Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-f7d5f74f5-vmlfj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-03T14:23:40.063Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

23 - An Effective Regulatory Regime Supported by Research and Development Is Key to Adoption of GM Technology in West Africa: Burkina Faso and Nigeria as Case Studies

from Part IV - Case Studies from Developing Countries

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 July 2017

Ademola A. Adenle
Colorado State University
E. Jane Morris
University of Leeds
Denis J. Murphy
University of South Wales
Get access


The adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops is currently limited to a few African countries such as South Africa, Sudan and Burkina Faso partly due to lack of functional biosafety systems and precautionary principles invoked by many Africa countries. Out of these three countries, Burkina Faso is the only West African country growing a GM crop on a commercial basis. This chapter discusses the achievement of Burkina Faso with Bt cotton; especially how it has benefitted small-scale farmers; how Burkina Faso became a showcase for GM technology in Africa; the current scenario of the technology in West Africa with focus on Burkina Faso's experience; and developments coming from other West African countries, specifically Ghana and Nigeria. The chapter describes the challenges of adoption of GM technology, citing the example of Bt cotton qualities, as recently revealed in Burkina Faso and how this may affect other countries' uptake of GM technology in the sub-region. Finally, the chapter emphasises the need to increase the level of expertise in biosafety areas and strengthen the scientific community by investing in modern biotechnology R&D programmes.
Genetically Modified Organisms in Developing Countries
Risk Analysis and Governance
, pp. 271 - 282
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adenle, A. A. (2014). Stakeholders’ perception of GM technology in West Africa: assessing the responses of policymakers and scientists in Ghana and Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27(2), 241263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adenle, A. A. et al. (2013). Status of development, regulation and adoption of GM agriculture in Africa: views and positions of stakeholder groups. Food Policy 43, 159166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, et al. (2004). Economic impact of genetically modified cotton in India. AgBioForum 7(3), 15.Google Scholar
Bett, C. et al. (2010). Perspectives of gatekeepers in the Kenyan food industry towards genetically modified food. Food Policy 35, 332340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brookes, G. and Barfoot, P. (2012). GM Crops: Global Socio-economic and Environmental Impacts 1996–2010. Dorchester: PG Economics Ltd.Google Scholar
Carpenter, J. E. (2011). Impacts of GM crops on biodiversity. Landes Bioscience 2, 117.Google ScholarPubMed
Dowd-Uribe, B. and Schnurr, M. A. (2016). Briefing: Burkina Faso's Reversal on Genetically Modified Cotton and the Implications for Africa. African Affairs 1–12. [Online]. Available from
James, C. (2013). Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013. ISAAA Brief No. 46. Ithaca, NY: ISAAA.
James, C. (2014). Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014. ISAAA Brief No. 49. Ithaca, NY: ISAAA.
James, C. (2015). Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2015. ISAAA Brief No. 51. Ithaca, NY: ISAAA.
Kikulwe, E. M. et al. (2011). Attitude, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda. Appetite 57(2), 401413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
NBS (2015). Nigeria in 2014: Economic Review and 2015–2017 Outlook. [Online]. Available from
Nin-Pratt, A. et al. (2011). Yield gaps and potential agricultural growth in West Africa and Central Africa. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
OECD (2006). Cotton – West Africa in the international market. [Online]. Available from
Savadogo, K. (2009). Le contexte macroéconomique. Background paper for the Burkina Faso Country Economic Memorandum. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Savadogo, M. (2014). Case study – Burkina Faso. In Biosafety in Africa: Experiences and Best Practices, ed. Keetch, D. et al. Michigan, MI: Michigan State University Press, pp. 8288.Google Scholar
Traoré, H. et al. (2014a). Agricultural R&D in Burkina Faso. An assessment of the Environment and Agricultural Research Institute. [Online]. Available from
Traoré, H. et al. (2014b). Bt cotton in Burkina Faso demonstrates that political will is key for biotechnology to benefit commercial agriculture in Africa. In Biotechnology in Africa: Emergence, Initiatives and Future, ed. Wambugu, F. and Kamanga, D.. Basel: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp. 1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Traoré, O. et al. (2008). Testing the efficacy and economic potential of Bollgard II under Burkina Faso cropping conditions. The Journal of Cotton Science 12, 8798.Google Scholar
Vitale, J. D. (2010). The commercial application of GMO crops in Africa: Burkina Faso's decade of experience with Bt cotton. AgBioForum 13(4), 320332.Google Scholar
Vitale, J. D. et al. (2011). Enhancing sustainability of cotton production systems in West Africa: a summary of empirical evidence from Burkina Faso. Sustainability 3, 11361169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats