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Chapter 3 - Gametes and Gametogenesis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Kay Elder
Affiliation:
Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge
Brian Dale
Affiliation:
Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Naples
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Summary

After a blastocyst has implanted in the uterus and begins to differentiate into the three primary germ layers, a special population of cells develops as primordial germ cells (PGCs). These are destined to become the gametes of the new individual: future reproduction of the organism is absolutely dependent upon the correct development of these unique populations of cells. They originate immediately behind the primitive streak in the extraembryonic mesoderm of the yolk sac; toward the end of gastrulation they move into the embryo via the allantois, and temporarily settle in the mesoderm and endoderm of the primitive streak. In humans, PGCs can be identified at about 3 weeks of gestation, close to the yolk sac endoderm at the root of the allantois.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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References

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Bachvarova, R (1985) Gene expression during oogenesis and oocyte development in mammals. In: Browder, LW (ed.) Developmental Biology. A Comprehensive Synthesis, Vol. 1: Oogenesis. Plenum, New York, pp. 453524.Google Scholar
Bellve, A, O’Brien, D (1983) The mammalian spermatozoon: structure and temporal assembly. In: Hartmann, JF (ed.) Mechanism and Control of Animal Fertilization. Academic Press, New York, pp. 56140.Google Scholar
Braun, RE (2000) Temporal control of protein synthesis during spermatogenesis. International Journal of Andrology 23(Suppl. 2): 9294.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briggs, D, Miller, D, Gosden, R (1999) Molecular biology of female gametogenesis. In: Fauser BCJM, Rutherford AJ, Strauss JF, Van Steirteghem A (eds.) Molecular Biology in Reproductive Medicine. Parthenon Press, New York, pp. 251267.Google Scholar
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Canipari, R (2000) Oocyte-granulosa cell interactions. Human Reproduction Update 6: 279289.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Griswold, MD (2016) Spermatogenesis: the commitment to meiosis. Physiological Reviews 96: 117.Google Scholar
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Briggs, D, Miller, D, Gosden, R (1999) Molecular biology of female gametogenesis. In: Fauser BCJM, Rutherford AJ, Strauss JF, Van Steirteghem A (eds.) Molecular Biology in Reproductive Medicine. Parthenon Press, New York, pp. 251267.Google Scholar
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Canipari, R (2000) Oocyte-granulosa cell interactions. Human Reproduction Update 6: 279289.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Clarkson, MJ, Harley, VR (2002) Sex with two SOX on: SRY and SOX9 in testis development. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13(3): 106111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Dekel, N (1996) Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the meiotic cell cycle of mammalian oocytes. Reviews of Reproduction 1: 8288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Eddy, EM (1998) Regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 9: 451457.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edwards, RG, Beard, H (1997) Oocyte polarity and cell determination in early mammalian embryos. Molecular Human Reproduction 3: 868905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elder, K, Elliott, T (eds.) (1998) The use of epididymal and testicular sperm in IVF. Worldwide Conferences in Reproductive Biology 2. Ladybrook Publications, Australia.Google Scholar
Epifano, O, Dean, J (2002) Genetic control of early folliculogenesis in mice. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13(4): 169173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eppig, JJ, O’Brien, MJ (1996) Development in vitro of mouse oocytes from primordial follicles. Biology of Reproduction 54: 197207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faddy, MJ, Gosden, RG (1995) A mathematical model for follicle dynamics in human ovaries. Human Reproduction 10: 770775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faddy, MJ, Gosden, RG (1996) Ovary and ovulation: a model conforming the decline in follicle numbers to the age of menopause in women. Human Reproduction 11(7): 14841486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fulka, J Jr., First, N, Moor, RM (1998) Nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants involved in the regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation. Molecular Human Reproduction 4(1): 4149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, R (1999) Polarity in early mammalian development. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 9(4): 417421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gosden, R (1995) Ovulation 1: oocyte development throughout life. In: Grudzinskas, JG, Yovich, JL (eds.) Gametes: The Oocyte. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 119149.Google Scholar
Gosden, RG, Boland, NI, Spears, N, et al. (1993) The biology and technology of follicular oocyte development in vitro. Reproductive Medicine Reviews 2: 129152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gosden, RG, Bownes, M (1995) Cellular and molecular aspects of oocyte development. In: Grudzinskas, JG, Yovich, JL (eds.) Cambridge Reviews in Human Reproduction, Gametes – The Oocyte. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 2353.Google Scholar
Gougeon, A (1996) Regulation of ovarian follicular development in primates: facts and hypotheses. Endocrine Reviews 17: 121155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griswold, MD (2016) Spermatogenesis: the commitment to meiosis. Physiological Reviews 96: 117.Google Scholar
Gurdon, JB (1967) On the origin and persistence of a cytoplasmic state inducing nuclear DNA synthesis in frog’s eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 58: 545552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henderson, SA, Edwards, RG (1968) Chiasma frequency and maternal age in mammals. Nature 217(136): 2228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hess, RA (1999) Spermatogenesis, overview. In: Knobil, E, Neill, JD (eds.) Encyclopedia of Reproduction, vol. 4. Academic Press, New York, pp. 539545.Google Scholar
Hillier, SG, Whitelaw, PF, Smyth, CD (1994) Follicular oestrogen synthesis: the ‘two-cell, two-gonadotrophin’ model revisited. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 100: 5154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirshfield, AN (1991) Development of follicles in the mammalian ovary. International Review of Cytology 124: 43100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutt, KJ, Albertini, DF (2007). An oocentric view of folliculogenesis and embryogenesis Reproductive BioMedicine Online 14(6): 758764.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, J, Bagley, J, Skaznik-Wikiel, M, et al. (2005) Oocyte generation in adult mammalian ovaries by putative germ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Cell 122: 303315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, M (2018) Essential Reproduction, 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
Jones, R (1998) Spermiogenesis and sperm maturation in relation to development of fertilizing capacity. In: Lauria, A, Gandolfi, F, Enne, G, Giannaroli, I, et al. (eds.) Gametes: Development and Function. Serono Symposia, Rome, pp. 205218.Google Scholar
Kobayashi, M, Nakano, R, Ooshima, A (1990) Immunohistochemical localization of pituitary gonadotrophins and gonadal steroids confirms the ‘two-cell, two-gonadotrophin’ hypothesis of steroidogenesis in the human ovary. Journal of Endocrinology 126(3): 483488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kramer, JA, McCarrey, JR, Djakiew, D, Krawetz, SA (1998) Differentiation: the selective potentiation of chromatin domains. Development 125: 47494755.Google ScholarPubMed
MacLaren, A (2003) Primordial germ cells in the mouse. Developmental Biology 262(1): 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masui, Y (1985) Meiotic arrest in animal oocytes. In: Metz, CB, Monroy, A (eds.) Biology of Fertilization. Academic Press, New York, pp. 189219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matzuk, MM, Burns, KH, Viveiros, MM, Eppig, JJ (2002) Intercellular communication in the mammalian ovary: oocytes carry the conversation. Science 296 (5576): 21782180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNatty, KP, Fidler, AE, Juengel, JL, et al. (2000) Growth and paracrine factors regulating follicular formation and cellular function. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 163: 1120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merchant-Larios, H, Moreno-Mendoza, N (2001) Onset of sex differentiation: dialog between genes and cells. Archives of Medical Research 32(6): 553558.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, HDM (1996) The influence of the epididymis on human and animal sperm maturation and storage. Human Reproduction 11(Suppl.): 103110.Google Scholar
Nurse, P (1990) Universal control mechanisms resulting in the onset of M-phase. Nature 344: 503508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oatley, JM, Brinster, RL (2012) The germline stem cell niche unit in mammalian testes. Physiological Reviews 92: 577595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oktay, K, Schenken, RS, Nelson, JF (1995) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen marks the initiation of follicular growth in the rat. Biology of Reproduction 53(2): 295301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pereda, J, Zorn, T, Soto-Suazo, M (2006) Migration of human and mouse primordial germ cells and colonization of the developing ovary: an ultrastructural and cytochemical study. Microscopy Research and Technique 69(6): 386395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perez, GI, Trbovich, AM, Gosden, RG, Tilly, JL (2000) Mitochondria and the death of oocytes. Nature 403(6769): 500501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Picton, HM, Briggs, D, Gosden, RG (1998) The molecular basis of oocyte growth and development. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 145: 2737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynard, K, Driancourt, MA (2000) Oocyte attrition. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 163: 101108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosner, MH, Vigano, MA, Ozato, K, et al. (1990) A POU-domain transcription factor in early stem cells and germ cells of the mammalian embryo. Nature 345(6277): 686692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sagata, N (1996) Meiotic metaphase arrest in animal oocytes: its mechanisms and biological significance. Trends in Cell Biology 6: 2228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sagata, N (1997) What does Mos do in oocytes and somatic cells? BioEssays 19: 1321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saitou, M, Payer, B, O’Carroll, D, Ohinata, Y, Surani, MA (2005). Blimp1 and the emergence of the germ line during development in the mouse. Cell Cycle 4: 17361740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schatten, H, Sun, QY (2009) The role of centrosomes in mammalian fertilization and its significance for ICSI. Molecular Human Reproduction 15(9): 531538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spears, N, Boland, NI, Murray, AA, Gosden, RG (1994) Mouse oocytes derived from in vitro grown primary ovarian follicles are fertile. Human Reproduction 9: 527532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Starz-Gaiano, M, Lehmann, R (2001) Moving towards the next generation. Mechanisms of Development 105(1–2): 518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutovsky, P, Fléchon, JE, Fléchon, B, et al. (1993) Dynamic changes of gap junctions and cytoskeleton in in vitro culture of cattle oocyte cumulus complexes. Biology of Reproduction 49: 12771287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swain, A, Lovell-Badge, R (1999) Mammalian sex determination: a molecular drama. Genes and Development 13(7): 755767.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, CT, Johnson, PM (1996) Complement-binding proteins are strongly expressed by human preimplantation blastocysts and cumulus cells as well as gametes. Molecular Human Reproduction 2: 5259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Telfer, EE (1996) The development of methods for isolation and culture of preantral follicles from bovine and porcine ovaries. Theriogenology 45: 101110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Telfer, EE, McLaughlin, M (2007) Natural history of the mammalian oocyte. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15(3): 288295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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