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Fieldwork can be exciting, and even addictive, but it can also be daunting and dangerous. Fieldsites range from a tent to established research stations. You may be close to home, or on the other side of the world. National researchers may be just as foreign to a local area as non-national researchers. You may be in a familiar environment or in a very unfamiliar one. Fieldwork often involves sharing living space with other people, and with wildlife. In this chapter I begin with what it takes to be a fieldworker, then cover permissions and logistics, field kit, personal safety, the social context, LGBTQIA+ concerns, natural hazards, physical health, mental health, and returning home.
With the creation of the Brady Plan – a program developed by US Treasury Secretary Nicholas Brady in 1989 to convert national debt into bonds following the Latin American debt crisis – emerging market countries joined their wealthier cousins as important participants in global bond and equity markets. The subsequent profitability and popularity of emerging market bonds combined with the securitization of other debts (most notably the packaging of mortgages into tradable securities), the creation of a wide range of increasingly sophisticated finance instruments and the normalization of free capital mobility led to a dramatic surge in the growth of private-sector liquidity and sparked the development of the extraordinarily highly interconnected global financial marketplace that we live in today. The resulting globalization of finance has transformed the international financial system from one dominated by official, public sources of capital to one in which private-sector components of liquidity now permeate virtually all facets of the financial system.
Speaking before the Senate Banking Committee on July 15, 2008, US Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson petitioned Congress for the authority to use taxpayer funds to prevent America’s mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac from collapsing. The hearing addressed widespread homeowner mortgage defaults that had sent stock prices plummeting and investors fleeing. Paulson argued that if investors came to understand that the government would not allow Fannie and Freddie to go under, stock prices would stabilize and a larger crisis could be averted. In a statement that would be repeated in news stories for years to come, Paulson speculated, “If you have a bazooka in your pocket and people know it, you probably won’t have to use it.” In this instance, the “bazooka theory” failed: Paulson not only had to fire his bazooka shortly after acquiring it, but its blast proved grossly inadequate to calm market uncertainty and forestall what became the worst financial crisis to hit the United States since the Great Depression. In spite of Paulson’s newly acquired money and authority, investors dumped Fannie and Freddie shares, both organizations fell into government conservatorship, political criticisms of bailouts grew louder and the whirlpool of uncertainty swirled ever faster.
This chapter considers how Ghanaian citizens experience nuclear power in the Kwabenya environs. It establishes the setting of Atomic Junction, through archival evidence of territorial disputes in a borderland area home to Guan, Akan, and Ga families. From the 1960s, Ghanaian scientists, inspired by Nkrumah’s grand plan settled in the area to manage the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. While they did not obtain the GHARR-1 until 1994, they led local families to believe that a reactor was installed around 1966. Given this widespread misunderstanding, the chapter asks how have people living near the reactor interpreted life on a nuclear frontier, or what Joe Masco has termed the “nuclear borderlands”? The chapter interprets how Ghanaians in Haatso, Kwabenya and other villages near the nuclear exclusion zone relate their experience with Atomic Lands (i.e. GAEC property) to the advent of nuclear spaces around the world where the potential for radioactivity excludes populations. It stresses the greater risk posed by petrol stations on the Haatso-Atomic Road, culminating in the 2017 explosion of a petrol tanker and a mushroom cloud at Atomic Junction.
This paper considers a model of linear capital taxation for an economy where capital and labor income are subject to idiosyncratic uninsurable risk. To keep the model tractable, we assume that investment decisions are made before uncertainty is realized, so that the realization of the capital and labor income shocks only affects current consumption. In this setting, we are able to jointly analyze capital and labor income risk and derive analytical results regarding the optimal taxation of capital. We find that the optimal capital tax is positive in the long run if there is only capital income risk. The reason for this is that the capital tax provides insurance against capital income risk. Furthermore, for high levels of risk, increasing the capital tax may actually induce capital accumulation. On the other hand, if there is only labor income risk, the optimal capital tax is zero. The sign of the optimal tax can only be negative if the two types of risk are negatively correlated and labor income risk is large enough.
To assess the perception of Ghanaian medical students about factors influencing their career interest in psychiatry and to explore gender differences in these perceptions.
This is a cross-sectional quantitative survey of 5th and 6th year medical students in four public medical schools in Ghana. Data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS version 20.
Responses were obtained from 545 medical students (response rate of 52%). Significantly, more male medical students expressed that stigma is an important consideration for them to choose or not to choose a career in psychiatry compared to their female counterparts (42.7% v. 29.7%, respectively). Over two-thirds of the medical students perceived that psychiatrists were at risk of being attacked by their patients, with just a little over a third expressing that risk was an important consideration for them to choose a career in psychiatry. There were no gender differences regarding perceptions about risk. Around 3 to 4 out of 10 medical students will consider careers in psychiatry if offered various incentives with no gender differences in responses provided.
Our study presents important and novel findings in the Ghanaian context, which can assist health policy planners and medical training institutions in Ghana to formulate policies and programs that will increase the number of psychiatry residents and thereby increase the psychiatrist-to-patient ratio in Ghana.
In this chapter, the authors apply the approach of basing a definition on the pattern of characteristic features of a term to that of ‘trust’. Starting from an analysis of ‘a patient trusts his doctor’, they identify seven characteristic features of ‘trust’. (1) Trust refers to an expectation regarding the trustworthiness. (2) Trust presupposes a situation of uncertainty and risk. (3) Trust is responsible if this expectation is justified. (4) This expectation must be realistic. (5) Trust is a free choice and implies the (at least unconscious) acceptance of the trust’s inherent risk. (6) A breach of trust causes a feeling of betrayal on the part of the truster. (7) Trust refers to the relationship between agents, who are competent and autonomous with regard to the topic of trust. Of the seven features, (1), (2), and (3) are essential, i.e., if one of them is absent, it cannot be a case of trust. From this follows their basic definition of trust: ‘trust refers to a justified expectation regarding the trustworthiness of the trustee under conditions of uncertainty and risk’.
Disaster, conflict, and forced migration are rising around the world, generating alarm about the long-term effects of trauma and devastation on child development. This chapter reviews theory and findings on risks, challenges, and resilience of children confronted with trauma and displacement in the context of conflict, terror, and disaster.
Models of resilience are described, with a focus on contemporary perspectives grounded in developmental systems theory. Resilience is defined as the capacity of a system to adapt successfully to challenges that threaten its functioning, survival, or future development. Evidence on the threats, adaptation, and protective processes that shape adjustment and the future development of young people displaced by life-threatening community-level crises are highlighted. Ethical, methodological, and practical issues and controversies in the research are discussed. The conclusion summarizes research progress, implications for intervention, and future directions of this body of research.
In this chapter, we argue that the timing of societal events in an individual’s life plays a major role in shaping that life through interacting developmental processes at multiple levels. We focus on classic research by Elder showing how two such events in historical proximity dramatically altered the lives of California children who were born at opposite ends of the 1920s, 1920–21 and 1928–29, the Great Depression of the 1930s followed by World War II (1941–45) and the Korean War (1950–53). We employ insights from both Elder’s cohort historical life course approach and developmental science including recent work on developmental neuroscience to understand the life-long impact of exposure to events that occur at different times in life, and the mechanisms through which these exposures may influence development, as well as experiences that may provide turning points in development.
Every research study that includes volunteer participants requires safety assurances in proportion to the risks of the study. Investigator-initiated clinical research can present unique regulatory challenges particularly for studies with a risk profile that warrants more oversight than minimal risk but less than for large, commercial, or high-risk research. The use of an independent safety officer (ISO) offers a middle way of right-sizing oversight to match the risk. ISOs are clinicians or researchers with relevant expertise who are independent of the investigator and the research study. Their relationship to the study is defined by a formal charter which is aligned with the protocol and Data and Safety Monitoring Plan to address the oversight process, responsibilities of the ISO, and clearly describe the variables to be monitored. The ISO responsibilities include reviewing safety data, adverse events, recruitment, demographics, study progress, data quality, protocol changes, and any new scientific information that pertains to the trial. Finally, the ISO reports in their review on any significant findings may propose modifications to the study or a need to stop the trial.
This is the first of two chapters focused on standards likely to support the internationalisation services in a supposedly most-likely case (the insurance industry being far from the ideal type of relational, non-material services). Both show that the standardisation of insurance is paved with difficulties. This substantiates the extensive hypothesis set in the , according to which setting service standards is less dependent on intrinsic attributes of the industry than on broader power configurations. This first chapter is focused on the regulation side of the insurance industry in the post-crisis era. After some background on the insurance industry, it examines the European Directive Solvency II – the most ambitious regulatory overhaul ever undertaken for insurance industries – and how it set the stage for developments at the global level under the aegis of the International Association of Insurance Supervision (IAIS) and regulatory policy reforms in the United States. In contrast to views focused on the ingrained power of either public regulation or private securitisation, I show that ambiguous transfers of authority pervade the three private-public, technical-societal, and national-transnational dimensions of my analytical framework.
The Strait of Istanbul is one of the world's busiest, narrowest and most winding waterways. As such, there is a high grounding probability for vessels. Although a number of grounding probability models exist, they have been deemed unsuitable by local maritime experts, due to their insufficient stopping distance criteria for narrow waterways. Thus, there is a need for a new model. This paper proposes a two-component grounding probability model that multiplies the geometric grounding probability (calculated with a kinematic-based model) with the causation probability (calculated with a specially designed Bayesian network). The geometric probability model is improved in terms of stopping distance parameters and the Bayesian network is crafted for narrow waterways. The model is then deployed with pre-determined parameters within the Strait of Istanbul to run risk analysis scenarios. The results, validated with actual grounding records, show that the causation probability is the key component for quantifying the probability of grounding in narrow waterways. If navigated without frequent evasive manoeuvres, grounding would be almost inevitable. Although this study focuses on the Strait of Istanbul, the proposed approach can be applied to research into grounding probability of vessels navigating through other waterways.
