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The financial crisis of 2008 brought with it a renewed interest in the study of capitalism across disciplines. While historians have since led the way with writings on commodities, labor, finance, and institutions, these have been largely conveyed from the Euro-American perspective without necessarily probing other values, parameters, and conditions beyond western political economy that have shaped business over time. This article suggests that to assess the benefits and limits of the global capitalist experience, we must prioritize unconventional subjects, sources, and styles in how we frame research questions, analyze evidence, and cast narratives. Such an endeavor is especially timely given the growing influence of regional markets around the world and the increasing prominence of computational tools to generate and analyze novel datasets.
Chaucer’s two recorded visits to Italy in the decade of the 1370s is the starting point for considering vernacular literature at a point of transition: the middle of the decade is marked by the death of Petrarch and Boccaccio, and the beginning of the Chancellorship of Coluccio Salutati, a key figure in Florence’s incipient humanism. This chapter briefly examines some of the most important Italian influences on the work of Geoffrey Chaucer, namely: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), and in particular the Comedìa; Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), whose Decameron, Filostrato and Teseida were so important for Troilus and Criseyde, the Knight’s Tale, as well as the Canterbury Tales more generally; and Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374), who is attributed in the Clerk’s Tale as the source for the story of Griselda (his Latin translation of Boccaccio’s story comprises the seventeeth of his letters of old age, the Res seniles), and whose sonnet from the Rerum vulgarium fragmenta is included in Troilus and Criseyde.
Chaucer’s works demonstrate that he was extremely well read. He engages intensively with major authors and texts of classical and medieval literature such as Boccaccio, Boethius, Dante, Ovid, Petrarch and the Romance of the Rose. He also frequently cites respected ‘authorities’, including the Bible and commentaries on it. For a layman, he appears to have had access to an unusually wide range of reading material. His love of books and reading is also represented in many of his works, where his fictional alter egos are often to be found poring over texts and sitting up reading late at night. Getting access to reading material would, however, not have been as easy as we might imagine from reading his works. Manuscripts were costly and probably hard to come by, especially well-copied and reliable ones. Chaucer may have borrowed books from wealthy patrons and well-connected friends, bought second-hand copies, or had access to the libraries of religious institutions.
Thomas Hoccleve referred to Chaucer as the ‘firste fyndere of our faire langage’. The word fyndere is carefully chosen, as a modified translation of the first ‘canon’ of classical and medieval rhetoric, the ancestor of present-day English invention. Any assessment of Chaucer’s ‘poetic art’ requires us not just to identify the linguistic choices available to him, it also requires us to ask how those choices relate to his broader poetics. Chaucer’s use of ‘pronouns of power’, for example, do not only characterise particular choices from the linguistic resources of London Middle English, they are also a matter of style, a notion for which classical and medieval literary theoreticians had their own terminology, distinguishing high, middle and low styles, widely recognised as having distinct functions relating to social status and roles. It is conceivably as a metrist, however, that Chaucer’s skill as a ‘finder’ is perhaps most subtly demonstrated, as examples from his works show.
After a short status quaestionis laying out the main perspectives from which the book of Revelation has been studied, we show how the study of the reading guidelines laid out in the Introduction have hitherto been overlooked. We propose the methodology to follow in order to discover them. According to the reading theory, every reader creates a ‘model’ through which the sense is grasped and the text interpreted. The elaboration of this model involves a process of ‘disassembling the mechanism without ruining it; disassembling it until the keys to its organisation are found’, according to Alonso Schökel. This process is what we will examine in the following chapters.
Anthocyanins are flavonoids widely spread in various plant species as a major phyto-pigment. In recent years, interest in using anthocyanins as a feed ingredient has increased markedly owing to their health and other benefits. Anthocyanins possess various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, anti-obesity and antioxidant effects. Dietary consumption of anthocyanins has revealed benefits in animal performance. Little is known about health-promoting effects of anthocyanins in avian species, but anthocyanin-rich dried fruits have shown positive effects on certain pathological conditions and health promoting markers in human and other animals. This review aims to gather information regarding health benefits of anthocyanins and highlight therapeutic and potential health beneficial effects of anthocyanins for poultry. Additionally, it explores these biologically important flavonoids as alternative ingredients in poultry feed to replace synthetic nutrients and medicines. The available literature reports studies involving use of anthocyanins focused on human, mice and in vitro models. However, there is a need to explore mechanism of action at molecular level to understand potential beneficial effects of anthocyanins in avian species.