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Chapter 1 - Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Kay Elder
Affiliation:
Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge
Brian Dale
Affiliation:
Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Naples
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Summary

Gametogenesis, embryo development, implantation and in-vitro culture involve numerous complex pathways and interactions at the cellular and molecular level; a true understanding of their significance requires fundamental knowledge of the underlying principles. This chapter therefore provides a condensed overview and review of basic terminology and definitions, with particular emphasis on aspects relevant to reproductive biology and in-vitro fertilization.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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References

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Barrangou, R, Fremaux, C, Deveau, H, et al. (2007) CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes. Science 315(5819): 17091712.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Dale, B (2018) Fertilization: The Beginning of Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, G (2015) The mitochondria mystery. Nature 525: 444446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassold, T, Hunt, P (2001) To err (meiotically) is human: the genesis of human aneuploidy. Nature Reviews Genetics 2: 280291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassold, T, Hall, H, Hunt, P (2007) The origin of human aneuploidy: where we have been, where we are going. Human Molecular Genetics 16(R2): R203R208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffman, A, Sportelli, V, Ziller, M, Spengler, D (2017) Epigenomics of major depressive illness and schizophrenia: early life decides (Review). International Journal of Molecular Science 18(8): 1711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsu, PD, Lander, ES, Zhang, F (2014) Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering. Cell 157(6): 12621278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, MH (2017) Essential Reproduction, 7th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.Google Scholar
Lodish, H, Berk, A, Zipursky, SL, Matsudaira, P, Baltimore, D, Darnell, J (eds.) (2000) Molecular Cell Biology, 4th edn. W H Freeman & Co., New York.Google Scholar
Ménézo, Y (2017) Oxidative Stress and Women’s Health. Editions Eska, Paris, France.
Ménézo, Y, Dale, B, Cohen, M (2010) DNA damage and repair in human oocytes and embryos: a review. Zygote 18: 357365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nagaoka, SI, Hassold, TJ, Hunt, PA (2012) Human aneuploidy: mechanisms and new insights into an age-old problem. Nature Reviews Genetics 13(7): 493504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Richardson, B (2003) Impact of aging on DNA methylation. Ageing Research Reviews 2(3): 245261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rozen, R (2004) Folate and genetics. Journal of Food Science and Technology 69(1): SNQ65SNQ67.Google Scholar
Skoot, R (2010) The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Crown Publishing Group, New York.Google Scholar
Tollefsbol, T (ed.) (2017) Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics. 2nd edn. Academic Press, USA.Google Scholar
Van Blerkom, J (2004) Mitochondria in human oogenesis and preimplantation embryogenesis: engines of metabolism, ionic regulation and developmental competence. Reproduction 128: 269280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webster, A & Schuh, M (2017) Mechanisms of aneuploidy in human eggs (Review). Trends in Cell Biology 27(1): 5568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abudayyeh, OO, Gootenberg, JS, Konermann, S, et al (2016) C2c2 is a single-component programmable RNA-guided RNA-targeting CRISPR effector. Science 353: aaf5573.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Akera, T, Lampson, MA (2016) Chromosome segregation: freewheeling sisters cause problems. eLife e13788. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.13788.CrossRef
Amar, E, Cornet, D, Cohen, M, Menezo, Y (2015) Treatment for high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and nuclear decondensation: sequential treatment with a potent antioxidant followed by stimulation of the one-carbon cycle vs. one-carbon cycle back-up alone. Austin Journal of Reproductive Medicine and Infertility 2(1): 1006.Google Scholar
Barrangou, R, Horvath, P (2017) A decade of discovery: CRISPR functions and applications. Nature Microbiology 2: 17092. DOI: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrit, J, Kokot, T, Cohen, J, et al. (2002) Quantification of human ooplasmic mitochondria. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 4: 243237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benkhalifa, M, Montjean, D, Cohen-Bacrie, P, Menezo, Y (2010) Imprinting: RNA expression for homocysteine recycling in the human oocyte. Fertility and Sterility 93: 1585-1590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bennabi, I, Terret, M-E, Verlhac, M-H (2016) Meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation in oocytes. Journal of Cell Biology 215(5): 611619.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berker, B, Kaya, C, Aytac, R, et al. (2009) Homocysteine concentrations in follicular fluid are associated with poor oocyte and embryo qualities in polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Human Reproduction 24: 22932302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cao, L, Wang, Y, Zhang, R, et al. (2018). Association of neural tube defects with gene polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolic pathway. Child’s Nervous System 34(2): 277284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cappell, SD, Chung, M, Jaimovich, A, Spencer, SL, Meyer, T (2016) Irreversible APC (Cdh1) inactivation underlies the point of no return for cell-cycle entry. Cell 166: 167180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, B, Gilbert, LA, Cimini, BA, et al. (2013) Dynamic imaging of genomic loci in living human cells by an optimized CRISPR/Cas systemCell 155(7): 14791491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, AW, Wang, H, Yang, H, et al. (2013) Multiplexed activation of endogenous genes by CRISPR-on, an RNA-guided transcriptional activator system. Cell Research 23: 11631171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, JS, Ma, E, Harrington, LB, et al. (2018) CRISPR-Cas12a target binding unleashes indiscriminate single-stranded DNase activity. Science 360(6387): 436439.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cornet, D, Amar, E, Cohen, M, Menezo, Y (2015) Clinical evidence for the importance of 1-Carbon support in subfertile couples. Austin Journal of Reproductive Medicine and Infertility 2(2): 1011.Google Scholar
Cummins, JM (2002) The role of maternal mitochondria during oogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 4: 176182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cyranoski, D, Ledford, H (2018) Genome-edited baby provokes international outcry. Nature 563 (7733): 607608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeBaum, M, Niemitz, E, Feinberg, A (2003) Association of in vitro fertilization with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and epigenetic alterations of LitI and H19. American Journal of Human Genetics 72: 156160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebisch, IM, Peters, WH, Thomas, CM, et al. (2006) Homocysteine, glutathione and related thiols affect fertility parameters in the (sub) fertile couple. Human Reproduction 21: 17251733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ebisch, IM, Thomas, CM, Peters, WH (2007) The importance of folate, zinc and anti-oxidants in the pathogenesis and prevention of subfertility. Human Reproduction Update 13: 163174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evenson, DP (2016) The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and other sperm DNA fragmentation tests for evaluation of sperm nuclear DNA integrity as related to fertility. Animal Reproduction Science 169: 56-75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evenson, DP, Darzynkiewicz, Z, Melamed, MR (1980) Relation of mammalian sperm chromatin heterogeneity to fertility. Science 210: 11311133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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