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Chapter 2 - Endocrine Control of Reproduction

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Kay Elder
Affiliation:
Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge
Brian Dale
Affiliation:
Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Naples
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Summary

Synchrony is essential for gametogenesis and correct embryo development, and a basic knowledge of reproductive endocrinology is fundamental to understanding synchrony in reproductive physiology. Although sexual arousal, erection and ejaculation in the male are obviously under cerebral control, it is less obvious that the ovarian and testicular cycles are also coordinated by the brain. For many years after the discovery of the gonadotropic hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), the anterior pituitary gland was considered to be an autonomous organ, until animal experiments in which lesions were induced in the hypothalamus clearly demonstrated that reproductive processes were mediated by the nervous system. The hypothalamus is a small inconspicuous part of the brain lying between the midbrain and the forebrain; unlike any other region of the brain, it not only receives sensory inputs from almost every other part of the central nervous system (CNS), but also sends nervous impulses to several endocrine glands and to pathways governing the activity of skeletal muscle, the heart and smooth muscle (Figure 2.1). Via a sophisticated network of neural signals and hormone release, the hypothalamus controls sexual cycles, growth, pregnancy, lactation and a wide range of other basic and emotional reactions. Each hypothalamic function is associated with one or more small areas that consist of aggregations of neurons called hypothalamic nuclei. In the context of reproduction, several groups of hypothalamic nuclei are connected to the underlying pituitary gland by neural and vascular connections.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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References

Allahbadia, GN, Morimoto, Y (2016) Ovarian Stimulation Protocols. Springer, India.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Austin, CT, Short, RV (1972) Reproduction in Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
Balen, A (2014) Infertility in Practice. Informa Healthcare, London.Google Scholar
Carr, BR, Blackwell, RE, Azziz, R (2005) Essential Reproductive Medicine. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
Johnson, MH (2018) Essential Reproduction, 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
Ben-Meir, A, Burstein, E, Borrego-Alvarez, A, et al. (2015) Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging. Aging Cell 14: 887895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourgain, C, Devroey, P (2003) The endometrium in stimulated cycles for IVF. Human Reproduction Update 9(6): 515522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brinsden, P (2005) Superovulation strategies in assisted conception. In: Brinsden, P (ed.) A Textbook of In Vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction, 3rd edn. Taylor-Francis, London, pp. 177188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broer, SL, Dólleman, M, Opmeer, BC, et al. (2011) AMH and AFC as predictors of excessive response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: a meta-analysis. Human Reproduction Update 17(1): 4654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cai, J, Lou, H-Y, Dong, M-Y, et al. (2007) Poor ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation is associated with low expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in granulosa cells. Fertility and Sterility 87(6): 13501356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cargill, M, Altshuler, D, Ireland, J, et al. (1999) Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nature Genetics 22: 231238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, EM, Song, HS, Lee, DR, et al. (2014) In vitro maturation of human oocytes: its role in infertility treatment and new possibilities. Clinical Experiments in Reproductive Medicine 41(2): 4146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chian, RC, Cao, YX (2014) In vitro maturation of immature human oocytes for clinical application. Methods in Molecular Biology 1154: 271288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conway, GS (1996) Clinical manifestations of genetic defects affecting gonadotrophins and their receptors. Clinical Endocrinology 45: 657663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cortvrindt, R, Smitz, J, Van Steirteghem, AC (1997) Assessment of the need for follicle stimulating hormone in early preantral mouse follicle culture in vitro. Human Reproduction 12: 759768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Desai, AS, Achrekar, AK, Paranjape, SR, et al. (2013) Association of allelic combinations of FSHR gene polymorphisms with ovarian response. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 27: 400406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devroey, P, Boostanfar, R, Koper, NP, Mannaerts, BM, Ijzerman-Boon, PC, Fauser, BC (2009) A double-blind, non-inferiority RCT comparing corifollitropin alfa and recombinant FSH during the first seven days of ovarian stimulation using a GnRH antagonist protocol. Human Reproduction 24: 30633072.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durlinger, AL, Gruijters, MJ, Kramer, P, et al. (2001) Anti-Müllerian hormone attenuates the effects of FSH on follicle development in the mouse ovary. Endocrinology 142: 48914899.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fanchin, R, Louafi, N, Mendez Lozano, DH, Frydman, N, Frydman, R, Taieb, J (2005) Per-follicle measurements indicate that anti-mullerian hormone secretion is modulated by the extent of follicular development and luteinization and may reflect qualitatively the ovarian follicular status. Fertility and Sterility 84: 167173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fowler, RE, Edwards, RG (1957) Induction of superovulation and pregnancy in mature mice by gonadotrophins. Journal of Endocrinology 15: 374384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillier, SG (1991) Regulatory functions for inhibin and activin in human ovaries. Journal of Endocrinology 131: 171175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillier, SG (2009) The science of ovarian ageing: How might knowledge be translated into practice? In: Bewley, S, Ledger, W, Nikolaou, D (eds.) Reproductive Ageing. RCOG Press, London, pp. 7587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howles, CM, Macnamee, MC, Edwards, RG (1987) Follicular development and early luteal function of conception and non-conceptual cycles after human in vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction 2: 1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howles, CM, Macnamee, MC, Edwards, RG, Goswamy, R, Steptoe, PC (1986) Effect of high tonic levels of luteinizing hormone on outcome of in vitro fertilization. Lancet 2: 521522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kevenaar, ME, Themmen, AP, Laven, JS, et al. (2007) Anti-Müllerian hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor polymorphisms are associated with follicular phase estradiol levels in normo-ovulatory women. Human Reproduction 22: 15471554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, TR, Wang, Y, Lu, N, Matzuk, MM (1997) Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility. Nature Genetics 15: 201203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
La Marca, A, De Leo, V, Giulini, S, et al. (2005) Anti-Mullerian hormone in premenopausal women and after spontaneous or surgically induced menopause. Journal of the Society for Gynecological Investigation 12(7): 545548.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Marca, A, Malmusi, S, Giulini, S, et al. (2004) Anti-Mullerian hormone plasma levels in spontaneous menstrual cycle and during treatment with FSH to induce ovulation. Human Reproduction 19(12): 27382741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Marca, A, Sighinolfi, G, Radi, D, et al. (2010) Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a predictive marker in assisted reproductive technology. Human Reproduction Update 16(2): 113130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Marca, A, Stabile, G, Artenisio, AC, Volpe, A (2006) Serum anti-Müllerian hormone throughout the human menstrual cycle. Human Reproduction 21: 31033107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lamminen, T, Huhtaniemi, I (2001) A common genetic variant of luteinizing hormone: relation to normal and aberrant pituitary-gonadal function. European Journal of Pharmacology 414: 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loumaye, E, Engrand, P, Howles, CM, O’Dea, L (1997) Assessment of the role of serum luteinizing hormone and estradiol response to follicle-stimulating hormone on in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertility and Sterility 67: 889899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macnamee, MC, Howles, CM, Edwards, RG, et al. (1989) Short term luteinising hormone agonist treatment: prospective trial of a novel ovarian stimulation regimen for in vitro fertilisation. Fertility and Sterility 52: 264269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilsson, E, Rogers, N, Skinner, MK (2007) Actions of anti-Mullerian hormone on the ovarian transcriptome to inhibit primordial to primary follicle transition. Reproduction 134(2): 209221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oudshoom, SC, van Tilborg, TC, Eijkemans, MJC, et al. (2017) Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder. Human Reproduction 32(12): 25062514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perez-Mayorga, M, Gromoll, J, Behre, HM, et al. (2000). Ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation depends on the FSH receptor genotype. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85(9): 33653369.Google ScholarPubMed
Pigny, P, Jonard, S, Robert, Y, Dewailly, D (2006) Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone as a surrogate for antral follicle count for definition of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91: 941945.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Regan, L, Owen, EJ, Jacobs, HS (1990) Hypersecretion of luteinising hormone, infertility, and miscarriage. Lancet 336: 11411144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shenfield, F (1996) FSH: what is its role in infertility treatments, and particularly in IVF? Medical Dialogue 471: 14.Google Scholar
Silvestris, E, Cohen, M, Cornet, D, et al. (2017) Supporting the One-Carbon Cycle restores ovarian reserve in subfertile women: absence of correlation with urinary Bisphenol A concentration. BioResearch Open Access 6(1). DOI: 10.1089/biores.2017.0016.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simoni, M, Nieschlag, E, Gromoll, J (2002) Isoforms and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the FSH receptor gene: implications for human reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 8(5): 413421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steiner, AZ, Pritchard, D, Stanczyk, FZ, et al. (2017) Association between biomarkers of ovarian reserve and infertility among older women of reproductive age. Journal of the American Medical Association 318(14): 13671376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Su, HI, Sammel, MD, Freeman, EW, et al. (2008) Body size affects measures of ovarian reserve in late reproductive age women. Menopause 15: 857861.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tavaniotou, A, Smitz, J, Bourgain, C, Devroey, P (2001) Ovulation induction disrupts luteal phase function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 943: 5563.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Telfer, EE (1996) The development of methods for isolation and culture of preantral follicles from bovine and porcine ovaries. Theriogenology 45: 101110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tohlob, D, Hshem, EA, Gharreb, N, et al. (2016) Association of a promoter polymorphism in FSHR with ovarian reserve and response to ovarian stimulation in women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 33: 391397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tournaye, H, Sukhikh, GT, Kahler, E, Griesinger, G (2017) A Phase III randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral dydrogesterone versus micronized vaginal progesterone for luteal support in in vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction 32(5): 10191027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ulug, U, Ben-Shlomo, I, Turan, E, Erden, HF, Akman, MA, Bahceci, M (2003) Conception rates following assisted reproduction in poor responder patients: a retrospective study in 300 consecutive cycles. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 6: 439443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Visser, JA, Themmen, AP (2005) Anti-Müllerian hormone and folliculogenesis. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 234: 8186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webber, LJ, Stubbs, S, Stark, J, et al. (2003) Formation and early development of follicles in the polycystic ovary. Lancet 362: 10171021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weenen, C, Laven, JS, Von Bergh, AR, et al. (2004) Anti-Mullerian hormone expression pattern in the human ovary: potential implications for initial and cyclic follicle recruitment. Molecular Human Reproduction 10: 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wunder, DM, Bersinger, NA, Yared, M, Kretschmer, R, Birkhauser, MH (2008). Statistically significant changes of anti-mullerian hormone and inhibin levels during the physiologic menstrual cycle in reproductive age women. Fertility and Sterility 89: 927933.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allahbadia, GN, Morimoto, Y (2016) Ovarian Stimulation Protocols. Springer, India.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Austin, CT, Short, RV (1972) Reproduction in Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
Balen, A (2014) Infertility in Practice. Informa Healthcare, London.Google Scholar
Carr, BR, Blackwell, RE, Azziz, R (2005) Essential Reproductive Medicine. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
Johnson, MH (2018) Essential Reproduction, 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
Ben-Meir, A, Burstein, E, Borrego-Alvarez, A, et al. (2015) Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging. Aging Cell 14: 887895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourgain, C, Devroey, P (2003) The endometrium in stimulated cycles for IVF. Human Reproduction Update 9(6): 515522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brinsden, P (2005) Superovulation strategies in assisted conception. In: Brinsden, P (ed.) A Textbook of In Vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction, 3rd edn. Taylor-Francis, London, pp. 177188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broer, SL, Dólleman, M, Opmeer, BC, et al. (2011) AMH and AFC as predictors of excessive response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: a meta-analysis. Human Reproduction Update 17(1): 4654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cai, J, Lou, H-Y, Dong, M-Y, et al. (2007) Poor ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation is associated with low expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in