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The story of the Australian light vehicle industry from the very first developments before World War I, through the era of importing vehicles, the imposition of import controls, the decision to create a fully fledged automotive industry, its growth, decline and end, as it lost control of its domestic market and never achieved sufficient export volumes in compensation. The principal reason for its demise is identified as lack of sufficient scale, compared to the global giants, rather than external factors such as labour costs. The impact of its going on the balance of trade and employment is identified as relatively modest. Some unrealistic proposals for reviving it are dismissed.
The chapter summarises the main findings from the SDG chapters (1–17) combined with the results from a workshop in 2018 to answer the following questions: How is Agenda 2030 likely to interact with forests and people? What are the possible synergies, trade-offs between goals and targets? What are the contextual conditions that shape the interactions between SDGs and targets and subsequent impacts on forests and people? Two broad groups of SDGs emerge. One includes SDGs that primarily focus on institutional, governance and social conditions. Those contribute to an enabling environment for inclusive forest management and conservation with associated livelihood benefits. A second group of SDGs affect land use directly and thus are expected to impact forests. Progress in the first group of SDGs results in synergistic interactions and positive outcomes for forests and peoples. Among the second group of SDGs, the potential for trade-offs is high, with important repercussions for forest and people. Understanding the potential for these trade-offs is essential in order to avoid implementation pathways that favour a small subset of these SDGs at the expense of the others.
SDG 10 calls for reducing inequalities within and among countries. This chapter evaluates the potential effects of addressing SDG 10 from an environmental justice perspective, which comprises three interrelated dimensions: representative, recognition and distributive justice. We find considerable synergies and complementarities between the SDG 10 targets and goals of environmental justice. However, the disjuncture between SDG 10 and environmental goals within the SDGs may undermine efforts to promote environmental justice. Trade is not included in SDG 10; this is an important gap as markets for forest products can drive forest resource extraction, exacerbating inequalities among actors within global production networks. If SDG 10 addresses structural inequalities, it is also likely to support distributive, representational and recognition justice for forest-dependent populations. However, the myopic translation of its aspirational targets into easily measurable indicators may dampen the potential effects of addressing SDG10 in advancing environmental justice. Addressing ‘migration’ related targets and indicators is likely to elevate the importance of these issues in forestry policy and research, while also prompting a re-thinking of some of the underlying assumptions informing existing research in forestry.
The introductory chapter introduces the Agenda 2030 and its 17 SDGs and briefly presents the process that led to its adoption. It discusses the nature of the SDGs, recognising the great variation in the nature, scope and function of the SDGs and related targets, and drawing attention to the interlinkages among the goals and targets. Forests provide ecosystem services that are crucial for human welfare and for reaching the SDGs. The chapter gives a brief overview of the world’s forests and forests’ contributions to the SDGs. Forests are only mentioned in two SDGs (SDG 6 and SDG 15). However, due to the interrelated nature of the SDGs and targets, the implementation of the SDG agenda will inevitably influence forests and forest-related livelihoods and the possibilities to achieve the forest specific targets. Understanding the potential impacts of SDGs on forests, forest-related livelihoods and forest-based options to generate progress towards achieving the SDGs, as well as the related tradeoffs and synergies, is crucial for efforts undertaken to reach these goals. It is especially important for reducing potential negative impacts and to leverage opportunities to create synergies that will ultimately determine whether comprehensive progress towards the SDGs will be accomplished.
Cities have become critical drivers of global socio-economic, behavioural and environmental changes far beyond urbanised borders; their transformative force was recognised with the endorsement of SDG 11 to ‘make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’. We provide an analysis of SDG 11’s impacts, considering global monitoring efforts and different local priorities linked to diverse urbanisation patterns. We focus particularly on the effects on forests and forest-based livelihoods, and propose a framework to assess synergies and trade-offs between SDG 11 and other SDGs, accounting for a range of city types. In terms of SDG 11 implementation, we found that countries tend to prioritise access to adequate housing and transport, with interlinkages to health, education and employment. Few countries enforce policies to ensure safe, green and accessible public places, or the protection of cultural and natural heritage in and around cities, despite the manifold benefits urban forests can bring. Little attention is given to building strategic social and environmental links between urban and rural areas. A more integrated approach to urban–rural territorial planning could have a positive impact by improving access to ecosystem services and socio-economic benefits generated by forests.
This chapter explores sustainability reporting regimes in six African countries representing sub-regions of the continent – Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria, Botswana and South Africa. It reveals that Africa is catching up on sustainability reporting as each jurisdiction is found to have a sustainability reporting regime with an identified regulatory model(s). However, the conflicting nature of sustainability reporting standards calls for a broader reform strategy or policy harmonisation. It thus argues that the African Peer Review Mechanism, Regional Economic Communities, and new African Continental Free Trade Area present opportunities for sustainability reporting policy harmonisation in Africa. It is further argued that African regimes should jettison self-regulatory sustainability reporting models and opt for sanctions-based models or hybrid models combining mandatory and voluntary approaches. It observes, however, that the future of sustainability reporting in Africa lies in integrated reporting with its impact not just on corporate performance but also on strong sustainability.
Development is sometimes referred to as the central organising principle of our time. So what can Green politics offer to the understanding and practice of international development? Greens have traditionally had a lot to say about key aspects of development, including peace and security, poverty and social exclusion, gender and, of course, sustainability in ways that reflect the involvement of peace, feminist and environmental movements in Green politics. The discourse and practice of ‘sustainable development’, in particular, is now omnipresent. Green politics should be playing a central role in debates about international development, but critical Green insights about the causes of poverty and destitution and how these relate to the organisation of the global economy, the role of aid, trade and multinational corporations, as well as around what inclusive, just and green solutions to these problems might look like, have often been overlooked. There is an urgent need to redress these oversights.
The chapter explains the historic background of preferential trade, both in the area of goods and services. It also explains the key rules in different WTO agreements as well as their monitoring mechanisms.
The chapter starts Part III of the book, which concentrates on empirical study of services agreements. It explains earlier empirical research on services preferentialism and shows how the empirical methodology proposed in this book differs from such earlier works.
Why should countries improve on controlling corruption? While many theories exist to explain economic development, the trendier ones just attribute merit or blame to the quality of governance. But the question of how governance can change to become less corrupt is seldom studied. Chapter 3 reviews the most frequently proposed theories of change and the evidence in favor of the primacy of politics, as opposed to economic development, in the control of corruption. It also looks at how trade and globalization affect corruption and what role international factors play, from trade to global regulation in the form of treaties or anti-bribery conventions. A model of transformation is offered alongside a discussion on how international factors play into it.
Argues that Trump did not transcend the Cold War or the approaches of his post–Cold War predecessors. While stylistically very different, the substance of Trump’s foreign policy was more similar to than different from that of Bush Jr. and Obama. Examines his trade war with China and the consistency of approach that underpinned it. Concludes by arguing why and how the US remained dominant after the Cold War, and the enduring advantages it enjoys over it competitors like China.
In the framework of a critical illustration of the contemporary history of economics, this chapter provides an (original) illustration of Hayek’s thought: his formative years, his contributions to the theory of the trade cycle and the theory of capital and the subsequent debates with Sraffa and Kaldor, his theory of the spontaneous order and of the market as a mechanism of knowledge diffusion, his political individualism and the similarities/differences to the notions of methodological individualism , liberism and liberalism, his thesis on the denationalization of money.