From 2007–2012, a dramatic upsurge in maritime piracy off the coast of Somalia captivated global attention. Over three hundred merchant vessels and some three thousand seafarers were held hostage with ransom amounts ranging from $200,000 to $10 million being paid to release these ships. Somali piracy operated exclusively on a kidnap-and-ransom model with crew, cargo, and ship held captive until a ransom was secured. Ransom, unlike theft or seizure, requires willing parties and systems of exchange. Ransom economies, therefore, bring together disparate actors and make visible the centrality of protection as a mode of accumulation and jurisdiction. As an analytic, this article proposes an anthropology of protection to undercut divides between legality and illegality, trade and finance, piracy and counter piracy. It argues that protection is key to apprehending processes of mobility and interruption central to global capitalism.
Current understanding of psychosis development is relevant to patients' clinical outcomes in mental health services as a whole, given that psychotic symptoms can be a feature of many different diagnoses at different stages of life. Understanding the risk factors helps clinicians to contemplate primary, secondary and tertiary preventive strategies that it may be possible to implement. In this second article of a three-part series, the psychosis risk timeline is again considered, here focusing on risk factors more likely to be encountered during later childhood, adolescence and adulthood. These include environmental factors, substance misuse, and social and psychopathological aspects.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•understanding the range of risk factors for development of psychotic symptoms in young people and adults
•understand in particular the association between trauma/abuse and subsequent psychosis
•appreciate current evidence for the nature and strength of the link between substance misuse and psychosis.
Psychosis is a recognised feature of several psychiatric disorders and it causes patients significant distress and morbidity. It is therefore important to keep knowledge of possible risk factors for psychosis up to date and to have an overview model on which further learning can be structured. This article concludes a three-part series. It gives a review of evidence regarding common pathways by which many risk factors come together to influence the development of psychosis and finalises our suggested overview model, a psychosis risk timeline. The three primary pathways considered are based on the major themes identified in this narrative review of recent literature and they focus on neurological, neurochemical and inflammatory changes. We link each back to the factors discussed in the first and second parts of this series that alter psychosis risk through different mechanisms and at different stages throughout life. We then consider and summarise key aspects of this complex topic with the aim of providing current and future clinicians with a model on which to build their knowledge and begin to access and understand current psychosis research and implications for future preventive work.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•give an overview of common pathways thought to link identified risk factors with psychosis development
•understand neurochemical, neurostructural and inflammatory changes associated with psychosis
•demonstrate increased knowledge of possible preventive strategies.
Psychosis is a complex presentation with a wide range of factors contributing to its development, biological and environmental. Psychosis is a feature present in a variety of psychiatric disorders. It is important for clinicians to keep up to date with evidence regarding current understanding of the reasons psychosis may occur. Furthermore, it is necessary to find clinical utility from this knowledge so that effective primary, secondary and tertiary preventative strategies can be considered. This article is the first of a three-part series that examines contemporary knowledge of risk factors for psychosis and presents an overview of current explanations. The articles focus on the psychosis risk timeline, which gives a structure within which to consider key aspects of risk likely to affect people at different stages of life. In this first article, early life is discussed. It covers elements that contribute in the prenatal and early childhood period and includes genetic, nutritional and infective risk factors.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•give an up-to-date overview of psychosis risk factors that can affect early life
•describe some important genetic risk factors
•understand more about the role of environmental factors such as nutrition and infection.
In the western Serengeti of Tanzania, African elephant Loxodonta africana populations are increasing, which is rare across the species’ range. Here, conservation objectives come into conflict with competing interests such as agriculture. Elephants regularly damage crops, which threatens livelihoods and undermines local support for conservation. For damage reduction efforts to be successful, limited resources must be used efficiently and strategies for mitigation and prevention should be informed by an understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of crop damage. We assessed historical records of crop damage by elephants to describe the dynamics and context of damage in the western Serengeti. We used binary data and generalized additive models to predict the probability of crop damage at the village level in relation to landscape features and metrics of human disturbance. During 2012–2014 there were 3,380 reports of crop damage by elephants submitted to authorities in 42 villages. Damage was concentrated in villages adjacent to a reserve boundary and peaked during periods of crop maturity and harvest. The village-level probability of crop damage was negatively associated with distance from a reserve, positively with length of the boundary shared with a reserve, and peaked at moderate levels of indicators of human presence. Spatially aggregated historical records can provide protected area managers and regional government agencies with important insights into the distribution of conflict across the landscape and between seasons, and can guide efforts to optimize resource allocation and future land use planning efforts.
Is public support for social welfare programs’ contingent on an individual’s exposure to risk? Prior work has examined whether tough economic times lead people to “reach out” (i.e. become more accepting of government expansion of social welfare programs) or “pull back” (i.e. become less supportive of welfare). However, these studies do not account for the conditional relationship between an individual’s exposure to risk and his or her risk orientation. Using new survey data, we find that an individual’s risk orientation moderates the relationship between risk exposure and public support for welfare spending. When individuals perceive exposure to economic risk, those who are risk averse are highly supportive of welfare expansion; those who are risk acceptant become less supportive. Broadly, these findings suggest that public support for welfare spending is contingent on whether an individual perceives exposure to risk and, if so, the individual’s propensity to tolerate that risk.