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Non-native annual brome invasion is a major problem in many ecosystems throughout the semi-arid intermountain west, decreasing production and biodiversity. Herbicides are the most widely used control technique but can have negative effects on co-occurring species. Graminicides, or grass specific herbicides, may be able to control annual bromes without harming forbs and shrubs in restoration settings, but limited studies have addressed this potential. This study focused on evaluating the efficacy of glyphosate and four graminicides to control annual bromes, specifically downy brome and Japanese brome. In a greenhouse, glyphosate and four graminicides (clethodim, sethoxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, and quizalofop-P-ethyl) were applied at two rates to downy brome plants of different heights (Experiment 1) and to three accessions of downy brome and Japanese brome of one height (Experiment 2). All herbicides reduced downy brome biomass, with most effective control on plants of less than 11 cm and with less than 12 leaves. Overall, quizalofop- P-ethyl and fluazifop P-butyl treatments were most effective, and glyphosate and sethoxydim treatments least effective. Accessions demonstrated variable response to herbicides: the downy brome accession from the undisturbed site was more susceptible to herbicides than downy brome from the disturbed accession and Japanese brome accessions. These results demonstrate the potential for graminicides to target these annual bromes in ecosystems where they are growing intermixed with desired forbs and shrubs.
‘Transposing the Restoration’ explores connections between, and assesses the cumulative impact of, the three main chapters of The Restoration Transposed. It considers the book’s implications for issues and topics such as translation, the transition from a manuscript- to a print-based literary culture, the spread of English-language literary publishing outside London, the participation and presentation of women in the literary sphere, and the development of the English literary canon. It also describes and seeks to account for the differing characters of each of the literary decades from the 1660s to the 1690s. It concludes by considering how the fresh perspectives offered by The Restoration Transposed may alter perceptions of poets as various as Milton, Marvell, Dryden, Cowley and Rochester and makes the case for the transposed Restoration as offering a view of its poetry that is less narrow and elitist and more sympathetic and open to diversity than conventional accounts of the period.
The ‘Introduction’ uses Rochester’s poem ‘Timon’ to illustrate the conventional view of Restoration poetry as topical, London-centric, satirical and male-dominated. It suggests that this perception of Restoration poetry, although correct to a degree, represents an unduly narrow view of the period, failing to account for such important works as John Milton’s Paradise Lost, Katherine Philips’s Poems and Abraham Cowley’s late English and Latin poetry. It makes the case for Restoration poetry’s engagement with wider contexts of literary history and literary geography and explains how these contexts are variously addressed in the three following chapters of The Restoration Transposed.
The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot of biodiversity, originating as the result of various geological, climatic and hydrological transformations, including alternating glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary. There is a long tradition of descriptive studies in the Mediterranean Sea, whereas manipulative experiments have been introduced in the 1990s with an initial focus on biological interactions. Experiments are now increasingly used to examining species interactions in relation to regional stressors and global threats such as ocean warming, acidification, extreme climate events and biological invasions. We offer a synthesis of this research using regime shifts as a unifying concept. We start with a brief introduction to regime shifts and the underlying theory, followed by a discussion of ongoing regime shifts in the Mediterranean, such as the transition from macroalgal forests to turf-dominated assemblages and the collapse of sessile organisms in response to heatwaves, species invasions, infectious diseases and pest metabolites. We then examine the implications of threshold-like biological responses and hysteresis for habitat restoration and rehabilitation. We conclude with an overview of the research that is needed to understand the interplay between species interactions and rapid environmental change, for which the Mediterranean is providing several dramatic examples.
Already a noted theorist and agitator on behalf of religious toleration in England when he turned his attention to American colonization, William Penn (1644–1718) played a central role in the development of liberty of conscience as a fundamental element of legitimate government. This chapter explores the foundations of Penn’s understanding of liberty of conscience and the important role he saw it playing as a foundational social, political, and legal principle. After an overview of Penn’s life and career, the focus turns to Penn’s role in the tolerationist movement during the 1670s in England and the main components of his theory as it developed over the course of his public career; his defense of representative institutions like juries and Parliament; his understanding of fundamental law; and his defense of “civil interest” as a social bond for uniting a religiously-diverse population like England and, later, Pennsylvania. The chapter concludes with a brief examination of the founding documents and early history of Penn’s colony.
