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Chapter 4 - Gamete Interaction

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Kay Elder
Affiliation:
Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge
Brian Dale
Affiliation:
Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Naples
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Summary

Mature human gametes ready for fertilization differ in their state of nuclear maturation: the spermatozoon has completed meiosis and the oocyte is arrested at metaphase II. However, both gametes must also undergo a process of cytoplasmic maturation before they are capable of fertilization. This involves a complex series of biochemical, physiological and structural events that occur in a carefully orchestrated temporal and spatial pattern in parallel with, but independent from, nuclear maturation. Cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation are often asynchronous (Dale, 2018a): therefore, a cohort of human metaphase II oocytes collected after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in an IVF program may appear to be similar with regards to the nuclear apparatus, but they are in fact at various stages of cytoplasmic maturation. This may partly explain the different developmental capabilities of embryos generated from a single cohort of oocytes.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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References

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Dale, B (1983a) Fertilization in Animals. Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
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Gwatkin, R (1974) Fertilization Mechanisms in Man and Mammals. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
Lauria, A, Gandolfi, E, Enne, G, Gianaroli, L (eds.) (1998) Gametes: Development and Function. Serono Symposia, Rome.Google Scholar
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Tosti, E, Boni, R (2004) Electrical events during gamete maturation and fertilization in animals and humans. Human Reproduction Update 10(1): 53-65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Conner, SJ, Lefièvre, L, Hughes, DC, Barratt, CL (2005) Cracking the egg: increased complexity in the zona pellucida. Human Reproduction 20: 11481152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dale, B (2016) Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy? Research and Reports in Biology 7: 4757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Dale, B, Di Matteo, L, Marino, M, Russo, G, Wilding, M (1999) Soluble sperm activating factor. In: Ganon, C (ed.) The Male Gamete: from Basic Knowledge to Clinical Applications. Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, pp. 291302.Google Scholar
Dale, B, Marino, M, Wilding, M (1998) Soluble sperm factor, factors or receptors. Molecular Human Reproduction 5: 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dale, B, Monroy, A (1981) How is polyspermy prevented? Gamete Research 4: 151169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dale, B, Tosti, E, Iaccarino, M (1995) Is the plasma membrane of the human oocyte reorganized following fertilisation and early cleavage? Zygote 3(1): 3136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dale, B, Wilding, M, Coppola, G, Tosti, E (2010) How do spermatozoa activate oocytes. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 21: 13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Gianaroli, L, Magli, C, Ferraretti, A, et al. (1996) Reducing the time of sperm-oocyte interaction in human IVF improves the implantation rate. Human Reproduction 11: 166171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Gupta, SK (2015) Role of zona pellucida glycoproteins during fertilization in humans. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 108: 9097.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gur, Y, Breitbart, H (2006) Mammalian sperm translate nuclear-encoded proteins by mitochondrial-type ribosomes. Genes and Development 20(4): 411416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Holubcova, Z, Howard, G, Schuh, M (2013) Vesicles modulate an actin network for asymmetric spindle positioning. Nature Cell Biology 15: 937947.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Jaffe, L (1980) Calcium explosions as triggers of development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 339: 86101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kinz, G, Beil, D, Deininger, H, Wildt, L, Leyendecker, G (1996) The dynamics of rapid sperm transport through the female genital tract: evidence from vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis and hysterosalpingoscintigraphy. Human Reproduction 11(3): 627632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lanzafame, F, Chapman, M, Guglielmino, A, Gearon, CM, Forman, RG (1994) Pharmacological stimulation of sperm motility. Human Reproduction 9(2): 192194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lefèvre, B (2008) The nucleolus of the maternal gamete is essential for life. Bioassays 30: 613616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lefièvre, L, Conner, SJ, Salpekar, A, et al. (2004) Four zona pellucida glycoproteins are expressed in the human. Human Reproduction 19: 15801586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lennarz, WJ (1994) Fertilization in sea urchins: how many different molecules are involved in gamete interaction and fusion? Zygote 2(1): 14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maro, B, Gueth-Hallonet, C, Aghion, J, Antony, C (1991) Cell polarity and microtubule organization during mouse early embryogenesis. Development Supplement 10: 1725.Google Scholar
Miller, MR, Mansell, SA, Meyers, SA, Lishko, PV (2015) Flagellar ion channels of sperm: similarities and differences between species. Cell Calcium 58: 105113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myles, DG (1992) Molecular mechanism of sperm-egg membrane binding and fusion in mammals. Developmental Biology 158: 3545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nasr-Esfahani, MH, Razavi, S, Mardani, M, Shirazi, R, Javanmardi, S (2007) Effects of failed oocyte activation and sperm protamine deficiency on fertilization post-ICSI. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 14(4): 422429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ogushi, S, Palmieri, C, Fulka, H, et al. (2008) The maternal nucleolus is essential for early embryonic development in mammals. Science 319: 613616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patrat, C, Auer, J, Fauque, P, et al. (2006) Zona pellucida from fertilised human oocytes induces a voltage-dependent calcium influx and the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa, but cannot be penetrated by sperm. BMC Developmental Biology 6: 59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ralt, D, Goldenberg, M, Fetterolf, P, et al. (1991) Sperm attraction to a follicular factor(s) correlates with human egg fertilizability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 88: 28402844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reichmann, J, Nijmeijer, B, Hossein, MJ (2018) Dual spindle formation in zygotes keeps parental genomes apart in early mammalian embryos. Science 361(6398): 189193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sakkas, D, Ramalingam, M, Garrido, N, Barratt, CLR (2015) Sperm selection in natural conception: what can we learn from Mother Nature to improve assisted reproduction outcomes? Human Reproduction Update 21(6): 711726.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santella, L, Alikani, M, Talansky, B, Cohen, J, Dale, B (1992) Is the human oocyte plasma membrane polarized? Human Reproduction 7: 9991003.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santella, L, Dale, B (2015). Assisted yes, but where do we draw the line? Reproductive BioMedicine Online 31: 476478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schatten, G, Simerly, C, Schatten, H (1991) Maternal inheritance of centrosomes in mammals; studies on parthenogenesis and polyspermy in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 88(15): 67856789.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulz, MC, Leblond, CP (1990) Nucleolar structure and synthetic activity during meiotic prophase and spermiogenesis in the rat. American Journal of Anatomy 189: 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, L, Alvero, R, Leondires, M, et al. (2000) The morphology of human pronuclear embryos is positively related to blastocyst development and implantation. Human Reproduction 15: 23942403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, S (1987) The existential decision of a sperm. Cell 49: 293294.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simerly, C, Wu, G, Zoran, S, et al. (1995) The paternal inheritance of the centrosome, the cell’s microtubule-organising center, in humans and the implications of infertility. Nature Medicine 1: 4753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spehr, M, Schwane, K, Riffell, JA, et al. (2004) Particulate adenylate cyclase plays a key role in human sperm olfactory receptor-mediated chemotaxis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 4019440203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suarez, SS, Pacey, AA (2006) Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Human Reproduction Update 12(1): 2327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutovsky, P, Navara, CS, Schatten, G (1996) Fate of the sperm mitochondria, and the incorporation, conversion, and disassembly of the sperm tail structures during bovine fertilization. Biology of Reproduction 55: 11951205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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  • Gamete Interaction
  • Kay Elder, Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, Brian Dale
  • Book: In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Online publication: 24 December 2019
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108611633.005
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  • Gamete Interaction
  • Kay Elder, Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, Brian Dale
  • Book: In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Online publication: 24 December 2019
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108611633.005
Available formats
×

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  • Gamete Interaction
  • Kay Elder, Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, Brian Dale
  • Book: In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Online publication: 24 December 2019
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108611633.005
Available formats
×