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This book is a collection of sixty interviews with key figures in British shipbuilding, ship repair, and marine engine-building industries across the United Kingdom, plus government and civil service members in the sector from the 1960s to the 1980s. The aim of the project is to understand the economic, social, and political environment of the shipping industry from the perspective of those who worked in it. The interviews place the twentieth century decline of British shipbuilding into a firm context. The topics covered include international competition (a recurring, pertinent theme); labour difficulties; industry modernisation; the attitude of shipowners; the strong belief in traditional methods which kept many of those in the industry from recognising the cheaper, faster, and better quality work taking place overseas and leaving Britain behind; ship production and production control; the postwar boom; shipyard overcrowding; the decline of the domestic industry in favour of the international; marketing weaknesses; trade disputes and trade unions; and nationalisation and privatisation concerns. Opinions and viewpoints often conflict, particularly between the perspectives of those working within the industry and the civil servants working outside of it, but the interviews are presented as a unit, and the reader is encouraged to draw their own conclusion. The result is a unique historical archive that offers a multitude of firsthand perspectives on the British shipping decline, open to interpretation by historians and future researchers. It includes a preface, introduction, and select bibliography. The interviews are grouped together by location and role.
This book offers a selection of papers by Olaf U. Janzen concerning the maritime history of eighteenth-century Newfoundland, reprinted from various publications and assembled here in chronological order. It explores themes of imperial dominance expressed by both the British and French empires in the struggle for sovereignty that ensconced the two nations. The Newfoundland fishery in the wake of the Treaty of Utrecht was also source of tension between British and French fishermen due to the fishery's lucrative status. In attempt to integrate Newfoundland's maritime history into the wider context of the North Atlantic world it examines the struggles of France as their maritime trade went into decline; the dominance of the British Royal Navy on the Atlantic Ocean; the struggle of indigenous Canadians to migrate to Newfoundland; and the efforts of America during the War of Independence to target the fishery when vulnerable. It consists of an introduction, twelve chapters exploring pertinent themes, and an appendix containing reprinted oil paintings of British artist Francis Holman depicting a naval engagement of 7-8 July 1777 involving numerous vessels.
This volume is a reprint of Ralph Davis' seminal 1962 book, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. The aim was to examine the economic reasons for the growth of British shipping before the arrival of modern technology, with a particular attention on overseas trade. The study can roughly be divided into two halves. The first is an in-depth exploration the roles within the shipping industry, from shipbuilders and shipowners to seamen and masters, from an economic perspective. The second is a chapter-by-chapter review of British overseas trade with Northern Europe, Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, East India, and America and the West Indies. The final two chapters diverge from the main sections, and focus on the interplay between government, war, and shipping. Davis attaches no extra significance to any particular nation or role, and offers an even-handed approach to maritime history still considered rare in the present day. Costs, profits, voyage estimates, ship-prices, and earnings all come under close and equal scrutiny as Davis seeks to understand the trades and developments in shipping during the period. To conclude, he places the study into a broader historical context and discovers that shipping played a measured but crucial role in the development of industrialisation and English economic development. This edition includes an introduction by the series editor; Davis' introduction and preface; seventeen analytical chapters; a concluding chapter; two appendices concerning shipping statistics and sources; and a comprehensive index.
This book is an in-depth case study of the Furness Withy and Co Shipping Group, which operated both tramp and liner services and was one of the five major British shipping groups of the early twentieth century. It demonstrates how British shipowners of this period generated success by exploring Christopher Furness' career in relation to the social, political, and cultural currents during a time of tremendous shipping growth in Britain and the establishment of some of the largest shipping firms in the world. It approaches the study from three angles. The first analyses how the Furness Group expanded its shipping activities and became involved with the industrial sector. The second illustrates the organisational and financial structure of the enterprise. Finally, the Group's leadership and entrepreneurship is scrutinised and placed within the wider context of twentieth century British business. The case study begins in 1870, with an introduction explaining how Christopher Furness came to join the family company, Thomas Furness and Co. in order develop services, expand, and instigate the changes and mergers that brought the Furness Group into existence. There are thirteen chronologically presented chapters, a bibliography, and seven appendices of data including an ownership timeline, tonnage statistics, acquisitions, a list of maritime associates, and a timeline of Christopher Furness' life. The book concludes in 1919 with the de-merging of the Furness Group's shipping and industrial holdings, the resignation of the Furness family from the company's board, the sale of their shares, and the move into managing the firm's industrial interests.
This book approaches the well-documented study of European mass migration to the United States of America from the viewpoint of mass migration as a business venture. The overall purpose is to demonstrate that maritime and migration histories are interlinked and dependent on a deeper understanding of the social, economic, and political factors at work in the nineteenth century Atlantic community. It centres on both the evolution of the port of Rotterdam as a migration gateway, and the crucial role of the Holland-America line as a regulator of the North American passenger trade. The first part of the book explores the simultaneous rise of transatlantic mass migration and long-distance steamshipping between 1830 to 1870. The second part, divided into five chapters, explores how mass migration became a big business between 1870 and 1914, and scrutinises how steamship companies organised and provided initiatives for transoceanic migration, plus the role of shipping agents and agent-networks, and how passenger services were constructed within transatlantic networks. Over the course of the text it becomes increasingly clear that by approaching mass migration as a trade issue, the role of steamship companies in the facilitation of transatlantic migration is rendered both intrinsic and pivotal. It consists of an introduction containing contextual information, two sections providing historical overviews, five chapters exploring different aspects of the shipping industry's response to mass migration, conclusion, bibliography, and six appendices of passenger, destination, agent, and advertising statistics.
This book is a reprint of Jaap R. Bruijn's 1993 book, The Dutch Navy, which offers an English-language overview of the history of the Dutch Navy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It is divided into three chronological periods: the 'old', 'new', and 'second-rate' navy. Rather than presenting a history of naval conflict, this volume approaches Dutch naval history from the following four angles: operations, administration, officer duties, and sailor duties. It consists of a series foreword, a new introduction detailing recent developments in naval historiography, the original introduction providing a history of Dutch maritime history from the middle ages to the beginning of the seventeenth century, a conclusion, and a bibliography and index. It explores the astounding amount of naval power belonging to such a sparsely populated nation, plus the rapid rates of success and decline. It confirms that the Dutch navy - with its logic, innovation, and missteps alike - provides an excellent case study of both the development of European bureaucracy and armed forces in the Early Modern period.
This book is a wide-reaching study of Norwegian maritime history and developments within the discipline. It brings together the research efforts of a University of Oslo project aiming to further understand Norwegian shipping history between 1814 and 2014, and the work of a new generation of maritime historians. Structured into three sections - global integration, political issues, and success and failure - the volume covers a broad range of maritime topics that have influenced both Norwegian economic development and Norwegian cultural identity. Through analysis it discovers that in the last few decades Norwegian shipping has been plagued by multiple troubles, whilst simultaneously becoming less crucial to the Norwegian economy in favour of offshore petroleum production. However, it reiterates the historical importance of shipping to the economic development of Norway, and asserts that historians have begun to treat it as the centre from which other industries grew.
This book presents an in-depth study of the impact of the steamship on Britain during its first forty years, roughly between 1810 and 1850. It relates the early steamship to several industrial themes including diffusion; construction; modernisation; the role of government - particularly the difficult attempt to align laissez-faire politics with the greater need for public safety measures due to technological advance; business and finance; plus public reaction and tourism. The aim is to establish the significance of the steamship as a conduit of modernisation and societal change. It consists of a foreword, introduction, and fourteen chapters devoted to specific themes, structured to ensure each chapters build on the preceding chapter's progress. Collectively, they demonstrate that the development of both experience and enterprise with steam power both gained and refined during this period made the mid-century expansion of steamship technology across Britain possible. Ultimately, it establishes that steamship services began to adapt to oceanic routes, steam began to integrate into the world economy, and the age of sail began to draw to a close.
This study analyses the presence of American ships, merchants, and interests in the Mediterranean region in the first decades following the independence of the United States, and seeks to understand whether or not the English, Dutch, Scandinavians, and Americans invaded the region and its shipping industry in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It considers the following topics: the benefit of American neutrality during the French Revolutionary wars which enabled the growth of their shipping activities; the organisation of protection for American ships post-independence, particularly from Barbary privateers; the diplomatic efforts of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson and the relationships of convenience fostered by American powers when requesting European assistance; the development of American consular services to assist merchants and captains; the avoidance of incidents through peace and commercial treaties through to ship seizures and crew enslavement; and the impact of the Tripolitanian War (or Barbary War) on American-Mediterranean shipping. The works in this volume attempt to determine whether or not these actions can be considered an 'invasion'. They explore the mutually beneficial aspects of American-Mediterranean trade whilst also considering the strength of the Mediterranean trade (particularly Greek) prior to American interference. It concludes by confirming the dual objectives of the American presence - to ensure open markets for their goods, and to enhance their political and military power against British, French, and North African regencies.
This study aims to provide new insights into the connections between maritime history and global history. It demonstrates the significance of maritime activity as a conduit of global exchange by examining local, national, and international interdependencies and trade networks, and a broad range of time periods, geographical areas, and various sub-divisions of maritime historical research. It is composed of ten essays, with an introductory chapter and concluding chapter. The first five essays discuss the effects globalisation on shipping in the early modern period; the following three discuss maritime transportation and the economics of industrialisation from the nineteenth century to the present day; the next discusses the impact of global entrepreneurialism on maritime history; the penultimate discusses the connections and variables between maritime and global history; and the concluding chapter examines the theoretical assumptions surrounding the two disciplines, using the globalisation of Early Modern Spain as a case study to do so. The study demonstrates that the core strength of maritime history is its essential place in global history, and that the process of globalisation began at sea.
This work is a reprint of a 1962 book, British Shipping and World Competition, by maritime economist Dr S. G. Sturmey. It seeks to explain why the tonnage of ships registered in the United Kingdom declined from forty-five percent of the world total in 1900, to sixteen percent by 1960. It presents four possible answers and proceeds to examine them in detail: changes in approaches to competition resulting in changes to the economic structure of the industry; international interference in competitive structures; unrelated factors, such as government policies that didn’t directly concern shipping but still caused an impact; and the internal actions within British shipping relating to changes in industrial circumstances. It is comprised of fifteen chapters, an appendix tabling the contribution of British shipping to the balance of payments, a bibliography, comprehensive index, epilogue, and a foreword from the series editor which states that the Sturmey’s arguments remain resonant in the field of maritime history in the present day. Sturmey makes a particular effort to place the activity in the British shipping industry into an international context for the sake of comparative analysis. It concludes that the decline of the industry was primarily due to internal decision-making rather than external factors - a conclusion that was considered divisive and provocative upon initial release, but has stood the test of time. The epilogue attempts to predict the future of British shipping post-1960, suggesting shipowners could improve the industry’s prospects: however, few of these predictions came to be.
This study provides a detailed study of the fishing nation of Taiwan at a regional and local level in order to address the lack of academic research into the Taiwanese fishing industry in comparison to other nations. Over three stages of analysis it identifies the reasons for the rise and decline of Taiwanese distant-water fisheries. The first stage examines the broader historical background, government policy, and birth of the Taiwanese fishing industry. The second explores the industry at a national level, analysing the relationships between fishing, government, military, and ancillary industries. The third approach narrows the scope to individual fishing communities and explores the working lives and cultural habits of the fishermen. The major focus is the port of Kaohsiung and how it became the major supply base for the fishing industry. It explores Taiwan’s relationship with Japan and the postwar decline due to Japan’s losses in the Second World War. Finally, it considers the development of Taiwanese colonial and postwar fishing policies. It concludes that modern fishing techniques were introduced from Japan, and emboldened Taiwanese fisherman to risk entering remote and foreign waters. The author suggests that further research into Taiwan take would help scholars better understand the history of distant-fisheries. The journal consists of nine chapters, an introduction and conclusion, a list of interviewees, and a bibliography of English and Chinese-language sources.
This book is a collection of essays addressing multiple aspects of African maritime history in attempt to counter the lack of academic research that exists in comparison to other nations and continents, and to assert the value of African topics to the global study of maritime history. Each essay addresses African maritime history whilst also demonstrating an inextricable link to the global maritime stage. The topics discussed include early human migration to Africa; early European contact with Africa; the role of West African maritime communities in the Atlantic slave trade; New World slaveholders and the exploitation of African maritime skillsets; the construction of Atlantic world racial discourses; the rise and fall of colonial rule; and African immigrant communities in Europe. These essays cover maritime topics such as seafaring labour, navigational technology, swimming, diving, surfing; plus political subjects that include colonisation, decolonisation, immigration and citizenship. The book consists of eight essays and an introduction that evaluates the existing research into African maritime history. It includes case studies from every major geographical part of the continent, bar North Africa, and covers the Early Modern period up to the twentieth century. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive chronological history, but rather a diverse collection of topics across a range of periods and locations to reflect the wealth of maritime topics in the history of Africa and their global significance. It concludes with a call for further research into non-European maritime activity, to deepen the global historiography.
This study offers an exploration of the role of merchants throughout maritime history through the analysis of maritime trade networks. It attempts to fill in the gaps in the historiography to determine the range of activities that maritime merchants undertook. It is comprised of nine chapters: one introductory, and eight exploring aspects of merchant history across Europe during the period 1640 to 1940. Several major themes recur throughout these studies: the necessity of port networks; the extension of trade networks through merchant migration and in-migration; the assimilation of merchants into port communities; and the impact of urban governance and trade associations on merchant activity. It concludes by claiming merchants across Europe had a more common with one another when approaching risk management than has previously been assumed, and that the at the core of the merchant’s risk management strategy the question of who they could trust with their trade is a universally unifying factor. It suggests that further research on the demographics of ports is the necessary next step in merchant historiography.
This study explores the British and American attempts to suppress both piracy and slavery in the equatorial Atlantic in the period 1816 to 1865. It aims to demonstrate the pivotal role of naval policy in defining the Anglo-American relationship. It defines the equatorial Atlantic as the region encompassing the coastal zones of the Gulf of Mexico, Central America, Northern Brazil, and the African coast from Cape Verde to the south of the Congo River. It explores the use of sea power by both nations in pursuit of their goals, and the Anglo-American naval relations during this relatively co-operative period. At its core, it argues that naval activities result from national interests - in this instance protecting commerce and furthering economic objectives, a source of tension between America and Britain during the period. It confirms that the two nations were neither allies nor enemies during the period, yet learnt to co-exist non-violently through their strategic use of sea power during peacetime. The study consists of an introductory chapter, eight chapters of analysis, and a select bibliography.
This book compiles seven essays concerning changes to merchant shipping over the hundred and fifty years between 1850 and 2000, and spanning a range of countries, with particular focus on Norway, Greece, Japan, and England. The essays are linked by the theme of change: from traditional to modern shipping; in fluctuating cargo demands; from sail to steam; wood to iron; in improvements in communication technologies; in political natures and affiliations; in seafaring skillsets; in the advent of containerisation and advent of globalisation. The overall aim is to construct a solid international context for the merchant shipping industry in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries - primarily to aid a major Norwegian deep-sea merchant marine project. The book contains an introduction that sets out these aims, and seven essays by maritime historians which form part of the international contextual whole, though all can be approached individually.
This book provides a series of case studies concerning ports and port communities from around the world, in attempt to determine the impact of globalisation on the port industry and the link between local and global port conditions. It also presents the case for the absolute necessity of ports and port systems to trade and industry on a global scale. The book is comprised of ten essays, the first six of which concern local issues in a rapid globalising industry. The second section contains the remaining four essays, which consider port systems from national perspectives.
This study explores the connection between global maritime and migration networks to better understand the acceleration of the transatlantic migration rate that took place in the latter half of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. It brings together the actions of migrants, government regulators, transatlantic shipping companies, and the agents who represented them to determine the motives and opportunities for transatlantic mass-migration. The study is comprised of an introductory chapter, seven essays by maritime scholars, and a conclusion. The subject is approached from three particular discussion points: the rate of development and the accessibility of transport networks for European migrants; the competition between shipping companies and the subsequent influence on migration; and the integration of labour markets in both Europe and America. It concludes by suggesting both maritime and migration historians should merge their respective fields by including the larger frameworks of each discipline to gain further understanding of their disciplines, and identifies the role of ports and shipping companies as crucial to any further study of mass migration.
This study offers a chronological history of seal fishing in the Falkland Islands and Dependencies from the eighteenth century to the early twenty-first. It concerns the fluctuating seal population due to sealing; the Atlantic and global demand for seal fur and oil; the competition between American, British, and Canadian sealers over the territory’s seal stocks; and the attempts by various ruling governments to prioritise domestic sealing, maintain sufficient seal stocks, and continue to make profit. It is comprised of nine chapters, the first and last chapters of which serve as introduction and conclusion. The study also includes eight appendices presenting tabled statistics, and a select bibliography. The appendices concern seal skin imports into London; vessel details at Puerto Soledad; the value and amount of seal products exported from the Falklands; Canadian sealing vessels entering Port Stanley; seal catch and oil yield in South Georgia; South Georgian seal catch summaries; South Georgian commercial catches by sealing division; and marine mammal products landed in the Newfoundland fisheries region.
This book analyses the causes and effects of the shipping market crisis in the 1970s and 1980s - the most severe of the twentieth century. It approaches the subject from three viewpoints. The first is the tanker sector, where the crisis began, spread, and caused the most damage. The second is from a national perspective - focusing on the impact on Norwegian shipping and shipowners. The third, narrowed further in scope, analyses the crisis from the business perspective of four individual tanker owners - taking into account their business strategies and eventual fates. The aim of the journal is to add to the knowledge of recent maritime history by examining the transformation of the industry during a period of rapid change. One distinct conclusion is that shipowners, to their detriment, assumed that the demand for tankers would continue to increase as it had consistently done so throughout the century thus far. The overall conclusion is that shipping is a cyclical industry, and that the oversupply of ships produced during the 1970s took its toll toward the end of the century. By 2004 and 2005, however, the industry began to bounce back, offering hope for the future. The book consists of an introductory chapter, seven chapters of analysis, a concluding chapter, select bibliography, and three appendices tabling Norwegian tanker statistics.