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Sexual assault, including unwanted sexual contact, coercion, and rape, is a social phenomenon that has been approached in a variety of ways in different global contexts. Attempts to address risk and protective factors for perpetrators and victims are limited by the difficulty of collecting empirical data on experiences that can be traumatic, stigmatizing, complicated, and private. This chapter explores current and historic definitions of sexual assault as well as how these definitions influence estimates of sexual assault prevalence and subsequent psychological and public health responses. We describe best practices in sexual assault measurement, explore the need for culturally acceptable interventions that acknowledge intersections of identity, critique current victim response services, and finally provide recommendations for future directions in sexual assault prevention and response.
Approximately 23.5 million people in America need assistance for an alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use (ATOD) disorder, although many do not obtain the help that they need. This disorder is extremely difficult to resolve, as it can be hard to make the necessary lifestyle changes to accommodate sobriety. Sometimes, individuals may recover without formalized treatment, otherwise known as natural recovery. Other times, inpatient or outpatient treatment, or partial-hospitalization, is warranted. Even for individuals taking the proper steps and going to treatment, attrition rates are high, with consistent drop-out rates of 30 percent to 40 percent within three months of treatment initiation. Racial and gender disparities in both treatment participation and outcomes exist, indicating a need for tailoring of treatments and further research on breaking barriers to treatment entrance. Motivation is central in several recovery models proposed to explain stages of change in treatment. Treatment options include initial detoxification and pharmacological options (such as medication-assisted treatment using buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, cue exposure, attentional retraining, twelve-step programs, and group/family therapy. Relapse rates are high, and oftentimes individuals move from one addiction to another. Harm reduction approaches may be beneficial to those that cannot fully quit an addiction, and relapse prevention is an important treatment component, as addiction is a life-long battle.
In the past two decades, the emergence of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) has changed the face of drug markets. Synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, novel synthetic opioids, tryptamines, and piperazines became popular alternatives to illicit drugs, primarily because of their easy availability, low price, and intense effects. Analogous NPS are also often misold as traditional drugs due to the often broader profit margins and lower criminal risk profile associated with them. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the epidemiology, user and consumption characteristics, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of the most proliferate NPS, alongside an introduction to effective prevention and treatment methods for both adolescent and adult populations of NPS users.
Treatment-resistant schizophrenia is a major disabling illness which often proves challenging to manage in a secondary care setting. The National Psychosis Unit (NPU) is a specialised tertiary in-patient facility that provides evidence-based, personalised, multidisciplinary interventions for complex treatment-resistant psychosis, in order to reduce the risk of readmission and long-term care costs.
This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of treatment at the NPU by considering naturalistic outcome measures.
Using a mirror image design, we compared the numbers of psychiatric and general hospital admissions, in-patient days, acuity of placement, number of psychotropic medications and dose of antipsychotic medication prescribed before and following NPU admission. Data were obtained from the Clinical Records Interactive Search system, an anonymised database sourced from the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust electronic records, and by means of anonymous linkage to the Hospital Episode Statistics system.
Compared with the 2 years before NPU admission, patients had fewer mental health admissions (1.65 ± 1.44 v. 0.87 ± 0.99, z = 5.594, P < 0.0001) and less mental health bed usage (335.31 ± 272.67 v. 199.42 ± 261.96, z = 5.195 P < 0.0001) after NPU admission. Total in-patient days in physical health hospitals and total number of in-patient days were also significantly reduced (16.51 ± 85.77 v. 2.83 ± 17.38, z = 2.046, P = 0.0408; 351.82 ± 269.09 v. 202.25 ± 261.05, z = 5.621, P < 0.0001). The reduction in level of support required after treatment at the NPU was statistically significant (z = −8.099, P < 0.0001).
This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of a tertiary service specialising in treatment-resistant psychosis.
India’s main food and nutrition security programme, the Public Distribution System (PDS), provides subsidised rice and sugar to deprived households. Using longitudinal data from Young Lives for Indian children (n = 2,944) aged 5 to 16 years, we assessed whether PDS subsidies skewed diets towards sugar and rice consumption, increasing risk of stunting (low height-for-age). Linear regression models were used to quantify additional rice and sugar consumption associated with accessing the PDS, and the association with stunting linked to consumption. Controlling for sociodemographics, accessing the PDS was positively, significantly associated with consumption of rice (30g/day) and sugar (7.05g/day). There was no evidence that this increase corresponded to nutritional improvements. Each 100g increase in daily rice intake was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and no decline in stunting. Results were robust to alternative model specifications. There was no evidence that receipt of PDS rice and sugar was associated with improvements in child nutrition.
Cardiac fibroma is a rare benign primary tumour of the heart. In the paediatric population, it has been reported as the second most common benign cardiac tumour following rhabdomyoma. However, the prevalence of cardiac fibroma is rarely reported in the adult population. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific, including palpitations, cardiac murmur, arrhythmias, dyspnoea, cyanosis, chest pain, and sudden mortality, whereas, a number of patients with cardiac fibroma are asymptomatic. Surgical resection should be considered as the best option in symptomatic patients. This study reported four surgical cases of adults with cardiac fibroma arising from the left ventricle and a literature review regarding the clinical and pathological features, diagnostic modalities, therapeutic aspects, and prognosis of this rare entity.
An awareness of fertility and the factors affecting it is crucial to dealing with infertility, though little research has been conducted in the context of rural India. This study assessed Indian women’s perceived causes of, and strategies for coping with, infertility and the associations with levels of reproductive health knowledge in rural areas. Primary data were collected through mapping and listing in high infertility prevalence districts of West Bengal in 2014–15. A total of 159 women aged 20–49 years who had ever experienced infertility were interviewed. A Reproductive Health Knowledge Index (RHKI) was computed to indicate respondent’s level of reproductive health knowledge, and to show its association with perceived causes of infertility and coping with infertility. The highest mean RHKI score was observed among women in the lowest age group (RHKI=5.75, p<0.001), those with a higher level of education (RHKI=9.39, p<0.001) and those who had exposure to any media (RHKI=5.88, p<0.001). Women with a poor wealth index (RHKI=2.11, p<0.01) and those from Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and Other Backward Class communities (RHKI=4.20, p<0.05) had lower RHKI scores than richer women and those from General Caste communities. Women with a higher RHKI score were more likely to give biology (98.0%, p<0.001), old age (94.1%, p<0.01) and repeated abortions/accident/injury (92.2%, p<0.001) as reasons for infertility, whereas women with a low RHKI were more likely to give religious (73.2%, p<0.001) and old-age-related causes (75.0%, p<0.01) of infertility. Women with a high RHKI score were more likely to opt for modern allopathic treatments (RHKI=7.04, p<0.001), whereas those with a low RHKI score were more likely to seek treatment from religious and superstitious practitioners, use home remedies or receive no treatment at all (RHKI=1.66, p<0.001). Appropriate reproductive health knowledge is crucial if rural Indian women are to correctly assess their infertility problems and choose effective coping strategies.
Around 30% of patients with schizophrenia are considered treatment resistant (TRS). Only around 40% of TRS patients respond to clozapine. Long acting injectable antipsychotics could be a useful augmentation strategy for nonresponders.
We conducted a multicenter, observational, naturalistic, retrospective, 6-month mirror-image study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine and paliperidone palmitate association in 50 patients with TRS and other psychotic disorders. Clinical outcomes and side effects were systematically assessed.
Six months after starting the combined treatment, participants showed a significant relief of symptoms, decreasing the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score from 18.32 ± 7.71 to 7.84 ± 5.16 (p < 0.001). The number of hospitalizations, the length of hospital stays and the number of visits to emergency services also decreased, while an increase of the functionality was observed (Personal and Social Performance total score increased from 46.06 ± 118.7 to 60.86 ± 18.68, p < 0.001). There was also a significant decrease in the number and severity of side effects with the combination therapy, decreasing the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser total score from 10.76 ± 8.04 to 8.82 ± 6.63 (p = 0.004).
This study provides the first evidence that combining clozapine with paliperidone palmitate in patients with TRS and other psychotic disorders could be effective and safe, suggesting further research with randomized controlled trials of augmentation strategies for clozapine nonresponder patients.
Policy Significance Statement:
Patients with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia show a variable response to antipsychotic treatments. Around 30% of patients are considered treatment resistant, indicated by insufficient symptom control to at least two different drugs. In these resistant cases, clozapine should be indicated, as it has shown to be superior to other options. However, only 40% of patients respond to clozapine, being necessary to establish which treatments could best potentiate clozapine action. Combining clozapine with long acting injectable antipsychotics, and particularly paliperidone palmitate, could be a useful strategy. We conducted a multicenter study of 50 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders comparing the efficacy and tolerability in the 6 month-period prior and after starting the clozapine and paliperidone palmitate association. Our study suggests that this combination could be effective and safer, laying the groundwork for future clinical trials with this combination.
Each Contracting Party shall accord to investors of the other Contracting Party and to their investments treatment no less favourable than that it accords, in like circumstances, to investors and investments of any third State.
Each Contracting Party shall accord to investors of the other Contracting Party and to their investments treatment no less favourable than that it accords, in like circumstances, to its own investors and investments.
Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) is a specialised radiotherapy technique to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. The purpose of this article is to review different in-vivo dosimetry techniques and to identify further research direction in TSET
Materials and methods:
Studies focused on in-vivo dosimetry in TSET were included. Studies based on absolute dosimetry in TSET were excluded and no restriction was applied regarding the type of treatment technique and the type of dosimeter.
From the review of articles, we have found that obesity index and patient position during treatment plays a major role in underdose or overdose in TSET. Many studies favour individualised boost dose to patients. The analysis showed that thermoluminescent dosimeters are the most widely used dosimeters in TSET, and time-consuming is the only drawback in the use of dosimetry.
Study showed that the practice of using in-vivo dosimetry would be better way to treat TSET by ensuring accuracy of dose delivery to the patients. Further, only limited studies are available for dosimetry with radiochromic films. With this observation, we have started exploring the use of radiochromic film in our TSET dosimetry, and the results can be analysed to standardise the technique in future.
Population aging has increased the prevalence of surrogate decision making in healthcare settings. However, little is known about factors contributing to the decision to become a surrogate and the surrogate medical decision-making process in general. We investigated how intrapersonal and social-contextual factors predicted two components of the surrogate decision-making process: individuals’ willingness to serve as a surrogate and their tendency to select various end-of-life treatments, including mechanical ventilation and palliative care options.
An online sample (N = 172) of adults made hypothetical surrogate decisions about end-of-life treatments on behalf of an imagined person of their choice, such as a parent or spouse. Using self-report measures, we investigated key correlates of willingness to serve as surrogate (e.g., decision-making confidence, willingness to collaborate with healthcare providers) and choice of end-of-life treatments.
Viewing service as a surrogate as a more typical practice in healthcare was associated with greater willingness to serve. Greater decision-making confidence, greater willingness to collaborate with patients’ physicians, and viewing intensive, life-sustaining end-of-life treatments (e.g., mechanical ventilation) as more widely accepted were associated with choosing more intensive end-of-life treatments.
Significance of results
The current study's consideration of both intrapersonal and social-contextual factors advances knowledge of two key aspects of surrogate decision making — the initial decision to serve as surrogate, and the surrogate's selection of various end-of-life treatment interventions. Providers can use information about the role of these factors to engage with surrogates in a manner that better facilitates their decision making. For instance, providers can be sensitive to potential cultural differences in surrogate decision-making tendencies or employing decision aids that bolster surrogates’ confidence in their decisions.
Region Jönköping County (RJC) in Sweden is a healthcare system that is characterised by sustainable work with quality in healthcare and long-term system-wide improvement. This article describes important factors behind the improvement work in RJC, and how the improvement methods and initiatives have been adopted also in mental healthcare. For example, patients otherwise eligible for admission to a psychiatric department were treated at home after introduction of home treatment teams. Patient satisfaction was high and the number of visits to the emergency department, hospital admissions and hospital stay decreased.
This chapter introduces the reader to current treatments for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Much of the evidence is summarised within NICE guidelines (and APA and Australian and New Zealand guidelines) but in this chapter, treatment is also linked to the age of the patient and stage of the illness. Although this chapter is lengthy it is one of the three core chapters.
Catatonia is a psychomotor dysregulation syndrome of diverse aetiology, increasingly recognised as a prominent feature of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis (NMDARE) in adults. No study to date has systematically assessed the prevalence and symptomatology of catatonia in children with NMDARE. We analysed 57 paediatric patients with NMDARE from the literature using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Catatonia was common (occurring in 86% of patients), manifesting as complex clusters of positive and negative features within individual patients. It was both underrecognised and undertreated. Immunotherapy was the only effective intervention, highlighting the importance of prompt recognition and treatment of the underlying cause of catatonia.
The author reflects on the conclusions of the contributors to the edited volume and, based on his prior research, provides his own perspective on the main topic. His prior analysis of 395 ISDS rulings – and how they reference WTO law and European human rights law – throws cold water on the proposition that the trade and investment regimes, which some see as wrongly separated at birth, are converging around substantive common principles, standards or rules. Firstly, if significant trade-investment law convergence exists, it is not occurring through explicit reliance on WTO law by ISDS arbitrators. Secondly, the references to WTO law that he finds were narrow not only with respect to the numbers of IIAs involved; they were narrow with respect to the kinds of issues on which trade law was deemed relevant. The author furthermore acknowledges the limitations of citation studies, such as those conducted by him, as the two regimes may engage in other ways, apart from what happens at the final public stage of formal dispute settlement.