In California, invasive grasses have displaced native plants, transforming much of the endemic coastal sage scrub (CSS) to nonnative grasslands. This has occurred for several reasons, including increased competitive ability of invasive grasses and long-term alterations to the soil environment, called legacy effects. Despite the magnitude of this problem, however, it is not well understood how these legacy effects have altered the soil microbial community and, indirectly, native plant restoration. We assessed the microbial composition of soils collected from an uninvaded CSS community (uninvaded soil) and a nearby 10-ha site from which the invasive grass Harding grass (Phalaris aquatica L.) was removed after 11 yr of growth (postinvasive soil). We also measured the survival rate, biomass, and length of three CSS species and P. aquatica grown in both soil types (uninvaded and postinvasive). Our findings indicate that P. aquatica may create microbial legacy effects in the soil that likely cause soil conditions inhibitory to the survival rate, biomass, and length of coastal sagebrush, but not the other two native plant species. Specifically, coastal sagebrush growth was lower in the postinvasive soil, which had more Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium (R. leguminosarum), Candidatus koribacter, Candidatus solibacter, and rhizophilic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fewer Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Nitrospira, and Rubrobacter compared with the uninvaded soil. Shifts in soil microbial community composition such as these can have important implications for restoration strategies in postinvasive sites.
Invertebrates living in underground environments often have unusual and sometimes unique adaptations and occupy narrow ranges, but there is a lack of knowledge about most micro-endemic cave-dwelling invertebrate species. An illustrative case is that of the flatworm Dendrocoelum italicum, the first survey of which was performed 79 years after its description. The survey revealed that the underground stream supplying water to the pool from which the species was first described had been diverted into a pipe for human use, thus severely reducing the available habitat for the species. Here we describe the results of what we believe is the first habitat restoration action performed in a cave habitat for the conservation of a flatworm. The water-diverting structure was removed, with the involvement of local protected area administrators, citizens and volunteers from local organizations. The intervention resulted in the restoration of a large, stable pool inside the cave, thus creating an optimal habitat for this threatened planarian, with increased availability of prey and a stable population. This report of habitat restoration for a neglected invertebrate offers insights for the protection of other micro-endemic species.
Projects that aim to control invasive species often assume that a reduction of the target species will increase native species abundance. However, reports of the responses of native species following exotic species control are relatively rare. We assessed the recovery of the native community in five tidal wetland locations in which we attempted to eradicate the invasive common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.]. We tested whether 3 yr of treatment were able to eradicate Phragmites and promote recovery of the native plant community. After 3 yr of treatment, Phragmites density declined sharply in all treated stands, though it was not eradicated in any of them. Native plant cover increased significantly in treated areas, and community composition, particularly in smaller stands, converged toward that of uninvaded habitat. Thus, even within the relatively short timescale of the treatments and monitoring, significant progress was made toward achieving the goals of controlling Phragmites infestations and promoting native biodiversity. There was a trend toward greater promise for success in smaller stands than larger stands, as has been observed in other studies. A greater emphasis on monitoring whole-community responses to exotic plant control, across a range of conditions, would enhance our ability to plan and design successful management strategies.
Morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) is predominantly found in seeds of temperate regions and is uncommon in arid biomes. MPD has been reported in a number of Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) species of temperate Australia, and in a single species of the arid zone, H. glaberrima. This study aimed to examine the dormancy and germination ecology of seeds of H. glaberrima. Seeds were subjected to temperature stratification treatments designed to mimic summer and autumn conditions in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Seed germination and embryo growth were measured. We also tested the interaction between temperature stratification and cycles of drying and wetting designed to mimic sporadic rainfall events. All temperature and moisture treatments were tested in combination (+/–) with the smoke-derived chemical karrikinolide (KAR1). Exposing dormant seeds to temperatures suitable for warm stratification (35°C) for ≥ 8 weeks, followed by incubation at 25°C, resulted in significantly higher germination compared with non-stratified seeds. Exposing seeds to dry/wet cycling in conjunction with temperature stratification did not significantly increase germination. Exposure to KAR1 increased germination under most conditions. Once seeds are shed during October to December, they are exposed to hot and sporadically wet conditions over summer, allowing MPD to be overcome in a proportion of the seed population. Seeds may germinate in autumn (March to April), in conjunction with cooler temperatures. More deeply dormant individuals may require more than one summer to overcome dormancy. Similar to other species occurring in fire-prone ecosystems, fire also plays a crucial role in the germination ecology of H. glaberrima.
Soil moisture is a key issue for eco-hydrological research in arid and semi-arid regions, and is primarily concerned with water availability for vegetation. Shallow and deep soil moisture occurs according to the maximum infiltration depth. Soil moisture has three-dimensional characteristics: inter-layer variability, horizontal heterogeneity and temporal variability. Soil moisture is affected by various factors including terrain, soil characteristics, climate and vegetation, and the effects of these change with time (e.g., rainfall patterns) and space (e.g., soil depth). In arid and semi-arid regions, deep soil moisture is of particular importance to vegetation restoration and the evaluation of vegetation sustainability; however, accurate prediction of the spatial distribution of deep soil moisture in the Loess Plateau of China still faces numerous challenges. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanisms, models and scale effects of soil moisture, particularly for deep soil moisture.
The Appalachian region of the United States is home to the largest temperate deciduous forest in the world, though surface mining has caused significant forest loss. Many former coal mines are now dominated by invasive plants, which often inhibit establishment of desirable species, especially slower-growing native trees. Autumn-olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) is a nonnative, nitrogen-fixing shrub that was historically planted on former coalfields, but now impedes reclamation. To better understand the influence of E. umbellata management practices on hardwood establishment, we evaluated two common management practices: cutting and cut stump herbicide treatment. Planted native tree species, including black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), pin oak (Quercus palustris Münchh.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), were monitored for survival and performance over two growing seasons following E. umbellata removal. In each plot, we also measured plant-available nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) in soils using ionic exchange membranes. At the end of the first growing season, native tree survival was high, and the presence or absence of E. umbellata had little effect on tree survival or growth, despite the higher plant-available nitrate where E. umbellata was present. By the end of the second growing season, native tree survival dropped to 20% to 60% and varied among E. umbellata treatments. Survival was highest when E. umbellata was cut and treated with herbicide, though tree growth was similar across all treatments without E. umbellata. When establishing native trees to replace E. umbellata, cutting and herbicide application treatment of the invader resulted in the highest overall efficacy (100% control), though the most cost-effective method may be to simply cut mature stands despite regrowth, as this resulted in equivalent native tree growth over 2 yr. While this allowed E. umbellata regeneration, it provided sufficient invader control to allow initial tree establishment. Cutting and herbicide application treatment resulted in less E. umbellata regeneration and appears to provide greater assurance that established trees will persist over the long term.
Restoration London saw a wave of publications by physicians advocating that the ‘compleat physician’ should be one who experimented and produced his own medicines. Only thus, they argued, could the medical hierarchy be restored and medical authority re-established on a defensible basis. This article seeks to explain the context for this unusual approach, and why it failed to attract mainstream physicians by the end of the century, by considering the sixty-year career of one of its leading advocates, Everard Maynwaring (c.1629–1713), a prolific medical author, and what his own failure to enter the medical establishment may show about the problems inherent in this model for the physician. A university-trained gentleman physician who converted to chymical medicine c.1660, Maynwaring published learned and relatively unpolemical texts to persuade both medical and lay audiences of the superiority of experimental medicine as a mode of learned practice, yet could not easily reconcile this with the advocacy and sale of his own chymical medicines (especially as he focused increasingly on a small group of ‘universal medicines’) without being branded an ‘empirick’. Fragmentary evidence regarding his career suggests he became increasingly marginalised, and as an old man was reduced to advertising his cures like the ‘empiricks’ from whom he had sought to distance both himself and physicians in general.
Russian-olive is a nitrogen-fixing tree invading riparian corridors in western North America. The premise of revegetation after weed removal is that revegetation is required to return native species to a removal site and that revegetation improves site resistance to invasion or reinvasion via competitive exclusion. Therefore, we expected that revegetation would reduce invasive species cover and increase native species cover compared with non-revegetated controls. Native understory species diversity increased with time since removal. We recorded 18.2 native species in 2012, and 28.2 native species in 2016. Out of 22 planted species, 2 did not establish. Diversity in revegetated plots did not differ from unplanted controls, likely because species spread quickly across plot boundaries. Native perennial grass, seeded species, and annual bromes increased over time, while nonnative forbs and native forbs decreased over time. Only invasive perennial grass cover responded to the revegetation treatment with cover much higher in controls compared with revegetated plots (25.7% vs. 7.7%); this was likely a response to a preplanting herbicide treatment. All categories of species diversity except invasive species diversity increased over time. Only 4% of Russian-olive stumps resprouted in the first year of removal, less than 1% resprouted 2 yr after removal. There was no Russian-olive emergence from seed in the removal year, and seed emergence varied exponentially among following years. Seeded native species did not have trouble establishing once adequate spring moisture occurred in the second growing season after Russian-olive removal, indicating that removal did not present substantial obstacles to successful revegetation. Follow-up control of Russian-olive is critical after initial treatment.