granulosa cells. Fertility and Sterility 87(6): 13501356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cargill, M, Altshuler, D, Ireland, J, et al. (1999) Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nature Genetics 22: 231238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, EM, Song, HS, Lee, DR, et al. (2014) In vitro maturation of human oocytes: its role in infertility treatment and new possibilities. Clinical Experiments in Reproductive Medicine 41(2): 4146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chian, RC, Cao, YX (2014) In vitro maturation of immature human oocytes for clinical application. Methods in Molecular Biology 1154: 271288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conway, GS (1996) Clinical manifestations of genetic defects affecting gonadotrophins and their receptors. Clinical Endocrinology 45: 657663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cortvrindt, R, Smitz, J, Van Steirteghem, AC (1997) Assessment of the need for follicle stimulating hormone in early preantral mouse follicle culture in vitro. Human Reproduction 12: 759768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Desai, AS, Achrekar, AK, Paranjape, SR, et al. (2013) Association of allelic combinations of FSHR gene polymorphisms with ovarian response. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 27: 400406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devroey, P, Boostanfar, R, Koper, NP, Mannaerts, BM, Ijzerman-Boon, PC, Fauser, BC (2009) A double-blind, non-inferiority RCT comparing corifollitropin alfa and recombinant FSH during the first seven days of ovarian stimulation using a GnRH antagonist protocol. Human Reproduction 24: 30633072.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durlinger, AL, Gruijters, MJ, Kramer, P, et al. (2001) Anti-Müllerian hormone attenuates the effects of FSH on follicle development in the mouse ovary. Endocrinology 142: 48914899.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fanchin, R, Louafi, N, Mendez Lozano, DH, Frydman, N, Frydman, R, Taieb, J (2005) Per-follicle measurements indicate that anti-mullerian hormone secretion is modulated by the extent of follicular development and luteinization and may reflect qualitatively the ovarian follicular status. Fertility and Sterility 84: 167173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fowler, RE, Edwards, RG (1957) Induction of superovulation and pregnancy in mature mice by gonadotrophins. Journal of Endocrinology 15: 374384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillier, SG (1991) Regulatory functions for inhibin and activin in human ovaries. Journal of Endocrinology 131: 171175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillier, SG (2009) The science of ovarian ageing: How might knowledge be translated into practice? In: Bewley, S, Ledger, W, Nikolaou, D (eds.) Reproductive Ageing. RCOG Press, London, pp. 7587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howles, CM, Macnamee, MC, Edwards, RG (1987) Follicular development and early luteal function of conception and non-conceptual cycles after human in vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction 2: 1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howles, CM, Macnamee, MC, Edwards, RG, Goswamy, R, Steptoe, PC (1986) Effect of high tonic levels of luteinizing hormone on outcome of in vitro fertilization. Lancet 2: 521522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kevenaar, ME, Themmen, AP, Laven, JS, et al. (2007) Anti-Müllerian hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor polymorphisms are associated with follicular phase estradiol levels in normo-ovulatory women. Human Reproduction 22: 15471554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, TR, Wang, Y, Lu, N, Matzuk, MM (1997) Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility. Nature Genetics 15: 201203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
La Marca, A, De Leo, V, Giulini, S, et al. (2005) Anti-Mullerian hormone in premenopausal women and after spontaneous or surgically induced menopause. Journal of the Society for Gynecological Investigation 12(7): 545548.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Marca, A, Malmusi, S, Giulini, S, et al. (2004) Anti-Mullerian hormone plasma levels in spontaneous menstrual cycle and during treatment with FSH to induce ovulation. Human Reproduction 19(12): 27382741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Marca, A, Sighinolfi, G, Radi, D, et al. (2010) Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a predictive marker in assisted reproductive technology. Human Reproduction Update 16(2): 113130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Marca, A, Stabile, G, Artenisio, AC, Volpe, A (2006) Serum anti-Müllerian hormone throughout the human menstrual cycle. Human Reproduction 21: 31033107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lamminen, T, Huhtaniemi, I (2001) A common genetic variant of luteinizing hormone: relation to normal and aberrant pituitary-gonadal function. European Journal of Pharmacology 414: 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loumaye, E, Engrand, P, Howles, CM, O’Dea, L (1997) Assessment of the role of serum luteinizing hormone and estradiol response to follicle-stimulating hormone on in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertility and Sterility 67: 889899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macnamee, MC, Howles, CM, Edwards, RG, et al. (1989) Short term luteinising hormone agonist treatment: prospective trial of a novel ovarian stimulation regimen for in vitro fertilisation. Fertility and Sterility 52: 264269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilsson, E, Rogers, N, Skinner, MK (2007) Actions of anti-Mullerian hormone on the ovarian transcriptome to inhibit primordial to primary follicle transition. Reproduction 134(2): 209221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oudshoom, SC, van Tilborg, TC, Eijkemans, MJC, et al. (2017) Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder. Human Reproduction 32(12): 25062514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perez-Mayorga, M, Gromoll, J, Behre, HM, et al. (2000). Ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation depends on the FSH receptor genotype. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85(9): 33653369.Google ScholarPubMed
Pigny, P, Jonard, S, Robert, Y, Dewailly, D (2006) Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone as a surrogate for antral follicle count for definition of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91: 941945.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Regan, L, Owen, EJ, Jacobs, HS (1990) Hypersecretion of luteinising hormone, infertility, and miscarriage. Lancet 336: 11411144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shenfield, F (1996) FSH: what is its role in infertility treatments, and particularly in IVF? Medical Dialogue 471: 14.Google Scholar
Silvestris, E, Cohen, M, Cornet, D, et al. (2017) Supporting the One-Carbon Cycle restores ovarian reserve in subfertile women: absence of correlation with urinary Bisphenol A concentration. BioResearch Open Access 6(1). DOI: 10.1089/biores.2017.0016.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simoni, M, Nieschlag, E, Gromoll, J (2002) Isoforms and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the FSH receptor gene: implications for human reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 8(5): 413421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steiner, AZ, Pritchard, D, Stanczyk, FZ, et al. (2017) Association between biomarkers of ovarian reserve and infertility among older women of reproductive age. Journal of the American Medical Association 318(14): 13671376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Su, HI, Sammel, MD, Freeman, EW, et al. (2008) Body size affects measures of ovarian reserve in late reproductive age women. Menopause 15: 857861.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tavaniotou, A, Smitz, J, Bourgain, C, Devroey, P (2001) Ovulation induction disrupts luteal phase function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 943: 5563.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Telfer, EE (1996) The development of methods for isolation and culture of preantral follicles from bovine and porcine ovaries. Theriogenology 45: 101110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tohlob, D, Hshem, EA, Gharreb, N, et al. (2016) Association of a promoter polymorphism in FSHR with ovarian reserve and response to ovarian stimulation in women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 33: 391397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tournaye, H, Sukhikh, GT, Kahler, E, Griesinger, G (2017) A Phase III randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral dydrogesterone versus micronized vaginal progesterone for luteal support in in vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction 32(5): 10191027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ulug, U, Ben-Shlomo, I, Turan, E, Erden, HF, Akman, MA, Bahceci, M (2003) Conception rates following assisted reproduction in poor responder patients: a retrospective study in 300 consecutive cycles. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 6: 439443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Visser, JA, Themmen, AP (2005) Anti-Müllerian hormone and folliculogenesis. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 234: 8186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webber, LJ, Stubbs, S, Stark, J, et al. (2003) Formation and early development of follicles in the polycystic ovary. Lancet 362: 10171021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weenen, C, Laven, JS, Von Bergh, AR, et al. (2004) Anti-Mullerian hormone expression pattern in the human ovary: potential implications for initial and cyclic follicle recruitment. Molecular Human Reproduction 10: 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wunder, DM, Bersinger, NA, Yared, M, Kretschmer, R, Birkhauser, MH (2008). Statistically significant changes of anti-mullerian hormone and inhibin levels during the physiologic menstrual cycle in reproductive age women. Fertility and Sterility 89: 927933.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

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