Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-45s75 Total loading time: 1.029 Render date: 2021-12-04T21:13:07.378Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chapter 10 - Sperm and ART

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Kay Elder
Affiliation:
Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge
Brian Dale
Affiliation:
Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Naples
Get access

Summary

At least 50% of couples referred for infertility investigation and treatment are found to have a contributing male factor. Male factor infertility can represent a variety of defects, which result in abnormal sperm number, morphology or function. Detailed analysis of sperm assessment and function are important for accurate diagnosis, and are described in detail in numerous textbooks of practical andrology and semen analysis. A comprehensive review of semen analysis is beyond the scope of this book, and only details relevant to assisted conception treatment will be described here.

Type
Chapter
Information
In-Vitro Fertilization , pp. 194 - 212
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aitken, RJ, Comhaire, FH, Eliasson, R, et al. (1999) WHO Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Semen-Cervical Mucus Interaction, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
Björndahl, L, Mortimer, D, Barratt, CL (eds.) (2010) A Practical Guide to Basic Laboratory Andrology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elder, K, Elliott, T (1998) The Use of Testicular and Epididymal Sperm in IVF. Worldwide Conferences on Reproductive Biology. Ladybrook Publishing, Australia.Google Scholar
Glover, TD, Barratt, CLR, Tyler, JPA, Hennessey, JF (1990) Human Male Fertility and Semen Analysis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
Menkveld, R, Oettler, EE, Kruger, TF, et al. (1991) Atlas of Human Sperm Morphology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
Mortimer, D (1994) Practical Laboratory Andrology. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
World Health Organization (2010) WHO Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, 5th edn. WHO, Geneva.
Agarwal, A, Deepinder, F (2009) Determination of seminal oxidants (reactive oxygen species). In: Lipshult, L, Howards, S, Neiderberger, C (eds.) Infertility in the Male, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (1988) Assessment of sperm function for IVF. Human Reproduction 3: 8995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (1989) The role of free oxygen radicals and sperm function. International Journal of Andrology 12: 9597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (1990) Evaluation of human sperm function. British Medical Bulletin 46: 654674.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (2006) Sperm function tests and fertility. International Journal of Andrology 29(1): 6975.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ, Clarkson, JS (1987) Cellular basis of defective sperm function and its association with the genesis of reactive oxygen species by human spermatozoa. Journal of Reproductive Fertility 81: 459469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ, Gordon, E, Harkiss, D, et al. (1998) Relative impact of oxidative stress on the functional competence and genomic integrity of human spermatozoa. Biology of Reproduction 59: 10371046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barratt, CLR, Bolton, AE, Cooke, ID (1990) Functional significance of white blood cells in the male and female reproductive tract. Human Reproduction 5(6): 639648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braude, PR, Bolton, VN (1984) The preparation of spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization by buoyant density centrifugation. In: Feichtinger, W, Kemeter, P (eds.) Recent Progress in Human In Vitro Fertilisation. Cofese, Palermo, pp. 125134.Google Scholar
Cohen, J, Edwards, RG, Fehilly, C, et al. (1985) In vitro fertilization: a treatment for male infertility. Fertility and Sterility 43: 422432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Comhaire, F, Depoorter, B, Vermeulen, L, Schoonjans, F (1995) Assessment of sperm concentration. In: Hedon, B, Bringer, J, Mares, P (eds.) Fertility and Sterility: A Current Overview (IFFS 1995). Parthenon Publishing Group, New York, pp. 297302.Google Scholar
Donnelly, ET, McClure, N, Lewis, SEM (1999) The effect of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol supplementation in vitro on DNA integrity and hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Mutagenesis 14(5): 505512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dravland, JE, Mortimer, D (1985) A simple discontinuous Percoll gradient for washing human spermatozoa. IRCS Medical Science 13: 1618.Google Scholar
Edwards, RG, Fishel, SG, Cohen, J, et al. (1984) Factors influencing the success of in vitro fertilization for alleviating human infertility. Journal of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer 1: 323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elder, KT, Wick, KL, Edwards, RG (1990) Seminal plasma anti-sperm antibodies and IVF: the effect of semen sample collection into 50% serum. Human Reproduction 5: 179184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evenson, DP, Jost, LJ, Marshal, D, et al. (1999) Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic. Human Reproduction 14: 10391049.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleming, SD, Meniru, GI, Hall, JA, Fishel, SB (1997) Semen analysis and sperm preparation. In: A Handbook of Intrauterine Insemination. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
Franken, D (1998) Sperm morphology: a closer look – is sperm morphology related to chromatin packaging? Alpha Newsletter 14: 13.Google Scholar
Gallo, A, Menezo, Y, Dale, B, et al. (2018) Metabolic enhancers supporting 1-carbon cycle affect sperm functionality: an in vitro comparative study. Scientific Reports 8: 11769 DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-30066-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grobler, GM, De Villiers, TJ, Kruger, TF, Van Der Merwe, JP, Menkveld, R (1990) Part Two – The Tygerberg Experience. In: Acosta, AA, Swanson, RJ, Ackerman, SB, et al. (eds.) Human Spermatozoa in Assisted Reproduction. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 280285.Google Scholar
Hall, J, Fishel, S, Green, S, et al. (1995) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection versus high insemination concentration in-vitro fertilization in cases of very severe teratozoospermia. Human Reproduction 10: 493496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamamah, S, Gatti, J-L (1998) Role of the ionic environment and internal pH on sperm activity. Human Reproduction 13(Suppl. 4): 2030.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henkel, R, Sandhu, IS, Agarwal, A (2018). The excessive use of antioxidant therapy: a possible cause of male infertility? Andrologia 2019; 51(1): e13162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinsch, E, Ponce, AA, Hägele, W, et al. (1997) A new combined in-vitro test model for the identification of substances affecting essential sperm functions. Human Reproduction 12(8): 16731681.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hughes, CM, McKelvey-Martin, VJ, Lewis, SE (1999) Human sperm DNA integrity assessed by the Comet and ELISA assays. Mutagenesis 14(1): 7175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jager, S, Kremer, J, Van-Schlochteren-Draaisma, T (1978) A simple method of screening for antisperm antibodies in the human male: detection of spermatozoa surface IgG with the direct mixed antiglobulin reaction carried out on untreated fresh human semen. International Journal of Fertility 23: 12.Google ScholarPubMed
Lessey, BA, Garner, DL (1983) Isolation of motile spermatozoa by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll. Gamete Research 7: 4952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Makler, A (1978) A new chamber for rapid sperm count and motility evaluation. Fertility and Sterility 30: 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matson, PL (1995) External quality assessment for semen analysis and sperm antibody detection: results of a pilot scheme. Human Reproduction 10: 620625.Google ScholarPubMed
Ménézo, Y, Dale, B (1995) Paternal contribution to successful embryogenesis. Human Reproduction 10: 13261327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ménézo, Y, Entezami, F, Lichtblau, L, Belloc, S, Cohen, M, Dale, B (2013) Oxidative stress and fertility: incorrect assumptions and ineffective solutions? Zygote 20: 111.Google Scholar
Ménézo, Y, Evenson, D, Cohen, M, Dale, B (2013) Effect of anti-oxidants on sperm genetic damage. In: Baldi, E, Muratori, M (eds.) Genetic Damage in Human Spermatozoa. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, pp. 173189.Google Scholar
Mortimer, D (1991) Sperm preparation techniques and iatrogenic failures of in-vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction 6(2): 173176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pacey, AA (2006) Is quality assurance in semen analysis still really necessary? A view from the andrology laboratory. Human Reproduction 21(5): 11051109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pacey, AA (2010) Quality assurance and quality control in laboratory andrology. Asian Journal of Andrology 12(1): 2125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rainsbury, PA (1992) The treatment of male factor infertility due to sexual dysfunction. In: Brinsden, PR, Rainsbury, PA (eds.) In Vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp. 345360.Google Scholar
Sakkas, D, Alvarez, JG (2010) Sperm DNA fragmentation: mechanisms of origin, impact on reproductive outcome, and analysis. Fertility and Sterility 93(4): 10271036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakkas, D, Mariethosz, E, St John, J (1999) Abnormal sperm parameters in humans are indicative of an abortive apoptotic mechanism linked to the FAS-mediated pathway. Experimental Cell Research 251: 350355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sakkas, D, Urmer, F, Bizzaro, D, et al. (1998) Sperm nuclear DNA damage and altered chromatin structure: effect on fertilization and embryo development. Human Reproduction 13(Suppl. 4): 1119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sato, K, Tanaka, F, Hasegawa, H (2004) Appearance of the oocyte activation of mouse round spermatids cultured in vitro. Human Cell 17(4): 177180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sousa, M, Barros, A, Tesarik, J (1998) Current problems with spermatid conception. Human Reproduction 13: 255258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stewart, B (1998) New horizons in male infertility: the use of testicular and epididymal sperm in IVF. Alpha Newsletter 13: 13.Google Scholar
Tomlinson, MJ, Pooley, K, Simpson, T, et al. (2010) Validation of a novel computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system using multitarget-tracking algorithms. Fertility and Sterility 93(6): 19111920.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twigg, JP, Fulton, N, Gomez, E, et al. (1998a) Analysis of the impact of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation on the structural and functional integrity of human spermatozoa and functional integrity of human spermatozoa: lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and effectiveness of antioxidants. Human Reproduction 13(6): 14291436.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twigg, JP, Irvine, DS, Aitken, RJ (1998b) Oxidative damage to DNA in human spermatozoa does not preclude pronucleus formation at intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Human Reproduction 13(7): 18641871.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van den Berg, M (1998) Sample preparation. In: Elder, K, Elliott, T (eds.) The Use of Epidemiological and Testicular Sperm in IVF. World Wide Conferences on Reproductive Biology. Ladybrook Publishing, Australia, pp. 5154.Google Scholar
Van der Ven, H, Bhattacharya, AK, Binor, Z, Leto, S, Zaneveld, LJD (1982) Inhibition of human sperm capacitation by a high molecular weight factor from human seminal plasma. Fertility and Sterility 38: 753755.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vanderzwalmen, P, Zech, H, Birkenfeld, A, et al. (1997) Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatids retrieved from testicular tissue: influence of testicular pathology, type of selected spermatids and oocyte activation. Human Reproduction 12: 12031213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yovich, JL (1992) Assisted reproduction for male factor infertility. In: Brinsden, PR, Rainsbury, PA (eds.) In Vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp. 311324.Google Scholar
Yovich, JM, Edirisinghe, WR, Cummins, JM, Yovich, JL (1990) Influence of pentoxifylline in severe male factor infertility. Fertility and Sterility 53: 715722.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ, Comhaire, FH, Eliasson, R, et al. (1999) WHO Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Semen-Cervical Mucus Interaction, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
Björndahl, L, Mortimer, D, Barratt, CL (eds.) (2010) A Practical Guide to Basic Laboratory Andrology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elder, K, Elliott, T (1998) The Use of Testicular and Epididymal Sperm in IVF. Worldwide Conferences on Reproductive Biology. Ladybrook Publishing, Australia.Google Scholar
Glover, TD, Barratt, CLR, Tyler, JPA, Hennessey, JF (1990) Human Male Fertility and Semen Analysis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
Menkveld, R, Oettler, EE, Kruger, TF, et al. (1991) Atlas of Human Sperm Morphology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
Mortimer, D (1994) Practical Laboratory Andrology. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
World Health Organization (2010) WHO Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, 5th edn. WHO, Geneva.
Agarwal, A, Deepinder, F (2009) Determination of seminal oxidants (reactive oxygen species). In: Lipshult, L, Howards, S, Neiderberger, C (eds.) Infertility in the Male, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (1988) Assessment of sperm function for IVF. Human Reproduction 3: 8995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (1989) The role of free oxygen radicals and sperm function. International Journal of Andrology 12: 9597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (1990) Evaluation of human sperm function. British Medical Bulletin 46: 654674.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ (2006) Sperm function tests and fertility. International Journal of Andrology 29(1): 6975.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ, Clarkson, JS (1987) Cellular basis of defective sperm function and its association with the genesis of reactive oxygen species by human spermatozoa. Journal of Reproductive Fertility 81: 459469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ, Gordon, E, Harkiss, D, et al. (1998) Relative impact of oxidative stress on the functional competence and genomic integrity of human spermatozoa. Biology of Reproduction 59: 10371046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barratt, CLR, Bolton, AE, Cooke, ID (1990) Functional significance of white blood cells in the male and female reproductive tract. Human Reproduction 5(6): 639648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braude, PR, Bolton, VN (1984) The preparation of spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization by buoyant density centrifugation. In: Feichtinger, W, Kemeter, P (eds.) Recent Progress in Human In Vitro Fertilisation. Cofese, Palermo, pp. 125134.Google Scholar
Cohen, J, Edwards, RG, Fehilly, C, et al. (1985) In vitro fertilization: a treatment for male infertility. Fertility and Sterility 43: 422432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Comhaire, F, Depoorter, B, Vermeulen, L, Schoonjans, F (1995) Assessment of sperm concentration. In: Hedon, B, Bringer, J, Mares, P (eds.) Fertility and Sterility: A Current Overview (IFFS 1995). Parthenon Publishing Group, New York, pp. 297302.Google Scholar
Donnelly, ET, McClure, N, Lewis, SEM (1999) The effect of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol supplementation in vitro on DNA integrity and hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Mutagenesis 14(5): 505512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dravland, JE, Mortimer, D (1985) A simple discontinuous Percoll gradient for washing human spermatozoa. IRCS Medical Science 13: 1618.Google Scholar
Edwards, RG, Fishel, SG, Cohen, J, et al. (1984) Factors influencing the success of in vitro fertilization for alleviating human infertility. Journal of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer 1: 323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elder, KT, Wick, KL, Edwards, RG (1990) Seminal plasma anti-sperm antibodies and IVF: the effect of semen sample collection into 50% serum. Human Reproduction 5: 179184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evenson, DP, Jost, LJ, Marshal, D, et al. (1999) Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic. Human Reproduction 14: 10391049.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleming, SD, Meniru, GI, Hall, JA, Fishel, SB (1997) Semen analysis and sperm preparation. In: A Handbook of Intrauterine Insemination. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
Franken, D (1998) Sperm morphology: a closer look – is sperm morphology related to chromatin packaging? Alpha Newsletter 14: 13.Google Scholar
Gallo, A, Menezo, Y, Dale, B, et al. (2018) Metabolic enhancers supporting 1-carbon cycle affect sperm functionality: an in vitro comparative study. Scientific Reports 8: 11769 DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-30066-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grobler, GM, De Villiers, TJ, Kruger, TF, Van Der Merwe, JP, Menkveld, R (1990) Part Two – The Tygerberg Experience. In: Acosta, AA, Swanson, RJ, Ackerman, SB, et al. (eds.) Human Spermatozoa in Assisted Reproduction. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 280285.Google Scholar
Hall, J, Fishel, S, Green, S, et al. (1995) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection versus high insemination concentration in-vitro fertilization in cases of very severe teratozoospermia. Human Reproduction 10: 493496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamamah, S, Gatti, J-L (1998) Role of the ionic environment and internal pH on sperm activity. Human Reproduction 13(Suppl. 4): 2030.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henkel, R, Sandhu, IS, Agarwal, A (2018). The excessive use of antioxidant therapy: a possible cause of male infertility? Andrologia 2019; 51(1): e13162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinsch, E, Ponce, AA, Hägele, W, et al. (1997) A new combined in-vitro test model for the identification of substances affecting essential sperm functions. Human Reproduction 12(8): 16731681.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hughes, CM, McKelvey-Martin, VJ, Lewis, SE (1999) Human sperm DNA integrity assessed by the Comet and ELISA assays. Mutagenesis 14(1): 7175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jager, S, Kremer, J, Van-Schlochteren-Draaisma, T (1978) A simple method of screening for antisperm antibodies in the human male: detection of spermatozoa surface IgG with the direct mixed antiglobulin reaction carried out on untreated fresh human semen. International Journal of Fertility 23: 12.Google ScholarPubMed
Lessey, BA, Garner, DL (1983) Isolation of motile spermatozoa by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll. Gamete Research 7: 4952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Makler, A (1978) A new chamber for rapid sperm count and motility evaluation. Fertility and Sterility 30: 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matson, PL (1995) External quality assessment for semen analysis and sperm antibody detection: results of a pilot scheme. Human Reproduction 10: 620625.Google ScholarPubMed
Ménézo, Y, Dale, B (1995) Paternal contribution to successful embryogenesis. Human Reproduction 10: 13261327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ménézo, Y, Entezami, F, Lichtblau, L, Belloc, S, Cohen, M, Dale, B (2013) Oxidative stress and fertility: incorrect assumptions and ineffective solutions? Zygote 20: 111.Google Scholar
Ménézo, Y, Evenson, D, Cohen, M, Dale, B (2013) Effect of anti-oxidants on sperm genetic damage. In: Baldi, E, Muratori, M (eds.) Genetic Damage in Human Spermatozoa. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, pp. 173189.Google Scholar
Mortimer, D (1991) Sperm preparation techniques and iatrogenic failures of in-vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction 6(2): 173176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pacey, AA (2006) Is quality assurance in semen analysis still really necessary? A view from the andrology laboratory. Human Reproduction 21(5): 11051109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pacey, AA (2010) Quality assurance and quality control in laboratory andrology. Asian Journal of Andrology 12(1): 2125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rainsbury, PA (1992) The treatment of male factor infertility due to sexual dysfunction. In: Brinsden, PR, Rainsbury, PA (eds.) In Vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp. 345360.Google Scholar
Sakkas, D, Alvarez, JG (2010) Sperm DNA fragmentation: mechanisms of origin, impact on reproductive outcome, and analysis. Fertility and Sterility 93(4): 10271036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakkas, D, Mariethosz, E, St John, J (1999) Abnormal sperm parameters in humans are indicative of an abortive apoptotic mechanism linked to the FAS-mediated pathway. Experimental Cell Research 251: 350355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sakkas, D, Urmer, F, Bizzaro, D, et al. (1998) Sperm nuclear DNA damage and altered chromatin structure: effect on fertilization and embryo development. Human Reproduction 13(Suppl. 4): 1119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sato, K, Tanaka, F, Hasegawa, H (2004) Appearance of the oocyte activation of mouse round spermatids cultured in vitro. Human Cell 17(4): 177180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sousa, M, Barros, A, Tesarik, J (1998) Current problems with spermatid conception. Human Reproduction 13: 255258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stewart, B (1998) New horizons in male infertility: the use of testicular and epididymal sperm in IVF. Alpha Newsletter 13: 13.Google Scholar
Tomlinson, MJ, Pooley, K, Simpson, T, et al. (2010) Validation of a novel computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system using multitarget-tracking algorithms. Fertility and Sterility 93(6): 19111920.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twigg, JP, Fulton, N, Gomez, E, et al. (1998a) Analysis of the impact of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation on the structural and functional integrity of human spermatozoa and functional integrity of human spermatozoa: lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and effectiveness of antioxidants. Human Reproduction 13(6): 14291436.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twigg, JP, Irvine, DS, Aitken, RJ (1998b) Oxidative damage to DNA in human spermatozoa does not preclude pronucleus formation at intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Human Reproduction 13(7): 18641871.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van den Berg, M (1998) Sample preparation. In: Elder, K, Elliott, T (eds.) The Use of Epidemiological and Testicular Sperm in IVF. World Wide Conferences on Reproductive Biology. Ladybrook Publishing, Australia, pp. 5154.Google Scholar
Van der Ven, H, Bhattacharya, AK, Binor, Z, Leto, S, Zaneveld, LJD (1982) Inhibition of human sperm capacitation by a high molecular weight factor from human seminal plasma. Fertility and Sterility 38: 753755.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vanderzwalmen, P, Zech, H, Birkenfeld, A, et al. (1997) Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatids retrieved from testicular tissue: influence of testicular pathology, type of selected spermatids and oocyte activation. Human Reproduction 12: 12031213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yovich, JL (1992) Assisted reproduction for male factor infertility. In: Brinsden, PR, Rainsbury, PA (eds.) In Vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp. 311324.Google Scholar
Yovich, JM, Edirisinghe, WR, Cummins, JM, Yovich, JL (1990) Influence of pentoxifylline in severe male factor infertility. Fertility and Sterility 53: 715722.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

  • Sperm and ART
  • Kay Elder, Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, Brian Dale
  • Book: In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Online publication: 24 December 2019
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108611633.011
Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

  • Sperm and ART
  • Kay Elder, Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, Brian Dale
  • Book: In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Online publication: 24 December 2019
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108611633.011
Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

  • Sperm and ART
  • Kay Elder, Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, Brian Dale
  • Book: In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Online publication: 24 December 2019
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108611633.011
Available formats
×