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Cerebral palsies

from Part IX - Developmental pathology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 October 2017

Brian Hopkins
Lancaster University
Elena Geangu
Lancaster University
Sally Linkenauger
Lancaster University
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

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Further reading

ACPR Group ( 2013). Report of the Australian Cerebral Palsy Register, Birth Years 1993–2006. September 2016, CPA, Sydney.Google Scholar
Morgan, C., Novak, I., & Badawi, N. (2013). Enriched environments and motor outcomes in cerebral palsy: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 132, e735e746.Google Scholar
Smithers-Sheedy, H., Raynes-Greenow, C., Badawi, N., McIntyre, S., & Jones, C.A., on behalf of the Australian Cerebral Palsy Register Group (2014). Congenital cytomegalovirus is associated with severe forms of cerebral palsy and female sex in a retrospective population-based study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56, 846852.Google Scholar
Smithers-Sheedy, H., Badawi, N., Blair, E., Cans, C., Himmelmann, K., Krägeloh-Mann, I., … & Wilson, M. (2013). What constitutes cerebral palsy in the twenty-first century? Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56, 323328.Google Scholar


Ahlin, K., Himmelmann, K., Hagberg, G., Kacerovsky, M., Cobo, T., Wennerholm, U.B., & Jacobsson, B. (2013). Cerebral palsy and perinatal infection in children born at term. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 122, 4149.Google Scholar
Badawi, N., & Keogh, J.M. (2013). Causal pathways in cerebral palsy. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49, 58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bosanquet, M., Copeland, L., Ware, R., & Boyd, R. (2013). A systematic review of tests to predict cerebral palsy in young children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55, 418426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cox, B., Martens, E., Nemery, B., Vangronsveld, J., & Nawrot, T.S. (2013). Impact of a stepwise introduction of smoke-free legislation on the rate of preterm births: Analysis of routinely collected birth data. British Medical Journal, 346, f441.Google Scholar
Crowther, C.A., Hiller, J.E., & Doyle, L.W. (2002). Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 4, CD001060.Google Scholar
de Vries, L.S., & Groenendaal, F. (2010). Patterns of neonatal hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury. Journal of Neuroradiology, 52, 555566.Google Scholar
Eliasson, A. C., Krumlinde-Sundholm, L., Rösblad, B., Beckung, E., Arner, M., Öhrvall, A. M., & Rosenbaum, P. (2006). The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for children with cerebral palsy: scale development and evidence of validity and reliability. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 48, 549–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hägglund, G., Alriksson-Schmidt, A., Lauge-Pedersen, H., Rodby-Bousquet, E., Wagner, P., & Westbom, L. (2014). Prevention of dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy: 20-year results of a population-based prevention programme. Bone Joint Journal, 96-B, 15461552.Google Scholar
Hidecker, M. J. C., Paneth, N., Rosenbaum, P. L., Kent, R. D., Lillie, J., Eulenberg, J. B., ... & Taylor, K. (2011). Developing and validating the Communication Function Classification System for individuals with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 53(8), 704–710.Google Scholar
Holmefur, M., & Eliasson, A.C. (2013). The influence of early CIMT training on longitudinal development of hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Paper presented at the European Academy of Childhood Disability Annual Meeting, Newcastle, UK.Google Scholar
Karlsson, P., Smithers-Sheedy, H., Novak, I., Hines, M., Golland, P., Berry, J., … & Korkalainen, J. (2014). Active surveillance programs and cerebral palsy: Parent and staff experiences within a community rehabilitation setting. Paper presented at the Australasian Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia.Google Scholar
McIntyre, S., Blair, E., Badawi, N., Keogh, J., & Nelson, K.B. (2013). Antecedents of cerebral palsy and perinatal death in term and late preterm singletons. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 122, 869877.Google Scholar
McMichael, G., Bainbridge, M.N., Haan, E., Corbett, M., Gardner, A., Thompson, S., … & MacLennan, A.H. (2015). Whole-exome sequencing points to considerable genetic heterogeneity of cerebral palsy. Molecular Psychiatry, 20, 176182.Google Scholar
Morgan, C.J., Novak, I., Dale, R.C., & Badawi, N. (2015). Optimising motor learning in infants at high risk of cerebral palsy: A pilot study. BMC Pediatrics, 15, 30.Google Scholar
Novak, I., Hines, M., Goldsmith, S., & Barclay, R. (2012). Clinical prognostic messages from a systematic review on cerebral palsy. Pediatrics, 130, e1284e1313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Callaghan, M.E., MacLennan, A.H., Gibson, C., McMichael, G.L., Haan, E.A., Broadbent, J.L., … & the Australian Collaborative Cerebral Palsy Research Group (2011). Epidemiologic associations with cerebral palsy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 118, 576582.Google Scholar
Oskoui, M., Coutinho, F., Dykeman, J., Jetté, N., & Pringsheim, T. (2013). An update on the prevalence of cerebral palsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55, 509519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palisano, R., Rosenbaum, P., Bartlett, D., & Livingston, M. (2007). GMFCS-E&R. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised. CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research, McMaster University. Institute for Applied Health Sciences McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.Google Scholar
Redline, R.W. (2005). Severe fetal placental vascular lesions in term infants with neurologic impairment. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 192, 452457.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reid, S.M., Carlin, J.B., & Reddihough, D.S. (2011). Rates of cerebral palsy in Victoria, Australia, 1970 to 2004: Has there been a change? Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 53, 907912.Google Scholar
Romeo, D.M., Cioni, M., Palermo, F., Cilauro, S., & Romeo, M.G. (2013). Neurological assessment in infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 17, 192198.Google Scholar
Rosenbaum, P., Paneth, N., Leviton, A., Goldstein, M., Bax, M., Damiano, D., … & Jacobsson, B. (2007). A report: The definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 814.Google Scholar
Schmidt, B., Roberts, R.S., Davis, P., Doyle, L.W., Barrington, K.J., Ohlsson, A., … The Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group (2007). Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 18931902.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spittle, A., Brown, N., Doyle, L.W., Boyd, R.N., Hunt, R.W., Bear, M., & Inder, T.E. (2008). Quality of general movements is related to white matter pathology in very preterm infants. Pediatrics, 121, e1184e1189.Google Scholar

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