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The aim of this work was to use X-ray diffraction to identify substances used for adulteration of raw milk and to determine if crystallographic analysis can detect extraneous substances in milk. Two unknown substances were sent anonymously by employers linked to the dairy chain, who claimed that they were added directly in milk prior to water addition by truck drivers. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and submitted to physicochemical analysis. The first substance was identified by X-ray diffraction as sodium citrate, complying with its physicochemical attributes, such as the powerful ability to decrease the freezing point. The second substance was identified by X-ray diffraction as sucrose and this result was also in agreement with its ability to increase the density, decrease the freezing point and finally, to be positive for sucrose in the resorcinol qualitative test. To evaluate if X-ray diffraction can detect extraneous substances already mixed in milk, fresh raw milk samples tampered with urea, sodium hydroxide, sodium citrate and sucrose were freeze dried and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, with no detection of any extraneous substances at any percentage. This is the first report of attempted diagnosis of extraneous substances in milk by X-ray diffraction. However, this technique can be useful only when applied to identify substances used for adulteration prior to its dilution in milk, since the amorphous nature of milk seems to be a limitation for the accurate detection of extraneous substances.
In the scholarly literature on the oases, we find a variety of assertions about the cities of the Kharga and Dakhla oases: that one was the capital at a particular period, that one did or did not have civic status at some date. On close examination, most of these statements turn out to be based on slender or no evidence, and in many cases we find that we know much less than has been supposed about the administrative organization of the Great Oasis. In what follows, we look more closely at the available evidence for both Kharga and Dakhla, tracing the history of Hibis – often supposed to be the capital of the whole oasis – and then of the two major towns of the Dakhla Oasis, Mothis (modern-day Mut) and Trimithis. We will try as well to see what we can of their interrelationship and of the overall administrative structure.
This chapter surveys a range of extant textual records (wooden tablets, jar labels, and ostraca) from the Great Oasis related to the management of water wells and of crop distribution. It looks first at the longstanding practice of documenting the condition of the wells in the oasis, before focusing on late antique evidence from both the Dakhla and Kargha oases concerned with the disbursement of these goods and on the individuals responsible for generating the records, primarily literate administrators and members of the military.
To evaluate whether a multipronged pilot intervention promoting healthier beverage consumption improved at-home beverage consumption and weight status among young children.
In this exploratory pilot study, we randomly assigned four childcare centres to a control (delayed-intervention) condition or a 12-week intervention that promoted consumption of healthier beverages (water, unsweetened low- or non-fat milk) and discouraged consumption of less-healthy beverages (juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat or sweetened milk). The multipronged intervention was delivered via childcare centres; simultaneously targeted children, parents and childcare staff; and included environmental changes, policies and education. Outcomes were measured at baseline and immediately post-intervention and included children’s (n 154) at-home beverage consumption (assessed via parental report) and overweight/obese status (assessed via objectively measured height and weight). We estimated intervention impact using difference-in-differences models controlling for children’s demographics and classroom.
Two northern California cities, USA, 2013–2014.
Children aged 2–5 years and their parents.
Relative to control group children, intervention group children reduced their consumption of less-healthy beverages from baseline to follow-up by 5·9 ounces/d (95 % CI −11·2, −0·6) (–174·5 ml/d; 95 % CI –331·2, –17·7) and increased their consumption of healthier beverages by 3·5 ounces/d (95 % CI −2·6, 9·5) (103·5 ml/d; 95 % CI –76·9, 280·9). Children’s likelihood of being overweight decreased by 3 percentage points (pp) in the intervention group and increased by 3 pp in the control group (difference-in-differences: −6 pp; 95 % CI −15, 3).
Our exploratory pilot study suggests that interventions focused comprehensively on encouraging healthier beverage consumption could improve children’s beverage intake and weight. Findings should be confirmed in longer, larger studies.
This article investigates the production of conservation science at nodes of transnational networks of encounter through an examination of field studies conducted during the mid-1920s in North China's Shanxi province by the American forester and soil conservation expert Walter C. Lowdermilk with his student, colleague, and collaborator Ren Chengtong. Even in the politically fragmented China of the 1920s, their research on deforestation, streamflow, and erosion benefited from alliances with Shanxi's regional powerholder, Yan Xishan, and produced environmental knowledge that furthered the agenda of harnessing natural resources to strengthen the state. By paying attention to two-way interactions between Chinese and foreign actors in the construction and transmission of knowledge about nature, the article speaks to the global context of the early twentieth-century conservation movement and adds to recent scholarship that recasts China's encounter with modern science as one of active appropriation, translation, and innovation rather than passive reception.
Radiocarbon (14C) conclusively demonstrates that the very important Yarkon-Tanininm aquifer, named after the two springs where the drainage presumably occurs, is in actuality two distinct aquifers—Upper and Lower. The springs have higher 14C activities than the exploitation wells that surround them (all drilled into the Upper aquifer). The springs are situated at faults that allow the Lower aquifer water to rise due to its higher pieziometric head and drain along with the Upper aquifer. The Lower aquifer water flows rapidly along a path that includes a karstic system. The Upper aquifer flows more slowly, primarily through a system of cracks in the carbonate aquifer. The Upper aquifer groundwater in the Beer-Sheba extension flows northwards at approximately ~4–7 m/yr.
Energy-efficient condensation of steam contained in atmospheric air has emerged as a solution to the water scarcity. Academic and industrial research works that seeks to develop water collection devices with high efficiency has great relevance for the scientific community. In this work, we aim to show that modified carbon nanotubes forest can remove the condensed drops easier than a hydrophobic and a super-hydrophilic surface. In addition, this result was reached at high super saturation level which is an innovative aspect of this work. The Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (VACNTs) were grown on steel pipes. We used a CO2 laser and an O2 plasma to perform the post treatments that changed the CNTs to super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic, respectively. In addition, the CO2 laser treatment added a second level of roughness in the surface by etching the nanotubes walls. A polyethylene coating attached the carbon nanotubes to the substrate. We experimentally demonstrated a 24% higher vapor condensation rate at high supersaturations levels.
To examine the relationship between knowledge and beverage consumption habits among children.
Cross-sectional analysis. Linear regression was used to identify sociodemographic, dietary and behavioural determinants of beverage consumption and knowledge, and to describe the relationships between children’s knowledge and water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption.
Seventeen elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada.
A total of 1049 children aged 8–14 years.
Knowledge scores were low overall. Children with higher knowledge scores consumed significantly fewer SSB (β = −0·33; 95 % CI −0·49, −0·18; P < 0·0001) and significantly more water (β = 0·34; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·52; P = 0·0002). More frequent refillable water bottle use, lower junk food consumption, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, female sex, higher parental education, two-parent households and not participating in a milk programme were associated with a higher water consumption. Male sex, higher junk food consumption, single-parent households, lower parental education, participating in a milk programme, less frequent refillable water bottle use and permission to leave school grounds at lunchtime were associated with a higher SSB consumption. Water was the most frequently consumed beverage; however, 79 % of respondents reported consuming an SSB at least once daily and 50 % reported consuming an SSB three or more times daily.
Elementary-school children have relatively low nutrition and water knowledge and consume high proportions of SSB. Higher knowledge is associated with increased water consumption and reduced SSB consumption. Interventions to increase knowledge may be effective at improving children’s beverage consumption habits.
Although pyroxenes are found abundantly in igneous rocks, this mineral group stands out for being one of the ferromagnesian mineral groups that constitute rocks of several different compositions. Hence, the purpose of this work is to demonstrate how these minerals may be relevant to Astrobiology. Essentially, through geochemical analyses of pyroxenes detected in Martian meteorites, it may be possible to find evidence of the existence of water in hydrothermal flows located in deep regions below the Martian surface. To this extent, it is also very important to highlight the whole collection of observational data from Mars, in which it is possible to notice that pyroxenes are found in a wide variety of geological environments. Therefore, based on Martian surface observations, meteorite analysis and experimental data, it is conceivable that, given the appropriate conditions, pyroxenes might be related to the formation and release of water molecules in the Martian environment.
An unusual copper-alloy fragment was recovered during excavations at Vindolanda in 2008. It has been identified as part of a calendar or water clock. A very similar fragment was found near Hambledon in Hampshire in 2017. Further investigation of the Vindolanda and Hambledon fragments and of similar objects from Frankfurt, Salzburg and Grand reveals that the Vindolanda and Hambledon fragments were once attached to clepsydrae to form time-keeping devices that are unattested in ancient sources, but that might be called ‘calendrical clepsydrae’.1 The links between similar artefacts and deities associated with water and healing are explored and evidence for a shrine located near sulphur springs in the Allen Valley is also discussed. The Vindolanda calendrical clepsydra is placed within this social and religious context.
The present research aimed to describe perceptions and behaviours around the consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by youths.
A formative, qualitative study which conducted four focus groups. Transcripts were analysed and themes related to reasons youths drink SSB and water, and conversely do not drink SSB and water, were analysed to reveal thematic clusters around sensory factors, environment and policy, access, marketing and role model influences, and health risks.
A rural, tri-ethnic community in New Mexico, USA.
Middle- and high-school students, parents and teachers.
Although youths and adults were aware of the health risks of soda, they did not translate this information to other SSB, including sports drinks and sweetened tea. Moreover, their perceptions of risks of dyes outweighed their concern with sugar. Youths and adults were aware of water’s health benefits, but they focused on short-term benefits. Youths and adults perceived water as unappealing. Adults were also concerned with water safety and access.
This formative research has implications for decreasing SSB consumption and simultaneously increasing water intake among youths in rural communities. Addressing unique access and safety concerns related to water in rural communities, as well as increasing awareness of the risks of all types of SSB, can work together in a positive feedback loop to change perceptions and behaviours with long-term health consequences. Specific policy suggestions include strengthening school policies to restrict all types of SSB and water promotion efforts that address access, safety and health benefits.
Oases are subject to decreasing resources and changing human activities. Fully aware of their rich heritage, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have undertaken work to preserve and revitalize these oases. However, there is a clear lack of understanding of the dynamic links between climate change, hydraulic and agricultural management, and socioeconomic activities. To clarify these links, our team conducted a systematic geoarchaeological, geophysical, spatial, and chronological study of the Masafi oasis, UAE. Results indicate the existence of a natural humid area as early as the late Pleistocene (~18 cal ka BP). These conditions persist during the early-mid Holocene with drainage activation and soil development (~12–6.3 ka). During the late Holocene, after the emergence of the “artificial” oasis around ~3250 cal yr BP, cycles of intense management suggesting water availability (~3250–2380 cal yr BP; 550 cal yr BP) alternate with episodes of fluvial detritism (~2380–1870 cal yr BP; >550 cal yr BP) and scattered evidence of farming activities with complex hydroclimatic signatures (~2300–550 cal yr BP). These results, together with regional environmental data, indicate that water and soil resources were available and exploited strategically throughout the Holocene despite adverse climatic conditions, and the oasis of Masafi could have acted as a desert refugium.
The configurations associated with the dissociative adsorption of water on a variety of low-coordinated sites of MgO(100) surfaces, including corners, steps, MgO vacancies, and kinks on 〈010〉 steps, have been studied and assigned by combining infrared spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Three kinds of MgO powders were examined: powders of very high specific surface area prepared by chemical vapor synthesis and well-defined cubic smoke particles obtained by combustion in either 20:80 or 60:40 O2:Ar mixtures, the latter one involving less defects and smaller particles. It appears that an imperative requirement to obtain a precise characterization of the reactive behavior of defects is to keep the samples in ultra–high vacuum conditions and to control the water partial pressure finely.
Temporal and spatial scarcity of water in semi-arid and seasonal ecosystems often leads to changes in movements and behaviour of large vertebrates, and in the neotropics this dynamic is poorly understood due to logistical and methodological limitations. Here we used camera trapping to elucidate variation in patterns of seasonal use of waterholes and pathways by 10 large-mammal and four large-bird species in the dry forest of north-western Costa Rica. From 2011 to 2015, we deployed trail cameras at 50 locations, including waterholes and three types of pathway (roads, human trails and animal paths). We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of location and seasonality on the rates at which independent photographs were taken. We found interacting effects of location and seasonality for the capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus), the tiger heron (Trigrisoma mexicanum), the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the tapir (Tapirus bairdii) suggesting that these species were the most influenced by waterholes during the dry season. Comparison of waterhole sites and specific types of pathways (roads, animal paths and human trails) showed that location influenced photo-capture rates of almost all species, suggesting a useful insight to avoid and account for bias in camera trap studies. Furthering our ecological understanding of seasonal water regimes and large vertebrates’ behaviours allow for better understanding of the consequences of climate change on them.
A principal mode of corrosion in combustion or fuel cell environments is the formation of volatile hydroxides and oxyhydroxides from metal or oxide surfaces at high temperatures. It is important to determine the degree of volatility and accurate thermodynamic properties for these hydroxides. Significant gaseous metal hydroxides/oxyhydroxides are discussed, along with available experimental and theoretical methods of characterizing species and determining their thermodynamic properties.
In situ, real-time monitoring of a dehydration of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film is researched. The technique based on the incorporation plasmonic nanocages (NCs) between the two identical layers of PVA, (PVA)/NCs/(PVA) film, and its sensitivity to the variation of the refractive index of the surrounding PVA film via desorption water. The dehydration time increases from 180 (s) to 1800 (s) as the content of the PVA in the films increases twice, from (PVA)/NCs/(PVA) to (PVA)2/NCs/(PVA)2. Such effect could be explained by different rate of the molecules desorption from the PVA based films. Specifically, the dehydration rate is of 0.22 (vol% per s) and 0.026 (vol% per s) for (PVA)/NCs/(PVA) and (PVA)2/NCs/(PVA)2 films, respectively. The dehydration rate constant reduces from -50×10-4 (s-1) to -4.3 ×10-4 (s-1) as the content of PVA increases from (PVA)/NCs/(PVA) to (PVA)2/NCs/(PVA)2 films, respectively.
The interaction between water and oxide surfaces plays an important role in many technological applications and environmental processes. However, gaining fundamental understanding of processes at oxide–water interfaces is challenging because of the complexity of the systems. To this end, results of experimental and computational studies utilizing well-defined oxide surfaces help to gain molecular-scale insights into the properties and reactivity of water on oxide surfaces. This is a necessary basis for the understanding of oxide surface chemistry in more complex environments. This review highlights recent advances in the fundamental understanding of oxide–water interaction using surface science experiments. In particular, we will discuss the results on crystalline and well-defined supported thin film oxide samples of the alkaline earth oxides (MgO and CaO), silica (SiO2), and magnetite (Fe3O4). Several aspects of water–oxide interactions such as adsorption modes (molecular versus dissociative), formation of long-range ordered structures, and dissolution processes will be discussed.
This article offers a conceptual understanding and easily applicable guidelines for sustainable urban infrastructure design by focusing on the demand for and supply of the services provided by seven urban infrastructure systems.
For more than 10,000 years, cities have evolved continuously, often shaped by the challenges they had to face. Similarly, we can imagine that cities will have to evolve again in the future to address their current challenges. Specifically, urban infrastructure will need to adapt and use less energy and fewer resources while becoming more resilient. In this article, starting with a definition of sustainability, two urban infrastructure sustainability principles (SP) are introduced: (i) controlling the demand and (ii) increasing the supply within reason, which are then applied to seven urban infrastructure systems: water, electricity, district heating and cooling and natural gas, telecommunications, transport, solid waste, and buildings. From these principles, a four-step urban infrastructure design (UID) process is compiled that can be applied to any infrastructure project: (i) controlling the demand to reduce the need for new infrastructure, (ii) integrating a needed service within the current infrastructure, (iii) making new infrastructure multifunctional to provide for other infrastructure systems, and (iv) designing for specific interdependencies and decentralizing infrastructure if possible. Overall, by first recognizing that urban infrastructure systems are inherently integrated and interdependent, this article offers several strategies and guidelines to help design sustainable urban infrastructure systems.