Published online by Cambridge University Press: 10 February 2022
The first part of my conclusion recalls the journey of African Americans from the formation of the United States to the present as discussed in previous chapters. The second part of my conclusion looks forward to improve education for Black students. Learning from research in education since Brown v. Board of Education and from dramatic wealth differences between white and Black graduates at different levels, a variety of efforts have been made to improve Black education. There are political hurdles to spending money on Black education and conflicts with the effects of mass incarceration. The possibility of educational success for all Americans, like the health of all Americans in the pandemic, may remain illusive.