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This chapter looks at the functioning, politics and experiences of the extraordinary assemblage of institutions and individuals that ultimately constituted the emergency response to cholera. The process of coordinating a large-scale humanitarian relief effort was riven with competing claims to leadership, authority and legitimacy within and between different government and humanitarian bodies. However, as I argue in this chapter, these heterogeneous positions converged on the ineluctable and morally unimpeachable logic of ‘saving lives’. I call this logic ‘the salvation agenda’. The salvation agenda represented a bottom-line agreement that reconciled competing experiences of and viewpoints about the crisis to offer necessary and vital palliation in the face of cholera. Nevertheless, the exigency of saving lives did not, and could not, address the background socio-economic conditions that led to the epidemic. As such, I suggest that the salvation agenda inadvertently helped to perpetuate and, in some ways, exacerbate existing social hierarchies in Zimbabwe while ceding ‘moral ownership’ of the outbreak to a technical, internationalised, ostensibly ethical and apolitical humanitarian apparatus.
In the aftermath of natural disasters and in the urgency of the deteriorating situation in a “complex emergency”, aid is often provided in a haphazard manner. Organizing appropriate medical help is complicated by differences in the type of disaster, the available infrastructure that remains in place, the status of the country’s wealth, and, occasionally, the outbreak of violence and epidemics. Nevertheless, a sequential order of priorities and changing needs for various types of medical intervention such as (emergency) surgery, rehabilitation, and obstetrics can be made, as for managing medicinal needs, mental health, and communicable diseases. This chapter describes how this medical landscape changes qualitatively and quantitatively and how resources can be adapted dynamically and reflected in the capacity of the emergency medical team (EMT). Recently, disaster-prone countries have seen an expansion in the capacity of national EMTs. For a variety of reasons these are to be preferred over international EMTs, but where the latter are needed it is important that their competencies and capabilities follow both local and general guidelines.
It has been reported that 50% of the affected during natural or man-made disasters are children. They have unique vulnerabilities that require unique and specific management. It is therefore vital to understand the optimal management in pediatric emergencies, and to consider efforts regarding pediatric preparedness and response in humanitarian situations.
This chapter reviews the necessary means of pediatric care that must be included in medical relief delegations, and proposes a structure for a dedicated medical team, as well as necessary logistic and administrative considerations.
A triage algorithm is described, considering three key parameters: urgency, available resources, and the likelihood of saving a patient’s life. Ethical dilemmas posed by the above approach are discussed as well.
Lastly, the authors discuss the necessary collaboration between the pediatric team and the traumatology and obstetrics/gynecology departments, and describe the structure and function of a pediatric ward in a field hospital, based on experience from medical relief delegations deployed by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) after natural disasters in Haiti and Nepal.
Good relations and trust are the foundation of soft power diplomacy and are essential for the accomplishment of domestic interventions and any bilateral or multilateral endeavor. Military use for assistance and relief is not a novel concept, but it has increased since the early 1990s with many governments choosing to provide greater numbers of forces and assets to assist domestically and internationally. The increase is due to the growing lack of capacity in global humanitarian networks and increasingly inadequate resources available to undertake United Nations humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) missions. In response, the military has been more proactive in pursuing the improvement of military-to-military and military-to-civilian integration. This trend reflects a move towards more advanced and comprehensive approaches to security cooperation and requires increased support from the civilian humanitarian sector to help meet the needs of the most vulnerable. Military assistance is progressing beyond traditional methods to place a higher value on issues relating to civil cooperation, restoring public health infrastructure, protection, and human rights, all of which are ensuring a permanent diplomatic role for this soft power approach.
This article engages critically with William Rowe's notion of an “alternative economic discourse” linking the market-consciousness shown in some aspects of Dong Wei's approach to famine relief in the Song dynasty to that which informed many subsistence-policy discussions and some aspects of bureaucratic practice during the high Qing. The longevity of the discursive tradition is shown to be understated if we start with Dong Wei, but it is also taken as an interpretative challenge. Comparison with the case of ancien régime France is used to suggest an alternative conceptualization that enables us to differentiate between (1) a mainstream tradition of conventionally accepted market-conscious prescriptions that were not perceived as challenging Confucian moralism, and (2) avant-garde departures. A review of the arguments used down the centuries to justify distributing famine relief in monetary form is used to pinpoint one such departure and to reflect on its significance in a multi-century perspective.
This chpater explains how the so-called ‘rule’ in Dearle v. Hall is not a special rule devised in connection with equitable assigments, but us actually the working-out the general rule of priority in equity, that qui prior est tempore potior est jure (‘he who is first in time has the better right’) in light of the Golden Rule, that one should do as one would wish to be done by. This chapter reveals that it is the giving of notice of assignment which is key, so as to bring an assignee within the Golden Rule, thereby potentially putting such assignee in a position of a better equity as compared with an assignee who had not acted in accordance with the Golden Rule.
This chapter considers available responses to the government’s speech that endangers constitutional values. It starts by outlining possibilities for, and barriers to, constitutional remedies that include injunctive relief, declaratory relief, and damages. It then turns to a range of legislative, structural, and political possibilities for constructively influencing the government's expressive choices without resort to constitutional litigation. Statutory possibilities include laws that that require the government’s transparency, its deliberation, and its accuracy; or that limit the government’s speech on certain matters or for certain purposes. Other options include legislative oversight and impeachment, as well as rebuttals, protests, and other forms of counterspeech from other government officials, the press, and, of course, the people themselves—along with political remedies that include petitioning, lobbying, and voting.
Recent court decisions apply the received understanding among lawyers and historians of the origins and development of the penalty doctrine in contract law. This is that the doctrine first developed in the Court of Chancery, applying equitable principles, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; and that the relief was found so useful and became so routine that the common courts began to follow the practice in equity by the late seventeenth century. Thereafter, the common law subsumed the field. This chapter shows otherwise. Based on a fuller study than before of the printed and manuscript source material, it is shown that the common law courts never developed a lasting doctrine against penalties as such. Rather, they gained statutory powers to grant relief equivalent to that available in equity courts. No judge-made common law doctrine of relief from penalties survives today, and this is no need for concern. Despite their false portrayal as uncertain and constantly changing, the doctrines of equity are stable, well-known and well-attuned to application by courts in modern conditions.
When a disaster exceeds the capacity of the affected country to cope with its own resources, the provision of external rescue and health services is required, and the deployment of relief units requested. Recently, the cost of international relief and the belief that such deployment is cost-effective has been questioned by the international community; unfortunately, there is still little informed debate and few detailed data are available. This paper presents the results of a comparative review on the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of search and rescue (SAR) and Emergency Medical Team (EMT) deployment. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the topic, highlight the criteria used to assess the effectiveness, and identify gaps in existing literature. The results show that both deployments are highly expensive, and their success is strongly related to the time they need to be operational; SAR deployments are characterized by limited outcomes in terms of lives saved, and EMTs by insufficient data and lack of detailed assessment. This research highlights that the criteria used to assess the effectiveness need to be explored further, considering different purposes, lengths of stay, and different activities performed, especially for any comparison. This study concludes that data reporting should be mandatory for humanitarian response agencies.
This chapter explores the role that various media play in the developmnent of human rights discourses. It pays particular attention to the dependency of humanitarian initiative on media exposure, and the construction of specific cases of human rights abuses as sufficiently deserving of relief, or otherwise. The author argues that the role that the media play goes beyond mere carriers of information and ideology. They are fundamental in creating the imagery of suffering, and its generative association with care and relief. Within limited news cycles, they also have to deal with “compassion fatigue”; and the chapter closes with a description of how human rights advocates negotiate with these issues as they seek to bring attention to violations.
This chapter looks at two nexuses: law-and-literature and human-rights-and-literature. In her analysis of Charles Reznikoff’s book-length poem Testimony: the United States (1885-1915): Recitative (1978), the author brings the law-and-literature paradigm to bear on literary expression of human rights. She finds in the text overlapping ideations of the procedural and the performative, in its juridical and literary dimensions. On the one hand, the text serves to show the limitations of the law and its technologies such as the trial, which literary performance can help compensate for. On the other hand, Reznikoff's poem also proves the necessity for these technologies as organizing principles, especially in methods like citation and precedent, in order to battle the ever present risk of erasure.
An earthquake is a very common natural disaster. Numerous studies have focused on the acute phase, but studies concerning the subacute phase after an earthquake were very limited. This aroused more attention being paid to medical relief in the subacute phase, and this study elaborated on the division of the medical relief period and the definition of medical relief targets. More importantly, major types of disease were analyzed by reviewing the relevant published studies, which were identified by searching electronic databases. Findings suggested that the clear division of medical relief stage is vital for determining the priority of medical aid and allocating medical resources scientifically, and all concerned populations should be targeted for medical assistance. The focus of acute phase is injury (64.2%), and the subacute phase is disease (27.8% respiratory disease, 22.9% common disease, 12.5% wound/injury, 10.5% skin disease, 8.7% gynecological and pediatric disease, 8.5% digestive disease). However, due to the limited available studies, the included articles perhaps did not reflect the actual proportion of each type of disease. More studies are needed to better understand the proportion of different diseases in each phase of an earthquake.
The article builds a case for the Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jewish Population (Obshchestvo Okhranenia Zdorov’ia Evreiskogo Naselenia [OZE]) as a project of medicalized modernity, a mass politics of Jewish self-help that relied on a racialized and medicalized vision of a future Jewish nation. Officially registered in 1912 in St. Petersburg, it created the space for a Jewish politics that focused on the state of the collective Jewish body as a precondition for Jewish participation in any version of modernity. OZE futurism survived the years of World War I and the Russian Civil War, when the organization had to concentrate on rescue and relief rather than on facilitating the development of new bodies and souls. New archival evidence reveals how race science, medical statistics, and positive eugenics became composite elements of the Jewish anticolonial message and new subjectivity.
Post-World War II reconstruction in Europe and Asia is a topic of growing interest, but relatively little attention has been paid to the relief and rehabilitation effort in China in the immediate post-1945 period. This article reassesses the postwar program implemented by the Chinese Nationalist (Guomindang) government and the UNRRA (the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration), not just in terms of humanitarian relief, but also as part of a process that led to new thinking about the nature of the postwar state in Asia. It focuses on the ideas and actions of Jiang Tingfu (T. F. Tsiang), head of the Chinese National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration that worked with UNRRA. Chinese ideas for reconstruction in China were simultaneously statist, international, and transnational, and were shaped by high modern ideas drawn from Soviet and American examples. They were also influenced by China's poverty and wartime vulnerability, which made locally directed solutions more relevant in areas such as public hygiene. Success was unlikely because of the incipient Chinese Civil War and the huge demands of reconstruction on a state that was near-destitute, with a destroyed infrastructure. Nonetheless, its characteristics still bear examination as a first, tentative chapter in a longer story of post-imperialist and Cold War state-building that would shape countries in Asia and beyond.
The actions taken at the initial times of a disaster are critical. Catastrophe occurs because of terrorist acts or natural hazards which have the potential to disrupt the infrastructure of wireless communication networks. Therefore, essential emergency functions such as search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be disabled. We propose tethered balloon technology to provide efficient emergency communication services and reduce casualty mortality and morbidity for disaster recovery. The tethered balloon is an actively developed research area and a simple solution to support the performance, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication. The most critical requirement for rescue and relief teams is having a higher quality of communication services which enables them to save people’s lives. Using our proposed technology, it has been reported that the performance of rescue and relief teams significantly improved. OPNET Modeler 14.5 is used for a network simulated with the help of ad hoc tools (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:203–210).