The dyadic rule–exception structure common to many legal systems has posed particular interpretive difficulties in international trade and investment law. Adjudicators have interpreted general and security exceptions in GATT, GATS and cognate provisions of investment treaties in divergent ways, and the analytic character of these provisions is under-theorised in the literature. This article argues that we should understand exceptions from a deontological perspective as permissions that affirm governmental regulatory capacity and thus limit the scope of the commands set out in the treaty. This characterisation of exceptions has both symbolic and practical implications, of which this article discusses two: determining the exception's applicability as a preliminary matter rather than as a defence, which would in turn permit consideration of regulatory purpose at the point of obligation; and whether the applicability of an exception is properly a question of merits or jurisdiction.
In a judgment issued on June 6, 2019 (Judgment), the Colombian Constitutional Court (Court) examined the constitutionality of the Agreement for the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments between Colombia and France (Agreement). The Court upheld the constitutionality of the Agreement on the condition that the government adopt a joint interpretative statement with France to clarify some of its provisions and prevent interpretations contrary to the Colombian constitutional order. In doing so, the Court articulated a standard of review that takes into account the benefits and costs of international investment agreements (IIAs), the application of which entailed an insightful examination of the Agreement in light of the decisions of investment tribunals. The judgment raises significant issues of public international law, including the practical implications of conditioning ratification of the Agreement on adoption of a joint interpretative statement and the role of such statements in the interpretation of IIAs. Furthermore, the judgment makes important contributions to the ongoing process of reform of the investment treaty regime and the strategies adopted by states to counter the adverse impacts of IIAs on regulatory autonomy.
Clozapine is uniquely effective in treatment-resistant psychosis but remains underutilised, partly owing to psychotic symptoms leading to non-adherence to oral medication. An intramuscular formulation is available in the UK but outcomes remain unexplored.
This was a retrospective clinical effectiveness study of intramuscular clozapine prescription for treatment initiation and maintenance in treatment-resistant psychosis over a 3-year period.
Successful initiation of oral clozapine after intramuscular prescription was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included all-cause clozapine discontinuation 2 years following initiation, and 1 year after discharge. Discontinuation rates were compared with a cohort prescribed only oral clozapine. Propensity scores were used to address confounding by indication.
Among 39 patients prescribed intramuscular clozapine, 19 received at least one injection, whereas 20 accepted oral clozapine when given an enforced choice between the two. Thirty-six (92%) patients successfully initiated oral clozapine after intramuscular prescription; three never transitioned to oral. Eight discontinued oral clozapine during the 2-year follow-up, compared with 83 out of 162 in the comparator group (discontinuation rates of 24% and 50%, respectively). Discontinuation rates at 1-year post-discharge were 21%, compared with 44% in the comparison group. Intramuscular clozapine prescription was associated with a non-significantly lower hazard of discontinuation 2 years after initiation (hazard ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.14–1.06) and 1 year after discharge (hazard ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.11–1.24). The only reported adverse event specific to the intramuscular formulation was injection site pain and swelling.
Intramuscular clozapine prescription allowed transition to oral maintenance in an initially non-adherent cohort. Discontinuation rates were similar to patients only prescribed oral clozapine and comparable to existing literature.
To review the currently available data on the use of ketamine in the treatment of depression among older adults from randomized controlled studies.
Randomized controlled trials.
60 years and older with depression.
Change in Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores.
Two studies met the inclusion criteria. The first study showed a significant reduction in depression symptoms with use of repeated subcutaneous ketamine administration among older adults with depression. The second study failed to achieve significance on its primary outcome measure but did show a decrease in MADRS scores with intranasal ketamine along with a higher response and remission rates in esketamine group compared with the placebo group. The adverse effects from ketamine generally lasted only a few hours and abated spontaneously. No cognitive adverse effects were noted in either trial from the use of ketamine.
The current evidence for use of ketamine among older adults with depression indicates some benefits with one positive and one negative trial. Although one of the trials did not achieve significance on the primary outcome measure, it still showed benefit of ketamine in reducing depressive symptoms. Ketamine was well tolerated in both studies with adverse effects being mild and transient.