Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-6vg6l Total loading time: 1.542 Render date: 2022-12-02T04:38:44.973Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

8 - Methodological Issues in Outcome Evaluation of Complex Interventions Aiming at Lifestyle Change

from Methodology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 January 2017

Moshe Israelashvili
Tel-Aviv University
John L. Romano
University of Minnesota
Get access
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aarons, G. A. (2005). Measuring provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice: consideration of organizational context and individual differences. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 14: 255–71, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2004.04.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abar, C. C., Jackson, K. M., Colby, S. M., & Barnett, N. P. (2014). Common and unique parenting predictors of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors 39: 1528–32. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.06.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
APA (American Psychological Association). (2014). Guidelines for prevention in psychology. American Psychologist, 69, 285296. doi: 10.1037/a0034569CrossRef
Atherton, H., Huckvale, C., & Car, J. (2010). Communicating health promotion and disease prevention information to patients via email: a review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 16: 172–5. doi: 10.1258/jtt.2010.004002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google ScholarPubMed
Bleich, S. N., Barry, C. L., Gary-Webb, T. L., & Herring, B. J. (2014). Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by providing caloric information: how black adolescents alter their purchases and whether the effects persist. American Journal of Public Health 104: 2417–24. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302150CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bleich, S. N., Herring, B. J., Flagg, D. D., & Gary-Webb, T. L. (2012). Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income black adolescents after exposure to caloric information. American Journal of Public Health 102: 329–35. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300350CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bobinac, A., van Exel, N. J., Rutten, F. F., & Brouwer, W. B. (2012). Inquiry into the relationship between equity weights and the value of the QALY. Value in Health 15: 1119–26. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2012.07.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bricker, J. B., Peterson, A. V., Robyn Andersen, M., Leroux, B. G., Bharat Rajan, K., & Sarason, I. G. (2006). Close friends’, parents’, and older siblings’ smoking: reevaluating their influence on children’s smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 8: 217–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Britton, A., McKee, M., Black, N., McPherson, K., Sanderson, C., & Bain, C. (1999). Threats to applicability of randomised trials: exclusions and selective participation. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 4: 112–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, T., Platt, S., & Amos, A. (2014). Equity impact of European individual-level smoking cessation interventions to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review. European Journal of Public Health 24: 551–56. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku065Google Scholar
Campbell, M., Fitzpatrick, R., Haines, A., Kinmonth, A. L., Sandercock, P., Spiegelhalter, D., & Tyrer, P. (2000). Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. British Medical Journal 321: 694–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charafeddine, R., Demarest, S., Van der Heyden, J., Tafforeau, J., & Van Oyen, H. (2013). Using multiple measures of inequalities to study the time trends in social inequalities in smoking. European Journal of Public Health 23: 546–51. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cks083CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, L. M., Baker, T. B., Mermelstein, R. J., Piper, M. E., Jorenby, D. E., Smith, S. S., … Fiore, M. C. (2011). The multiphase optimization strategy for engineering effective tobacco use interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 41: 208–26. doi: 10.1007/s12160-010–9253-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooney, G. M., Dwan, K., Greig, C. A., Lawlor, D. A., Rimer, J., Waugh, F. R., … Mead, G. E. (2013). Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9: CD004366. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., & Petticrew, M. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. British Medical Journal 337: a1655. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1655Google ScholarPubMed
Culyer, A. J. (1989). The normative economics of health care finance and provision. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 5: 3458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deogan, C., Zarabi, N., Stenstrom, N., Hogberg, P., Skarstrand, E., Manrique-Garcia, E., … Mansdotter, A. (2015). Cost-effectiveness of school-based prevention of cannabis use. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 13: 525–42. doi: 10.1007/s40258-015–0175-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Des Jarlais, D. C., Lyles, C., & Crepaz, N. (2004). Improving the reporting quality of nonrandomized evaluations of behavioral and public health interventions: the TREND statement. American Journal of Public Health 94: 361–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drummond, M. F., O’Brien, B., Stoddart, G. L., & Torrance, G. W. (2005). Methods for Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, 3rd ed. Corby Northants, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Eriksson, T., Maclure, M., & Kragstrup, J. (2005). To what extent do mass media health messages trigger patients’ contacts with their GPs? British Journal of General Practice 55: 212–17.Google ScholarPubMed
Faggiano, F., Allara, E., Giannotta, F., Molinar, R., Sumnall, H., Wiers, R., … Conrod, P. (2014). Europe needs a central, transparent, and evidence-based approval process for behavioural prevention interventions. PLoS Medicine 11: e1001740. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flay, B. R. (1986). Efficacy and effectiveness trials (and other phases of research) in the development of health promotion programs. Preventive Medicine, 15, 451474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flay, B. R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R. F., Castro, F. G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., … Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention Science 6: 151–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glasgow, R. E., & Emmons, K. M. (2007). How can we increase translation of research into practice? Types of evidence needed. Annual Review of Public Health 28: 413–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glasgow, R. E., Klesges, L. M., Dzewaltowski, D. A., Bull, S. S., & Estabrooks, P. (2004). The future of health behavior change research: what is needed to improve translation of research into health promotion practice? Annals of Behavioral Medicine 27: 312. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm2701_2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, J. (2015). Editorial: process to progress? Investigative trials, mechanism and clinical science. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 56: 13. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12377CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guyatt, G., Oxman, A. D., Akl, E. A., Kunz, R., Vist, G., Brozek, J., … Schunemann, H. J. (2011). GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 383–94. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2010.04.026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Habicht, J. P., Victora, C. G., & Vaughan, J. P. (1999). Evaluation designs for adequacy, plausibility and probability of public health programme performance and impact. International Journal of Epidemiology 28: 1018.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hallgren, M., Kraepelien, M., Ojehagen, A., Lindefors, N., Zeebari, Z., Kaldo, V., & Forsell, Y. (2015). Physical exercise and Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of depression: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 207: 227–34. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.160101CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawe, P., Di Ruggiero, E., & Cohen, E. (2012). Frequently asked questions about population health intervention research. Canadian Journal of Public Health 103: e468–71.Google ScholarPubMed
Henderson, J., Milligan, K., Niccols, A., Thabane, L., Sword, W., Smith, A., & Rosenkranz, S. (2012). Reporting of feasibility factors in publications on integrated treatment programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children: a systematic review and analysis. Health Research Policy and Systems 10: 37. doi: 10.1186/1478–4505-10–37CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hernan, M. A., Hernandez-Diaz, S., & Robins, J. M. (2013). Randomized trials analyzed as observational studies. Annals of Internal Medicine 159: 560–2. doi: 1735165Google ScholarPubMed
Hiscock, R., Murray, S., Brose, L. S., McEwen, A., Bee, J. L., Dobbie, F., & Bauld, L. (2013). Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: the effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers. Addictive Behaviors 38: 2787–96, doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.07.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofler, M. (2005a). Causal inference based on counterfactuals. BMC Medical Research Methodology 5: 28. doi: 1471–2288-5-28CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofler, M. (2005b). The effect of misclassification on the estimation of association: a review. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 14: 92101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hysong, S. J., Best, R. G., & Pugh, J. A. (2006). Audit and feedback and clinical practice guideline adherence: making feedback actionable. Implementation Science 1: 9. doi: 1748–5908-1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Institute of Health Equity (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives: The Marmot Review Executive Summary.
Johannesson, M., & Gerdtham, U. (1996). A note on the estimation of the equity-efficiency trade-off for QALYs. Journal of Health Economics 15: 359–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lich, K. H., Ginexi, E. M., Osgood, N. D., & Mabry, P. L. (2013). A call to address complexity in prevention science research. Prevention Science 14: 279–89. doi: 10.1007/s11121-012–0285-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindholm, L., & Rosen, M. (1998). On the measurement of the nation’s equity adjusted health. Health Economics 7: 621–8. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1050(1998110)3.0.CO;2-Y>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maclure, M., & Mittleman, M. A. (2000). Should we use a case-crossover design? Annual Review of Public Health 21: 193221. doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.21.1.193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mascha, E. J., Dalton, J. E., Kurz, A., & Saager, L. (2013). Statistical grand rounds: understanding the mechanism: mediation analysis in randomized and nonrandomized studies. Anesthesia & Analgesia 117: 980–94. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182a44cb9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miettinen, O. S. (2010). Etiologic study vis-a-vis intervention study. European Journal of Epidemiology 25: 671–5. doi: 10.1007/s10654-010–9486-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mittleman, M. A., & Mostofsky, E. (2014). Exchangeability in the case-crossover design. International Journal of Epidemiology 43: 1645–55. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu081CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Molinar, R., Coppo, A., & Faggiano, F. (2014). Effective interventions for prevention of alcohol abuse and illicit substance use in adolescence: reviewing theories and mediators. Paper presented at the European Society for Prevention Research, Palma de Mallorca.
Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (eds.). (1994). Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders.Google Scholar
Oxman, A. D., Lavis, J. N., Lewin, S., & Fretheim, A. (2009). SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health policymaking (STP) 10: taking equity into consideration when assessing the findings of a systematic review. Health Research Policy and Systems 7 (Suppl 1): S10. doi: 10.1186/1478–4505-7-S1-S10CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rickles, D. (2009). Causality in complex interventions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12: 7790. doi: 10.1007/s11019-008–9140-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saltz, R., Biglan, A., Miller Brotman, L., Gonzalez Castro, F., & Gorman-Smith, D. Advocacy for Prevention Science.
Schwartz, S., Campbell, U. B., Gatto, N. M., & Gordon, K. (2015). Toward a clarification of the taxonomy of “bias” in epidemiology textbooks. Epidemiology 26: 216–22. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sen, A. (1980). Equality of What? The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Shepperd, S., Lewin, S., Straus, S., Clarke, M., Eccles, M. P., Fitzpatrick, R., … Sheikh, A. (2009). Can we systematically review studies that evaluate complex interventions? PLoS Medicine 6: e1000086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000086CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sorensen, H. T., Lash, T. L., & Rothman, K. J. (2006). Beyond randomized controlled trials: a critical comparison of trials with nonrandomized studies. Hepatology 44: 1075–82. doi: 10.1002/hep.21404CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stead, L. F., Hartmann-Boyce, J., Perera, R., & Lancaster, T. (2013). Telephone counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8: CD002850. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002850.pub3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teixeira, P. J., Silva, M. N., Mata, J., Palmeira, A. L., & Markland, D. (2012). Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9: 22. doi: 10.1186/1479–5868-9-22CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Victora, C. G., Habicht, J. P., & Bryce, J. (2004). Evidence-based public health: moving beyond randomized trials. American Journal of Public Health 94: 400–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
WHO (World Health Organization), Programme on Mental Health (1997). Life Skills Education for Children and Adolescents in Schools. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.PubMed
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats