colombia.” In Clientelism, Social Policy, and the Quality of Democracy, edited by Brun, Diego Abente and Diamond, Larry, 88113. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Echebarría, Koldo, ed. 2006. Informe Sobre La Situación Del Servicio Civil En América Latina. Washington: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Evans, Peter and Rauch, James E.. 1999. “Bureaucracy and Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of “Weberian” State Structures on Economic Growth.” American Sociological Review 64 (5): 748–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferejohn, John A. and Fiorina, Morris P.. 1974. “The Paradox of Not Voting: A Decision Theoretic Analysis.American Political Science Review 68 (2): 525–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferraro, Agustín. 2006. “Una Idea Muy Precaria: El Nuevo Servicio Civil y Los Viejos Designados Políticos En Argentina.Latin American Research Review 41 (2): 165–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferraro, Agustín 2011. “A Splendid Ruined Reform: The Creation and Destruction of a Civil Service in Argentina.” In International Handbook on Civil Service Systems, edited by Massey, Andrew, 152–77. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Figueroa, Valentín. 2021. “Political Corruption Cycles: High-Frequency Evidence from Argentina’s Notebooks Scandal.” Comparative Political Studies, 54 (3).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finan, Frederico and Schechter, Laura. 2012. “Vote‐Buying and Reciprocity.Econometrica 80 (2): 863–81.Google Scholar
Fisman, Ray and Golden, Miriam A.. 2017. Corruption: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folke, Olle, Hirano, Shigeo, and Snyder, James M.. 2011. “Patronage and Elections in US States.American Political Science Review 105 (3): 567–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frye, Timothy, Reuter, Ora John, and Szakonyi, David. 2014. “Political Machines at Work: Voter Mobilization and Electoral Subversion in the Workplace.World Politics 66 (2): 195228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frye, Timothy, Reuter, Ora John, and Szakonyi, David 2019. “Hitting Them With Carrots: Voter Intimidation and Vote Buying in Russia.British Journal of Political Science 49 (3): 857–81.Google Scholar
Fuenzalida, Javier, Inostroza, José, and Morales, Marjorie. 2014. “Alta Dirección Pública Municipal: Un Primer Paso Para Resolver Los Nudos Críticos de La Descentralización Chilena.Revista Del CLAD Reforma y Democracia 59: 119–50.Google Scholar
Gailmard, Sean and Patty, John W.. 2012. “Formal Models of Bureaucracy.Annual Review of Political Science 15: 353–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaines, Brian J., Kuklinski, James H., and Quirk, Paul J.. 2007. “The Logic of the Survey Experiment Reexamined.Political Analysis 15 (1): 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garrido Silva, Carolina. 2013. “The Civil Service System and the Professionalization of Public Sector in Chile: Assessing the Stability of Bureaucrats.” Working Paper, Columbia University.Google Scholar
Geddes, Barbara. 1994. Politician’s Dilemma: Building State Capacity in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gervasoni, Carlos. 2010. “A Rentier Theory of Subnational Regimes: Fiscal Federalism, Democracy, and Authoritarianism in the Argentine Provinces.World Politics 62 (2): 302–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, Edward L. 2005. “Boundary Control: Subnational Authoritarianism in Democratic Countries.World Politics 58 (1): 101–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, Edward L. 2013. Boundary Control: Subnational Authoritarianism in Federal Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gibson, Edward L. and Calvo, Ernesto. 2000. “Federalism and Low-Maintenance Constituencies: Territorial Dimensions of Economic Reform in Argentina.Studies in Comparative International Development 35 (3): 3255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gil García, Magdalena. 2017. “Políticas de Empleo Público En La Provincia de Buenos Aires (1991-2016).Revista Perspectivas de Políticas Públicas 7 (13): 139–60.Google Scholar
Gingerich, Daniel W. 2010. “Understanding Off-the-Books Politics: Conducting Inference on the Determinants of Sensitive Behavior with Randomized Response Surveys.Political Analysis 18 (3): 349–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gingerich, Daniel W. 2013a. “Governance Indicators and the Level of Analysis Problem: Empirical Findings from South America.British Journal of Political Science 43 (3): 505–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gingerich, Daniel W. 2013b. Political Institutions and Party-Directed Corruption in South America: Stealing for the Team. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gingerich, Daniel W. and Medina, Luis Fernando. 2013. “The Endurance and Eclipse of the Controlled Vote: A Formal Model of Vote Brokerage under the Secret Ballot.Economics & Politics 25 (3): 453–80.Google Scholar
Gingerich, Daniel W., Oliveros, Virginia, Corbacho, Ana, and Ruiz-Vega., Mauricio 2016. “When to Protect? Using the Crosswise Model to Integrate Protected and Direct Responses in Surveys of Sensitive Behavior.Political Analysis 24 (2): 132–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudy, Agustina. 2007. “The Distributive Politics of Emergency Employment Programs in Argentina (1993-2002).Latin American Research Review 42 (2): 3355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudy, Agustina 2010. “The Politics of Subnational Undemocratic Regime Reproduction in Argentina and Mexico.Journal of Politics in Latin America 2 (2): 5384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudy, Agustina 2013. “Varieties of Subnational Undemocratic Regimes: Evidence from Argentina and Mexico.Studies in Comparative International Development 48 (1): 5180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudy, Agustina 2015. Democrats and Autocrats: Pathways of Subnational Undemocratic Regime Continuity within Democratic Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudy, Agustina, Moncada, Eduardo, and Snyder, Richard. 2019. “Subnational Research in Comparative Politics: Substantive, Theoretical, and Methodological Contributions.” In Inside Countries: Subnational Research in Comparative Politics, edited by Giraudy, Agustina, Moncada, Eduardo, and Snyder, Richard, 354. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glynn, Adam N. 2013. “What Can We Learn with Statistical Truth Serum? Design and Analysis of the List Experiment.Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (S1): 159–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golden, Miriam A. 2003. “Electoral Connections: The Effects of the Personal Vote on Political Patronage, Bureaucracy and Legislation in Postwar Italy.British Journal of Political Science 33 (2): 189212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golden, Miriam, and Min, Brian. 2013. “Distributive politics around the world.” Annual Review of Political Science 16: 7399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González‐Ocantos, Ezequiel, Jonge, Chad Kiewiet de, Meléndez, Carlos, Osorio, Javier, and Nickerson, David W.. 2012. “Vote Buying and Social Desirability Bias: Experimental Evidence from Nicaragua.American Journal of Political Science 56 (1): 202–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ocantos, Ezequiel, Jonge, Chad Kiewiet de, and Meseguer, Covadonga. 2018. “Remittances and Vote Buying.Latin American Research Review 53 (4): 689707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ocantos, Ezequiel, Jonge, Chad Kiewiet de, and Nickerson, David W.. 2014. “The Conditionality of Vote‐Buying Norms: Experimental Evidence from Latin America.American Journal of Political Science 58 (1): 197211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ocantos, Ezequiel, Jonge, Chad Kiewiet de, and Nickerson, David W. 2015. “Legitimacy Buying: The Dynamics of Clientelism in the Face of Legitimacy Challenges.Comparative Political Studies 48 (9): 1127–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ocantos, Ezequiel and Paula, Muñoz. 2018. “Clientelism.” In The SAGE Handbook of Political Sociology, edited by Outhwaite, William and Turner, Stephen, 750766. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ocantos, Ezequiel and Oliveros, Virginia. 2019. “Clientelism in Latin American Politics.” In The Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics, edited by Prevost, Gary and Vanden, Harry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.1677Google Scholar
Gordin, Jorge P. 2002. “The Political and Partisan Determinants of Patronage in Latin America 1960-1994: A Comparative Perspective.European Journal of Political Research 41 (4): 513–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottlieb, Jessica. 2017. “Explaining Variation in Broker Strategies: A Lab-in-the-Field Experiment in Senegal.Comparative Political Studies 50 (11): 1556–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graziano, Luigi. 1976. “A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Clientelistic Behavior.European Journal of Political Research 4 (2): 149–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greene, Kenneth F. 2010. “The Political Economy of Authoritarian Single-Party Dominance.Comparative Political Studies 43 (7): 807–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greene, Kenneth F. 2019. “Dealigning Campaign Effects in Argentina in Comparative Perspective.” In Campaigns and Voters in Developing Democracies: Argentina in Comparative Perspective, edited by Lupu, Noam, Oliveros, Virginia, and Schiumerini, Luis, 162–86. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Grindle, Merilee S. 2012. Jobs for the Boys: Patronage and the State in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grzymala-Busse, Anna. 2003. “Political Competition and the Politicization of the State in East Central Europe.Comparative Political Studies 36 (10): 1123–47.Google Scholar
Grzymala-Busse, Anna 2007. Rebuilding Leviathan: Party Competition and State Exploitation in Post-Communist Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grzymala-Busse, Anna 2008. “Beyond Clientelism Incumbent State Capture and State Formation.Comparative Political Studies 41 (4–5): 638–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., Hyde, Susan D., and Jablonski, Ryan S.. 2014. “When Do Governments Resort to Election Violence?British Journal of Political Science 44 (1): 149–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassan, Mai. 2017. “The Strategic Shuffle: Ethnic Geography, the Internal Security Apparatus, and Elections in Kenya.American Journal of Political Science 61 (2): 382–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hecock, R. Douglas. 2006. “Electoral Competition, Globalization, and Subnational Education Spending in Mexico, 1999–2004.American Journal of Political Science 50 (4): 950–61.Google Scholar
Helmke, Gretchen and Levitsky, Steven. 2004. “Informal Institutions and Comparative Politics: A Research Agenda.Perspectives on Politics 2 (4): 725–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henderson, Jeffrey, Hulme, David, Jalilian, Hossein, and Phillips, Richard. 2007. “Bureaucratic Effects: ‘Weberian’ State Agencies and Poverty Reduction.Sociology 41 (3): 515–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrera, Veronica. 2017. Water and Politics: Clientelism and Reform in Urban Mexico. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hicken, Allen. 2011. “Clientelism.Annual Review of Political Science 14: 289310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hiskey, Jonathan T. 2003. “Demand-Based Development and Local Electoral Environments in Mexico.Comparative Politics 36 (1): 4159. https://doi.org/10.2307/4150159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, Alisha C. 2016. “Forbearance.American Political Science Review 110 (2): 232–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, Alisha C. 2017. Forbearance as Redistribution: The Politics of Informal Welfare in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, Alisha C. and Palmer-Rubin., Brian 2015. “Beyond the Machine Clientelist Brokers and Interest Organizations in Latin America.Comparative Political Studies 48 (9): 11861223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holzner, Claudio A. 2010. Poverty of Democracy: The Institutional Roots of Political Participation in Mexico. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopkin, Jonathan. 2004. “The Problem with Party Finance: Theoretical Perspectives on the Funding of Party Politics.Party Politics 10 (6): 627–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huber, John D. and Stanig, Piero. 2011. “Church-State Separation and Redistribution.Journal of Public Economics 95 (7–8): 828–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. “Democracy’s Third Wave.Journal of Democracy 2 (2): 1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes. 2006. “Análisis Comparativo Por Subsistemas.”Informe Sobre La Situación Del Servicio Civil En América Latina, edited by Echebarría, Koldo, 533–72. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes 2009a. “Diagnóstico Institucional Del Sistema de Servicio Civil de Chile.” In Evaluación Final Del Programa de Fortalecimiento de La Dirección Nacional de Servicio Civil. BID – Gobierno de Chile.Google Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes 2009b. “Informe de República Dominicana.” In Barómetro de la Profesionalización de los Servicios Civiles de Centroamérica y República Dominicana, edited by Longo, Francisco, 3081. Santo Domingo: AECID, FLACSO, and SICA.Google Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes and Chudnovsky, Mariana. 2015. “La Importancia Del Servicio Civil En El Desarrollo de Capacidades Estatales En América Latina.” CAF Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina Working Paper 2015/02.Google Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes and Llano, Mercedes. 2017. “Confianza Mata Mérito: El Impacto de La Concentración de Poder Presidencial En La Gestión de Recursos Humanos En El Estado Argentino.Temas y Debates 33: 91105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes and Strazza, Luciano. 2014. “Diagnostic of the Civil Service in Latin America.” In A Decade of Civil Service Civil Reforms in Latin America (2004–13), edited by Velarde, Juan Carlos Cortázar, Lafuente, Mariano, and Sanginés, Mario, 1357. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes and Zuvanic, Laura. 2006a. “Síntesis Del Diagnóstico: Caso Argentina.” In Informe Sobre La Situación Del Servicio Civil En América Latina, edited by Echebarría, Koldo, 7396. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Iacoviello, Mercedes and Zuvanic, Laura 2006b. “Síntesis Del Diagnóstico: Caso Bolivia.” In Informe Sobre La Situación Del Servicio Civil En América Latina, edited by Echebarría, Koldo, 97118. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Iaryczower, Matias, Lewis, Garrett, and Shum, Matthew. 2013. “To Elect or to Appoint? Bias, Information, and Responsiveness of Bureaucrats and Politicians.Journal of Public Economics 97: 230–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Imai, Kosuke. 2011. “Multivariate Regression Analysis for the Item Count Technique.Journal of the American Statistical Association 106 (494): 407–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iturburu, Mónica. 2012a. “Informe El Salvador.” In Segundo Informe Barómetro de la Profesionalización del Empleo Público en Centroamérica y República Dominicana, edited by Quintana, Eduardo Rolando Castillo. Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECID) and Secretaría General del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SG-SICA).Google Scholar
Iturburu, Mónica 2012b. “Informe Guatemala.” In Segundo Informe Barómetro de la Profesionalización del Empleo Público En Centroamérica y República Dominicana, edited by Quintana, Eduardo Rolando Castillo. Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECID) and Secretaría General del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SG-SICA).Google Scholar
Iyer, Lakshmi and Mani, Anandi. 2012. “Traveling Agents: Political Change and Bureaucratic Turnover in India.Review of Economics and Statistics 94 (3): 723–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, Scott C. 2006. “Patronage Regimes and American Party Development from ‘The Age of Jackson’ to the Progressive Era.British Journal of Political Science 36 (1): 3960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, Michael. 1979. “Patrons and Clients, Jobs and Machines: A Case Study of the Uses of Patronage.American Political Science Review 73 (2): 385–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Mark P. and Hwang, Wonjae. 2005. “Party Government in Presidential Democracies: Extending Cartel Theory beyond the US Congress.American Journal of Political Science 49 (2): 267–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Mark P., Saiegh, Sebastián, Spiller, Pablo T., and Tommasi, Mariano. 2002. “Amateur Legislators–Professional Politicians: The Consequences of Party-Centered Electoral Rules in a Federal System.American Journal of Political Science 46 (3): 656–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemahlioğlu, Özge. 2012. Agents or Bosses?: Patronage and Intra-Party Politics in Argentina and Turkey. Colchester: ECPR Press.Google Scholar
Kemahlıoğlu, Özge and Bayer, Reşat. 2020. “Favoring Co-Partisan Controlled Areas in Central Government Distributive Programs: The Role of Local Party Organizations.” Public Choice, 119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-019-00774-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Key, V. O. 1956. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups. 4th ed. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.Google Scholar
Kiewiet de Jonge, Chad and Nickerson, David W.. 2014. “Artificial Inflation or Deflation? Assessing the Item Count Technique in Comparative Surveys.Political Behavior 36 (3): 659–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert. 2007. “The Demise of Clientelism in Affluent Capitalist Democracies.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies. Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 298321. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Altamirano, Melina. 2015. “Clientelism in Latin America: Effort and Effectiveness.” In The Latin American Voter: Pursuing Representation and Accountability in Challenging Contexts, edited by Carlin, Ryan E., Singer, Matthew M. and Zechmeister, Elizabeth J., 246–74. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert, Luna, Juan Pablo, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth J.. 2010. “Programmatic Structuration and Democratic Performance.” In Latin American Party Systems, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert, Hawkins, Kirk A., Luna, Juan Pablo, Rosas, Guillermo, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth J., 279305. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I.. 2007a. “A Research Agenda for the Study of Citizen-Politician Linkages and Democratic Accountability.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 322–43. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I. 2007b. “Citizen-Politician Linkages: An Introduction.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 149. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I. eds. 2007c. Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopecký, Petr. 2011. “Political Competition and Party Patronage: Public Appointments in Ghana and South Africa.Political Studies 59 (3): 713–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopecký, Petr and Mair, Peter. 2006. “Political Parties and Patronage in Contemporary Democracies: An Introduction.” Paper prepared for the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Nicosia, Cyprus, 25–30 April.Google Scholar
Kopecký, Petr and Mair, Peter 2012. “Party Patronage as an Organizational Resource.” In Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies, edited by Kopecký, Petr, Mair, Peter, and Spirova, Maria, 316. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopecký, Petr, Mair, Peter, and Spirova, Maria, eds. 2012. Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopecký, Petr, Sahling, Jan-Hinrik Meyer, Panizza, Francisco, Scherlis, Gerardo, Schuster, Christian, and Spirova, Maria. 2016. “Party Patronage in Contemporary Democracies: Results from an Expert Survey in 22 Countries from Five Regions.European Journal of Political Research 55 (2): 416–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopecký, Petr, Scherlis, Gerardo, and Spirova, Maria. 2008. “Conceptualizing and Measuring Party Patronage.Political Concepts, Committee on Concepts and Methods Working Paper Series 25: 118.Google Scholar
Kramon, Eric. 2016a. “Electoral Handouts as Information: Explaining Unmonitored Vote Buying.World Politics 68 (3): 454–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kramon, Eric 2016b. “Where Is Vote Buying Effective? Evidence from a List Experiment in Kenya.Electoral Studies 44: 397408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuklinski, James H., Sniderman, Paul M., Knight, Kathleen, Thomas Piazza, Philip E. Tetlock, Gordon R. Lawrence, and Barbara Mellers. 1997. “Racial Prejudice and Attitudes toward Affirmative Action.American Journal of Political Science 41 (2): 402–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larreguy, Horacio, Marshall, John, and Querubín, Pablo. 2016. “Parties, Brokers, and Voter Mobilization: How Turnout Buying Depends upon the Party’s Capacity to Monitor Brokers.American Political Science Review 110 (1): 160–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larreguy, Horacio, Montiel Olea, César E., and Querubín, Pablo. 2017. “Political Brokers: Partisans or Agents? Evidence from the Mexican Teachers’ Union.American Journal of Political Science 61 (4): 877–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawson, Chappell and Greene, Kenneth F.. 2014. “Making Clientelism Work: How Norms of Reciprocity Increase Voter Compliance.Comparative Politics 47 (1): 6185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazar, Sian. 2004. “Personalist Politics, Clientelism and Citizenship: Local Elections in El Alto, Bolivia.Bulletin of Latin American Research 23 (2): 228–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehoucq, Fabrice. 2007. “When Does a Market for Votes Emerge? Historical and Theoretical Perspectives.” In Elections for Sale: The Causes and Consequences of Vote Buying, edited by Schaffer, Frederic Charles, 3345. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Leiras, Marcelo, Page, María, Zárate, Soledad, and Mignone, Josefina. 2016. “Votar En El Conurbano: La Experiencia de Administrar Una Mesa y Fiscalizar La Elección 2015.” Documento de Políticas Públicas 177, CIPPEC: 110.Google Scholar
Levitsky, Steven. 2003. Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven and Murillo, María Victoria, eds. 2005. Argentine Democracy: The Politics of Institutional Weakness. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Levitsky, Steven and Murillo, María Victoria 2009. “Variation in Institutional Strength.Annual Review of Political Science 12: 115–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Navarro, Leyton, Marcelo, Cristian. 2006. “Balance Del Proceso de Descentralización En Chile 1990–2005. Una Mirada Regional y Municipal.” Magister Thesis, Universidad de Chile. http://repositorio.conicyt.cl/handle/10533/178886?show=fullGoogle Scholar
Lipsky, Michael. 1980. Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Lizzeri, Alessandro and Persico, Nicola. 2001. “The Provision of Public Goods under Alternative Electoral Incentives.American Economic Review 91 (1): 225–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lizzeri, Alessandro and Persico, Nicola 2004. “Why Did the Elites Extend the Suffrage? Democracy and the Scope of Government, with an Application to Britain’s ‘Age of Reform.’” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (2): 707–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Llano, Mercedes. 2014. Diagnóstico Institucional Del Servicio Civil En América Latina: Chile. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Lodola, Germán. 2005. “Protesta Popular y Redes Clientelares En La Argentina: El Reparto Federal Del Plan Trabajar (1996-2001).Desarrollo Económico 44 (176): 515–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Longo, Francisco. 2006a. “Análisis Comparativo Por Índices.” In Informe Sobre La Situación Del Servicio Civil En América Latina, edited by Echebarría, Koldo, 573–92. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Longo, Francisco 2006b. “Una Lectura Transversal de Los Resultados.” In Informe Sobre La Situación Del Servicio Civil En América Latina, edited by Echebarría, Koldo, 593610. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
Luna, Juan Pablo and Mardones, Rodrigo. 2016. “Targeted Social Policy Allocations by ‘Clean’ State Bureaucracies: Chile 2000–2009.Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy 32 (1): 3656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam. 2015. “Partisanship in Latin America.” In The Latin American Voter: Pursuing Representation and Accountability in Challenging Contexts, edited by Carlin, Ryan E., Singer, Matthew M., and Zechmeister, Elizabeth J., 226–45. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Lupu, Noam, Gervasoni, Carlos, Oliveros, Virginia, and Schiumerini, Luis. 2015. “Argentine Panel Election Study.” www.noamlupu.com/data.htmlGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam, Oliveros, Virginia, and Schiumerini, Luis. 2019. “Toward a Theory of Campaigns and Voters in Developing Democracies.” In Campaigns and Voters in Developing Democracies: Argentina in Comparative Perspective, edited by Lupu, Noam, Oliveros, Virginia, and Schiumerini, Luis, 127. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madrid, Raúl L. 2012. “Indigenous Parties and Democracy in the Andes.” In The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Latin America, 162–84. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2006. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and Its Demise in Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz, Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto, and Federico, Estévez. 2007. “Clientelism and Portfolio Diversification: A Model of Electoral Investment with Applications to Mexico.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 182205. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mares, Isabela, Muntean, Aurelian, and Petrova, Tsveta. 2017. “Pressure, Favours, and Vote-Buying: Experimental Evidence from Romania and Bulgaria.Europe-Asia Studies 69 (6): 940–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mares, Isabela and Young, Lauren E.. 2016. “Buying, Expropriating, and Stealing Votes.Annual Review of Political Science 19: 267–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mares, Isabela and Young, Lauren E. 2018. “The Core Voter’s Curse: Clientelistic Threats and Promises in Hungarian Elections.Comparative Political Studies 51 (11): 1141–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mares, Isabela and Young, Lauren E. 2019a. Conditionality & Coercion: Electoral Clientelism in Eastern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mares, Isabela and Young, Lauren E. 2019b. “Varieties of Clientelism in Hungarian Elections.Comparative Politics 51 (3): 449–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayhew, David R. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Mazzuca, Sebastián L. 2010. “Access to Power versus Exercise of Power Reconceptualizing the Quality of Democracy in Latin America.Studies in Comparative International Development 45 (3): 334–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMann, Kelly M. 2006. Economic Autonomy and Democracy: Hybrid Regimes in Russia and Kyrgyzstan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medina, Luis Fernando and Stokes, Susan C.. 2002. “Clientelism as Political Monopoly.” Paper presented at the 2002 Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association Conference. Boston.Google Scholar
Medina, Luis Fernando and Stokes, Susan C. 2007. “Monopoly and Monitoring: An Approach to Political Clientelism.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies. Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 6883. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik. 2006. “The Rise of the Partisan State? Parties, Patronage and the Ministerial Bureaucracy in Hungary.Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 22 (3): 274–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik and Mikkelsen, Kim Sass. 2016. “Civil Service Laws, Merit, Politicization, and Corruption: The Perspective of Public Officials from Five East European Countries.Public Administration 94 (4): 1105–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik, Schuster, Christian, and Kim Mikkelsen, Sass. 2020. “Civil Service Management in Developing Countries: What Works?: Evidence from a Survey with 23,000 Civil Servants in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America.” Report for the UK Department for International Development (DFID). https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/1649287.Google Scholar
Micozzi, Juan Pablo. 2009. “The Electoral Connection in Multi-Level Systems with Non-Static Ambition: Linking Political Careers and Legislative Performance in Argentina.” PhD Dissertation, Rice University. https://scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/61922Google Scholar
Mimica, Nicolás and Navia, Patricio. 2019. “Causas y Efectos Del Patronazgo En Municipios de Chile, 2008-2012.Perfiles Latinoamericanos 27 (54): 83109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moscovich, Lorena. 2016. “El Doble Estatus de Los Cuerpos Burocráticos Subnacionales: El Balance Entre Gestión Pública y Acumulación Política. Propuesta de Análisis Con Evidencia de Un País Federal.Revista SAAP 10 (1): 19.Google Scholar
Müller, Wolfgang C. 2006. “Party Patronage and Party Colonization of the State.” In Handbook of Party Politics, edited by Katz, Richard S. and Crotty, William, 189–95. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Müller, Wolfgang C. 2007. “Political Institutions and Linkage Strategies.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies. Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 251–75. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Muñoz, Paula. 2014. “An Informational Theory of Campaign Clientelism: The Case of Peru.Comparative Politics 47 (1): 7998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muñoz, Paula 2018. Buying Audiences: Clientelism and Electoral Campaigns When Parties Are Weak. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murillo, María Victoria, Oliveros, Virginia, and Zarazaga, Rodrigo. 2021. “The Most Vulnerable Poor: Clientelism among Slum Dwellers.” Studies in Comparative International Development. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12116-021-09324-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murillo, María Victoria and Ronconi, Lucas. 2004. “Teachers’ Strikes in Argentina: Partisan Alignments and Public-Sector Labor Relations.Studies in Comparative International Development 39 (1): 7798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nazareno, Marcelo, Stokes, Susan C., and Brusco, Valeria. 2006. “Réditos y Peligros Electorales Del Gasto Público En La Argentina.Desarrollo Económico 46 (181): 6388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nichter, Simeon. 2008. “Vote Buying or Turnout Buying? Machine Politics and the Secret Ballot.American Political Science Review 102 (1): 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nichter, Simeon 2009. “Declared Choice: Citizen Strategies and Dual Commitment Problems in Clientelism.” In APSA 2009 Toronto Meeting Paper.Google Scholar
Nichter, Simeon 2011. “Electoral Clientelism or Relational Clientelism? Healthcare and Sterilization in Brazil.” Paper Presented at the American Political Science Conference Meeting, Seattle Washington.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nichter, Simeon 2014. “Conceptualizing Vote Buying.Electoral Studies 35: 315–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nichter, Simeon and Peress, Michael. 2017. “Request Fulfilling: When Citizens Demand Clientelist Benefits.Comparative Political Studies 50 (8): 10861117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo. 1993. “On the State, Democratization and Some Conceptual Problems: A Latin American View with Glances at Some Post-Communist Countries.World Development 21 (8): 1355–69.Google Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo 1996. “Illusions about Consolidation.Journal of Democracy 7 (2): 3451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo 2010. Democracy, Agency, and the State: Theory with Comparative Intent. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, María. 2005. El Aparato: Los Intendentes Del Conurbano y Las Cajas Negras de La Política. Buenos Aires: Aguilar.Google Scholar
O’Dwyer, Conor. 2004. “Runaway State Building: How Political Parties Shape States in Postcommunist Eastern Europe.World Politics 56 (4): 520–53.Google Scholar
Oliveros, Virginia. 2016. “Making It Personal: Clientelism, Favors, and the Personalization of Public Administration in Argentina.Comparative Politics 48 (3): 373–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliveros, Virginia 2019. “Perceptions of Ballot Integrity and Clientelism.” In Campaigns and Voters in Developing Democracies: Argentina in Comparative Perspective, edited by Lupu, Noam, Oliveros, Virginia, and Schiumerini, Luis, 213–38. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Oliveros, Virginia and Scherlis, Gerardo. 2004. “¿Elecciones Concurrentes o Elecciones Desdobladas?: La Manipulación de los Calendarios Electorales en la Argentina, 1983-2003.” In ¿Qué Cambió en la Política Argentina? Elecciones, Instituciones y Ciudadanía en Perspectiva Comparada, edited by Cheresky, Isidoro and Blanquer, Jean-Michel, 179211. Buenos Aires: Homo Sapiens.Google Scholar
Oliveros, Virginia and Schuster, Christian. 2018. “Merit, Tenure, and Bureaucratic Behavior: Evidence from a Conjoint Experiment in the Dominican Republic.Comparative Political Studies 51 (6): 759–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, Mancur. 1965. Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Harvard Economic Studies. v. 124). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Ortiz de Rozas, Victoria. 2017. “Clientelismo, Territorio y Política Subnacional En Argentina. Aportes a Partir Del Caso de Santiago Del Estero.Colombia Internacional 90: 127–56.Google Scholar
Ostrom, Elinor. 2000. “Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms.Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 (3): 137–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, Elinor and Walker, James. 1997. “Neither Markets Nor States: Linking Transformation Processes in Collective Action Arenas.” In Perspectives on Public Choice: A Handbook, edited by Mueller, Dennis C., 3572. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ostrom, Elinor and Walker, James. 2003. Trust and Reciprocity: Interdisciplinary Lessons for Experimental Research. Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Palmer-Rubin, Brian. 2016. “Interest Organizations and Distributive Politics: Small-Business Subsidies in Mexico.World Development 84: 97117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Panizza, Francisco, Ramos Larraburu, Conrado Ricardo, and Scherlis, Gerardo. 2018. “Unpacking Patronage: The Politics of Patronage Appointments in Argentina’s and Uruguay’s Central Public Administrations.Journal of Politics in Latin America 10 (3): 5998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pasotti, Eleonora. 2010. Political Branding in Cities: The Decline of Machine Politics in Bogotá, Naples, and Chicago. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Pempel, T. John. 1990. “Introduction.” In Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Dominant Regimes, edited by John Pempel, T., 132. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pepinsky, Thomas B., Pierskalla, Jan H., and Sacks, Audrey. 2017. “Bureaucracy and Service Delivery.Annual Review of Political Science 20: 249–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Persson, Torsten and Tabellini, Guido. 1999. “The Size and Scope of Government: Comparative Politics with Rational Politicians.European Economic Review 43 (4): 699735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Persson, Torsten and Tabellini, Guido Enrico. 2000. Political Economics: Explaining Economic Policy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT press.Google Scholar
Piattoni, Simona. 2001. “Clientelism in Historical and Comparative Perspective.” In Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation, edited by Piattoni, Simona, 129. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierskalla, Jan H. and Sacks, Audrey. 2020. “Personnel Politics: Elections, Clientelistic Competition and Teacher Hiring in Indonesia.British Journal of Political Science 50 (4): 1283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polga-Hecimovich, John. 2019. “Bureaucracy in Latin America.” In The Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics, edited by Prevost, Gary and Vanden, Harry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://oxfordre.com/politics/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-1675Google Scholar
Pollock, James Kerr. 1937. “The Cost of the Patronage System.The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 189 (1): 2934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pomares, Julia, Gasparin, José, and Deleersnyder, Diego. 2013. “Evolución y Distribución Del Empleo Público En El Sector Público Nacional Argentino. Una Primera Aproximación.Documento de Políticas Públicas N°117. Buenos Aires: CIPPEC.Google Scholar
Pomares, Julia, Page, María, and Scherlis, Gerardo. 2011. “La Primera Vez de Las Primarias: Logros y Desafíos.Documento de Políticas Públicas N°97. Buenos Aires: CIPPEC.Google Scholar
Pradhanawati, Ari, Ikbal Tawakkal, George Towar, and Garner, Andrew D.. 2019. “Voting Their Conscience: Poverty, Education, Social Pressure and Vote Buying in Indonesia.Journal of East Asian Studies 19 (1): 1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quirós, Julieta. 2006. “Movimientos Piqueteros, Formas de Trabajo y Circulación de Valor En El Sur Del Gran Buenos Aires.” Anuario de Estudios En Antropología Social, 151–60.Google Scholar
Quirós, Julieta 2008. “Piqueteros y Peronistas En La Lucha Del Gran Buenos Aires. Por Una Visión No Instrumental de La Política Popular.Cuadernos de Antropología Social 27: 113–31.Google Scholar
Rauch, James E. 1995. “Bureaucracy, Infrastructure, and Economic Growth: Evidence from US Cities during the Progressive Era.The American Economic Review 85 (4): 968–79.Google Scholar
Rauch, James E. and Evans, Peter B.. 2000. “Bureaucratic Structure and Bureaucratic Performance in Less Developed Countries.Journal of Public Economics 75 (1): 4971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Remmer, Karen L. 2007. “The Political Economy of Patronage: Expenditure Patterns in the Argentine Provinces, 1983–2003.Journal of Politics 69 (2): 363–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, James A. and Verdier, Thierry. 2013. “The Political Economy of Clientelism.Scandinavian Journal of Economics 115 (2): 260–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rocca Rivarola, Dolores. 2019. “Militancia y Estado: Concepciones y Prácticas En Organizaciones Afines al Gobierno En Brasil (2003-2016) y Argentina (2003-2015).Perfiles Latinoamericanos 27 (54): 5181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ronconi, Lucas and Zarazaga, Rodrigo. 2019. “Household-Based Clientelism: Brokers’ Allocation of Temporary Public Works Programs in Argentina.Studies in Comparative International Development Volume 54: 365–80.Google Scholar
Roniger, Luis. 2004. “Political Clientelism, Democracy, and Market Economy.Comparative Politics 36 (3): 353–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rose-Ackerman, Susan. 1999. Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenzweig, Steven C. 2015. “Does Electoral Competition Affect Public Goods Provision in Dominant-Party Regimes? Evidence from Tanzania.Electoral Studies 39: 7284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothstein, Bo, Samanni, Marcus, and Teorell, Jan. 2012. “Explaining the Welfare State: Power Resources vs. the Quality of Government.European Political Science Review 4 (1): 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rueda, Miguel R. 2015. “Buying Votes with Imperfect Local Knowledge and a Secret Ballot.Journal of Theoretical Politics 27 (3): 428–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rueda, Miguel R. 2017. “Small Aggregates, Big Manipulation: Vote Buying Enforcement and Collective Monitoring.American Journal of Political Science 61 (1): 163–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scacco, Alexandra. 2010. “Who Riots? Explaining Individual Participation in Ethnic Violence.” PhD Dissertation, Columbia University.Google Scholar
Schady, Norbert R. 2000. “The Political Economy of Expenditures by the Peruvian Social Fund (FONCODES), 1991–95.American Political Science Review 94 (2): 289304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaffer, Frederic Charles. 2007. “Why Study Vote Buying.” In Elections for Sale: The Causes and Consequences of Vote Buying, edited by Schaffer, Frederic Charles, 116. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Schaffer, Frederic Charles and Schedler, Andres. 2007. “What Is Vote Buying?” In Elections for Sale: The Causes and Consequences of Vote Buying, edited by Schaffer, Frederic Charles, 17–30. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Scherlis, Gerardo. 2005. “Provincial Partisan Patronage and National Party System Stability in Argentina, 1983–2005.” Paper prepared for the Workshop “Political Parties and Patronage,” European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) Joint Sessions, Nicosia, Cyprus, April.Google Scholar
Scherlis, Gerardo 2010. “Patronage and Party Organization in Argentina: The Emergence of the Patronage Based Network Party.” PhD Dissertation, Leiden University.Google Scholar
Scherlis, Gerardo 2013. “The Contours of Party Patronage in Argentina.Latin American Research Review 48 (3): 6384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schiumerini, Luis. 2018. “Blessing and Curse: Incumbency and Democratic Accountability in Latin America.” Book manuscript.Google Scholar
Schneider, Mark. 2019. “Do Local Leaders Know Their Voters? A Test of Guessability in India.Electoral Studies 61: 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuster, Christian. 2016. “What Causes Patronage Reform? It Depends on the Type of Civil Service Reform.Public Administration 94 (4): 1094–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuster, Christian 2017. “Legal Reform Need Not Come First: Merit‐based Civil Service Management in Law and Practice.Public Administration 95 (3): 571–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuster, Christian, Fuenzalida, Javier, Meyer-Sahling, Jan, Mikkelsen, Kim Sass, and Titelman, Noam. 2020. “Encuesta Nacional de Funcionarios En Chile: Evidencia Para Un Servicio Público Más Motivado, Satisfecho, Comprometido y Ético.” Informe preparado para la Dirección Nacional del Servicio Civil, Santiago, Chile. www.serviciocivil.cl/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Encuesta-Nacional-de-Funcionarios-Informe-General-FINAL-15ene2020-1.pdfGoogle Scholar
Scott, James C. 1972. “Patron-Client Politics and Political Change in Southeast Asia.American Political Science Review 66 (1): 91113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seligson, Mitchell A. 2002. “The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries.The Journal of Politics 64 (2): 408–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sells, Cameron. 2020. “Building Parties From City Hall: Party Membership and Municipal Government in Brazil.The Journal of Politics 82 (4): 1576–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shefter, Martin. 1977. “Party and Patronage: Germany, England, and Italy.Politics & Society 7 (4): 403–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, Richard. 2001. “Scaling Down: The Subnational Comparative Method.Studies in Comparative International Development 36 (1): 93110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sologuren, Ximena Soruco. 2014. “Burocracia Plurinacional.” In Composición Social Del Estado Plurinacional: Hacia La Descolonización de La Burocracia, edited by Sologuren, Ximena Soruco, Pinto, Daniela Franco, and Durán, Mariela, 1992. La Paz: Centro de Investigaciones Sociales.Google Scholar
Sologuren, Ximena Soruco, Pinto, Daniela Franco, and Durán, Mariela, eds. 2014. Composición Social Del Estado Plurinacional: Hacia La Descolonización de La Burocracia. La Paz: Centro de Investigaciones Sociales.Google Scholar
Stasavage, David. 2005. “Democracy and Education Spending in Africa.American Journal of Political Science 49 (2): 343–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stokes, Susan C. 2005. “Perverse Accountability: A Formal Model of Machine Politics with Evidence from Argentina.American Political Science Review 99 (3): 315–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stokes, Susan C. 2007. “Political Clientelism.” In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, edited by Boix, Carles and Stokes, Susan C., 648674. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Stokes, Susan C. 2009. “Pork, by Any Other Name … Building a Conceptual Scheme of Distributive Politics.” Paper Presented at the American Political Science Association Conference Meeting, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
Stokes, Susan C., Dunning, Thad, Nazareno, Marcelo, and Brusco, Valeria. 2013. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strazza, Luciano 2012. “República Dominicana.” In Informe Barometro de La Profesionalización Del Empleo Público En Centroamérica y República Dominicana No. 2, edited by Longo, Francisco, 2564. Santo Domingo: AECID, FLACSO and SICA.Google Scholar
Szwarcberg, Mariela. 2009. Making Local Democracy: Political Machines, Clientelism, and Social Networks in Argentina. PhD Dissertation, The University of Chicago.Google Scholar
Szwarcberg, Mariela 2012. “Uncertainty, Political Clientelism, and Voter Turnout in Latin America: Why Parties Conduct Rallies in Argentina.Comparative Politics 45 (1): 88106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szwarcberg, Mariela 2015. Mobilizing Poor Voters: Machine Politics, Clientelism, and Social Networks in Argentina. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ting, Michael M., Snyder, James M. Jr, Hirano, Shigeo, and Folke, Olle. 2013. “Elections and Reform: The Adoption of Civil Service Systems in the US States.Journal of Theoretical Politics 25 (3): 363–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toral, Guillermo. 2019. “The Benefits of Patronage: How the Political Appointment of Bureaucrats Can Enhance Their Accountability and Effectiveness.” Working Paper. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3462459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toral, Guillermo 2020. “Turnover: How Electoral Accountability Disrupts the Bureaucracy and Service Delivery.” Working Paper. www.guillermotoral.com/turnover.pdfGoogle Scholar
Toro, Sergio. 2017. “El Vínculo Distrital de Los Parlamentarios: Continuidad y Cambio de La Estructura de Intermediación Local En Chile.” In La Columna Vertebral Fracturada: Revisitando Intermediarios Políticos En Chile, edited by Luna, Juan Pablo and Mardones, Rodrigo, 177200. Santiago de Chile: RIL Editores.Google Scholar
Valdebenito Pedrero, Sebastián. 2017. “¿Cuántos Trabajadores Emplea El Estado de Chile? Problematización y Orden de Magnitud de La Contratación a Honorarios.” In Empleo Público En Chile: ¿Trabajo Decente En El Estado? Apuntes Para El Debate, edited by Yáñez, Sonia and Rojas, Irene, 3554. Santiago de Chile: Serie Libros Flacso – Chile.Google Scholar
Van de Walle, Nicolas. 2007. “Meet the New Boss, Same as the Old Boss? The Evolution of Political Clientelism in Africa.” In Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 5067. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vommaro, Gabriel. 2007. “‘Acá No Conseguís Nada Si No Estás En Política’. Los Sectores Populares y La Participación En Espacios Barriales de Sociabilidad Política.Anuario de Estudios En Antropología Social 2006: 161–78.Google Scholar
Vommaro, Gabriel and Combes, Hélène. 2019. El clientelismo político: Desde 1950 hasta nuestros días. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI Editores.Google Scholar
Vommaro, Gabriel and Julieta, Quirós. 2011. “‘Usted Vino Por Su Propia Decisión’: Repensar El Clientelismo En Clave Etnográfica.Desacatos 36: 6584.Google Scholar
Waisbord, Silvio. 1996. “Secular Politics: The Modernization of Argentine Electioneering.” In Politics, Media, and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences, edited by Swanson, David L. and Mancini, Paolo, 207–25. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
Wang, Chin-Shou and Kurzman, Charles. 2007. “The Logistics: How to Buy Votes.” In Elections for Sale: The Causes and Consequences of Vote Buying, edited by Schaffer, Frederic Charles, 6178. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Pub.Google Scholar
Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca. 2006. “Partisanship and Protest: The Politics of Workfare Distribution in Argentina.Latin American Research Review 41 (3): 122–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca 2008. “The Local Connection: Local Government Performance and Satisfaction with Democracy in Argentina.Comparative Political Studies 41 (3): 285308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca 2012. “What Wins Votes: Why Some Politicians Opt out of Clientelism.American Journal of Political Science 56 (3): 568–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca 2014. Curbing Clientelism in Argentina: Politics, Poverty, and Social Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, James Q. 1961. “The Economy of Patronage.The Journal of Political Economy 69 (4): 369–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolff, Jonas. 2018. “Political Incorporation in Measures of Democracy: A Missing Dimension (and the Case of Bolivia).Democratization 25 (4): 692708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfinger, Raymond E. 1972. “Why Political Machines Have Not Withered Away and Other Revisionist Thoughts.The Journal of Politics 34 (2): 365–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Bank. 2000. “Bolivia: From Patronage to a Professional State.” Report No. 20115–BO.Google Scholar
Xu, Guo. 2018. “The Costs of Patronage: Evidence from the British Empire.American Economic Review 108 (11): 3170–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zarazaga, Rodrigo. 2014. “Brokers beyond Clientelism: A New Perspective through the Argentine Case.Latin American Politics and Society 56 (3): 2345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zarazaga, Rodrigo 2015. “Plugged in Brokers: A Model of Vote-Buying and Access to Resources.Journal of Applied Economics 18 (2): 369–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zarazaga, Rodrigo 2016. “Party Machines and Voter-Customized Rewards Strategies.Journal of Theoretical Politics 28 (4): 678701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zarazaga, Rodrigo and Ronconi, Lucas. 2018. Conurbano Infinito: Actores Políticos y Sociales, Entre La Presencia Estatal y La Ilegalidad. Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno Editores.Google Scholar
Zucco, Cesar. 2010. “Conditional Cash Transfers and Voting Behavior: Redistribution and Clientelism in Developing Democracies.” Princeton University. Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
Zucco, Cesar 2013. “When Payouts Pay off: Conditional Cash Transfers and Voting Behavior in Brazil 2002–10.American Journal of Political Science 57 (4): 810–22.Google Scholar
Zuvanic, Laura, Iacoviello, Mercedes, and Gusta, Ana Laura Rodríguez. 2010. “The Weakest Link: The Bureaucracy and Civil Service Systems in Latin America.” In How Democracy Works: Political Institutions, Actors, and Arenas in Latin American Policymaking, edited by Scartascini, Carlos, Stein, Ernesto, and Tommasi, Mariano, 147–76. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar