Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-md8df Total loading time: 0.929 Render date: 2021-12-02T00:20:53.366Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chapter 6 - Implantation and Early Stages of Fetal Development

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Kay Elder
Affiliation:
Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge
Brian Dale
Affiliation:
Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Naples
Get access

Summary

During the transition from morula to blastocyst the embryo enters the uterus, where it is sustained by oxygen and a rich supply of metabolic substrates in uterine secretions. The subsequent sequence of events that lead to implantation is a crucial milestone in mammalian embryo development. Carefully orchestrated programs are set into action, which establish diverse cell lines, specify cell fate and major remodeling that will generate the embryo and its extraembryonic tissues: during gastrulation, the three primary germ layers that lead to body formation are formed. The critical conditions that are created in this early stage will pave the way to a successful pregnancy.

Type
Chapter
Information
In-Vitro Fertilization , pp. 120 - 134
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Baines, KJ, Renaud, SJ (2017) Transcription factors that regulate trophoblast development and function. In: Huckle, WR (ed.) Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, vol. 145. Academic Press, Burlington, MA pp. 3988.Google Scholar
Bourgain, C, Devroey, P (2007) Histologic and functional aspects of the endometrium in the implantatory phase. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 64(3): 131133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, S, Swan, HR, Seif, MW, Kimber, SJ, Aplin, JD (1995) Cell adhesion molecules on the oocyte and preimplantation human embryo. Molecular Human Reproduction 1(4): 171178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheon, YP, Xu, X, Bagchi, MK, Bagchi, IC (2003) IRG1 is a novel target of progesterone receptor and plays a critical role during implantation in the mouse. Endocrinology 144(12): 56235630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duc-Goiran, P, Mignot, TM, Bourgeois, C, Ferré, F (1999) Embryo-maternal interactions at the implantation site: a delicate equilibrium (Review). European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 83(1): 85100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grewal, S, Carver, JG, Ridley, AJ, Mardon, HJ (2008) Implantation of the human embryo requires Rac1 dependent endometrial stromal migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 1618916194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hempstock, J, Cindrova-Davies, T, Jauniaux, E, Burton, G (2004) Endometrial glands as a source of nutrients, growth factors and cytokines during the first trimester of human pregnancy: a morphological and immunohistochemical study. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2: 58. DOI:10.1186/1477-7827-2-58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horcajadas, JA, Pellicer, A, Simón, C (2007) Wide genomic analysis of human endometrial receptivity: new times, new opportunities. Human Reproduction Update 13(1): 7786.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
King, A, Burrows, T, Verma, S, Hiby, S, Loke, YW (1998) Human uterine lymphocytes. Human Reproduction Update 4(5): 480485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kliman, HJ (2000) The story of decidualization, menstruation, and trophoblast invasion. American Journal of Pathology 157: 17591768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, CQE, Gardner, L, Turco, M, Zhao, N, et al. (2016) What is trophoblast? A combination of criteria define human first trimester trophoblast. Stem Cell Reports 6: 257272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, K, Jeong, J, Kwak, I, et al. (2006) Indian hedgehog is a major mediator of progesterone signaling in the mouse uterus. Nature Genetics 38: 12041209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mardon, H, Grewal, S (2007) Experimental models for investigating implantation of the human embryo. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 25: 410417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffett, A, Shreeve, N (2015) First do no harm: uterine natural killer (NK) cells in assisted reproduction. Human Reproduction 30(7): 15191525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikas, G, Drakakis, P, Loutradis, D, et al. (1995) Uterine pinopodes as markers of the ‘nidation window’ in cycling women receiving exogenous oestradiol and progesterone. Human Reproduction 10(5): 12081213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parr, MB, Parr, EL (1964) Uterine luminal epithelium: protrusions mediate endocytosis, not apocrine secretion, in the rat. Biology of Reproduction 11(2): 220233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Psychoyos, A (1986) Uterine receptivity for nidation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 476: 3642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Psychoyos, A, Nikas, G, Gravanis, A (1995) The role of prostaglandins in blastocyst implantation. Human Reproduction 10(Suppl. 2): 3042.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherwin, JR, Sharkey, AM, Cameo, P, et al. (2007) Identification of novel genes regulated by hCG in baboon endometrium. Endocrinology 148: 618626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simon, C, Gimeno, MJ, Mercader, A, et al. (1997) Embryonic regulation of integrins in endometrial epithelial cells. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 26072616.Google ScholarPubMed
Simon, L, Spiewak, KA, Ekman, GC, et al. (2009) Stromal progesterone receptors mediate induction of IHH in uterine epithelium. Endocrinology 150: 38713876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turco, M, Gardner, L, Hughes, J, et al. (2017) Long-term, hormone-responsive organoid cultures of human endometrium in a chemically defined medium. Nature Cell Biology 19(5): 568577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, H, Dey, SK (2006) Roadmap to embryo implantation. Nature Reviews Genetics 7: 185199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilcox, AJ, Baird, DD, Dunson, D, McChesney, R, Weinberg, CR (2001) Natural limits of pregnancy testing in relation to the expected menstrual period. Journal of the American Medical Association 286(14): 17591761. Erratum in: JAMA 2002; 287(2): 192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilcox, AJ, Baird, DD, Weinberg, CR (1999) Time of implantation of the conceptus and loss of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine 340(23): 17961799.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deglincerti, A, Croft, GF, Pietila, LN, Zernicka-Goetz, M, Siggia, ED, Brivanlou, AH (2016) Self-organization of the in vitro attached human embryo. Nature 533: 251254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dorus, S, Anderson, JR, Vallender, EJ, et al. (2006) Sonic Hedgehog, a key development gene, experienced intensified molecular evolution in primates. Human Molecular Genetics 15(13): 20312037.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, SF (2000) Developmental Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
Herzog, W, Zeng, X, Lele, Z, et al. (2003) Adenohypophysis formation in the zebrafish and its dependence on sonic hedgehog. Developmental Biology 254: 1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Rahilly, RF, Müller, F (1987) Developmental Stages in Human Embryos. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Shabazi, MN, Jedrusik, A, Vuoristo, S et al. (2016) Self-organization of the human embryo in the absence of maternal tissues. Nature Cell Biology 18(6): 700708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baines, KJ, Renaud, SJ (2017) Transcription factors that regulate trophoblast development and function. In: Huckle, WR (ed.) Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, vol. 145. Academic Press, Burlington, MA pp. 3988.Google Scholar
Bourgain, C, Devroey, P (2007) Histologic and functional aspects of the endometrium in the implantatory phase. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 64(3): 131133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, S, Swan, HR, Seif, MW, Kimber, SJ, Aplin, JD (1995) Cell adhesion molecules on the oocyte and preimplantation human embryo. Molecular Human Reproduction 1(4): 171178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheon, YP, Xu, X, Bagchi, MK, Bagchi, IC (2003) IRG1 is a novel target of progesterone receptor and plays a critical role during implantation in the mouse. Endocrinology 144(12): 56235630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duc-Goiran, P, Mignot, TM, Bourgeois, C, Ferré, F (1999) Embryo-maternal interactions at the implantation site: a delicate equilibrium (Review). European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 83(1): 85100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grewal, S, Carver, JG, Ridley, AJ, Mardon, HJ (2008) Implantation of the human embryo requires Rac1 dependent endometrial stromal migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 1618916194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hempstock, J, Cindrova-Davies, T, Jauniaux, E, Burton, G (2004) Endometrial glands as a source of nutrients, growth factors and cytokines during the first trimester of human pregnancy: a morphological and immunohistochemical study. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2: 58. DOI:10.1186/1477-7827-2-58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horcajadas, JA, Pellicer, A, Simón, C (2007) Wide genomic analysis of human endometrial receptivity: new times, new opportunities. Human Reproduction Update 13(1): 7786.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
King, A, Burrows, T, Verma, S, Hiby, S, Loke, YW (1998) Human uterine lymphocytes. Human Reproduction Update 4(5): 480485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kliman, HJ (2000) The story of decidualization, menstruation, and trophoblast invasion. American Journal of Pathology 157: 17591768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, CQE, Gardner, L, Turco, M, Zhao, N, et al. (2016) What is trophoblast? A combination of criteria define human first trimester trophoblast. Stem Cell Reports 6: 257272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, K, Jeong, J, Kwak, I, et al. (2006) Indian hedgehog is a major mediator of progesterone signaling in the mouse uterus. Nature Genetics 38: 12041209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mardon, H, Grewal, S (2007) Experimental models for investigating implantation of the human embryo. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 25: 410417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffett, A, Shreeve, N (2015) First do no harm: uterine natural killer (NK) cells in assisted reproduction. Human Reproduction 30(7): 15191525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikas, G, Drakakis, P, Loutradis, D, et al. (1995) Uterine pinopodes as markers of the ‘nidation window’ in cycling women receiving exogenous oestradiol and progesterone. Human Reproduction 10(5): 12081213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parr, MB, Parr, EL (1964) Uterine luminal epithelium: protrusions mediate endocytosis, not apocrine secretion, in the rat. Biology of Reproduction 11(2): 220233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Psychoyos, A (1986) Uterine receptivity for nidation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 476: 3642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Psychoyos, A, Nikas, G, Gravanis, A (1995) The role of prostaglandins in blastocyst implantation. Human Reproduction 10(Suppl. 2): 3042.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherwin, JR, Sharkey, AM, Cameo, P, et al. (2007) Identification of novel genes regulated by hCG in baboon endometrium. Endocrinology 148: 618626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simon, C, Gimeno, MJ, Mercader, A, et al. (1997) Embryonic regulation of integrins in endometrial epithelial cells. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 26072616.Google ScholarPubMed
Simon, L, Spiewak, KA, Ekman, GC, et al. (2009) Stromal progesterone receptors mediate induction of IHH in uterine epithelium. Endocrinology 150: 38713876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turco, M, Gardner, L, Hughes, J, et al. (2017) Long-term, hormone-responsive organoid cultures of human endometrium in a chemically defined medium. Nature Cell Biology 19(5): 568577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, H, Dey, SK (2006) Roadmap to embryo implantation. Nature Reviews Genetics 7: 185199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilcox, AJ, Baird, DD, Dunson, D, McChesney, R, Weinberg, CR (2001) Natural limits of pregnancy testing in relation to the expected menstrual period. Journal of the American Medical Association 286(14): 17591761. Erratum in: JAMA 2002; 287(2): 192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilcox, AJ, Baird, DD, Weinberg, CR (1999) Time of implantation of the conceptus and loss of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine 340(23): 17961799.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deglincerti, A, Croft, GF, Pietila, LN, Zernicka-Goetz, M, Siggia, ED, Brivanlou, AH (2016) Self-organization of the in vitro attached human embryo. Nature 533: 251254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dorus, S, Anderson, JR, Vallender, EJ, et al. (2006) Sonic Hedgehog, a key development gene, experienced intensified molecular evolution in primates. Human Molecular Genetics 15(13): 20312037.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, SF (2000) Developmental Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
Herzog, W, Zeng, X, Lele, Z, et al. (2003) Adenohypophysis formation in the zebrafish and its dependence on sonic hedgehog. Developmental Biology 254: 1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Rahilly, RF, Müller, F (1987) Developmental Stages in Human Embryos. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Shabazi, MN, Jedrusik, A, Vuoristo, S et al. (2016) Self-organization of the human embryo in the absence of maternal tissues. Nature Cell Biology 18(6): 700708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×