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The most commonly used technique for the analysis of quantitative data in business research is multiple regression analysis. This is a powerful technique for understanding the relationships between variables, which variables have the most impact, and for prediction. In this chapter, we consider how to specify regression models, how to estimate the models, and how to use the estimated models to undertake some simple hypothesis tests. We emphasize that the researcher has to exercise his/her judgement in deciding not only the specification of the initial model but also in how to adapt and interpret the model in response to the various statistical tests.
The appropriate method of data analysis depends upon a variety of factors that have been specified in the research question and as part of the research design. One key issue is whether the data are qualitative or quantitative, and this depends upon the underlying research approach. If the research approach is deductive, then most of the data are likely to be expressed as numbers and the key issue will be selecting the appropriate statistical techniques for describing and analysing the data. In this chapter, we will concentrate on techniques for describing quantitative data and for providing simple preliminary analyses.
“No Plots for Old Men” argues that aging raised a problem for Charles Dickens’s literary project: the novel’s difficulty of representing temporal continuity over long spans of time. For the old man, the meaningful plots of the nineteenth century—such as the bildungsroman or the marriage plot—are behind him. An object of little narrative interest from the perspective of these plots, the old man is continually activated in Dickens’s novels, setting up a competition between the natural death he staves off and the closure of the narrative in which he is enmeshed. By examining three of Dickens’s early novels, this chapter shows how old men are excluded from the youthful plot of development central to the progress of a modernizing society. No longer the subject of the plot and yet bound by ambition, the elderly male engages in a narrative compulsion that underlines the imaginative power of what has been left behind by both the realist novel and the modernity it represents. By doing so, the old man serves as the site through which Dickens addresses an impasse of the novel form, where its duration is marked by its inability to faithfully represent the texture of passing time.
Chapter 4 details Mary Jane Holmes’s mistrust of “family pride” and her contention that “work” – of any sort – will challenge spoonery, crackerhood, and “white trash” dysgenics (her terms for national disruptions).
The third chapter, “Life After the Marriage Plot,” examines how the women of Elizabeth Gaskell’s Cranford preserve a temporal zone from the dual threat of patriarchy and modernization. The late-life romance between Miss Matty and Mr. Holbrook—a marriage plot without the possibility of marriage—generates narrative interest because it follows a set of temporal rules that originate from within Cranford rather than conforming to conventions about age and romantic love from outside the community. The superannuation of persons relates to a similar crisis in the marriage plot, which no longer reflects the experience of the older characters it purports to organize. Thus, I read Cranford’s representation of other forms of media—such as storytelling, the newspaper, and the letter—as a reflection on the formal obsolescence that takes place within the larger narrative economy of the novel. What emerges is a reconceptualization of the utility of what is “old,” insofar as the women of Cranford reterritorialize the obsolete as a particularly feminine challenge to the temporality of modernity.
Thirty-one accessions of Oryza glaberrima were evaluated to study the genetic variability, correlation, path, principal component analysis (PCA) and D2 analysis. Box plots depicted high estimates of variability for days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant in Kharif 2016, plant height, productive tillers, panicle length and 1000 seed weight in Kharif 2017. Correlation studies revealed days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle length, number of productive tillers, spikelets per panicle having a high direct positive association with grain yield, while path analysis identified the number of productive tillers having the maximum direct positive effect on grain yield. Days to 50% flowering via spikelets per panicle, productive tillers and plant height via spikelets per panicle exhibited high positive indirect effects on grain yield per plant. PCA showed that a cumulative variance of 54.752% from yield per plant, days to 50% flowering, spikelets per panicle and panicle length, contributing almost all the variation of traits while D2 analysis identified days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant contributing maximum to the genetic diversity. Therefore, selection of accessions with more number of productive tillers and early maturity would be most suitable for yield improvement programme. The study has revealed the utility of African rice germplasm and its potential to utilize in the genetic improvement of indica rice varieties.
Beatrice Hitchman situates The Bell Jar within an intriguing cultural moment for gay and lesbian fiction in the United States. She provides an original and fascinating account of the novel within the context of the boom in lesbian pulp fiction of the late 1950s and early 1960s, popular psychological writings, and the lesbian bar culture in West Village during the period, all of which helped to place images of lesbians in a wider circulation. Hitchman reads Joan Gilling as a lesbian character, considering The Bell Jar in the context of lesbian fiction of the time, offering a new account of the novel within a cultural moment of acceptance/rejection of lesbian rights.
Changes in density and basal area of lianas ≥2 cm diameter were monitored in two 1-ha permanent plots in a subtropical montane mature forest of north-western Argentina. Liana stems were identified and measured at 130 cm from the main rooting point in two censuses conducted in 2003 and 2015. Between censuses, the density of liana stems decreased 13.3%, while basal area increased 11.5%. Density and basal area decreased mainly among lianas of 2–3 cm diameter, but increased in lianas ≥4 cm diameter. Quechualia fulta (Asteraceae), Serjania meridionalis (Sapindaceae) and Chamissoa altissima (Amaranthaceae) suffered large reductions in stem density and basal area. Dissimilar responses of density and basal area of lianas might be a consequence of the suppression of anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. livestock browsing) and the decrease of treefall gap frequency in the studied forest in recent decades. Light-demanding liana species decreased and shade-tolerant species increased possibly in response to the decline in the light availability associated with forest recovery from past disturbance. Lianas increased in basal area to a lesser extent compared with reports from several tropical and subtropical forests where lianas are increasing dramatically.
This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months–5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity.
Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus.
Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are a species of conservation concern that require Marine Protected Area management and population status assessment under the EU Habitats Directive. Aerial surveys are commonly used to monitor grey seal pup production at their globally important UK colonies. However, in Wales more than half of pups are born in cryptic breeding habitats such as sea caves. These cryptic habitats preclude the use of aerial monitoring methods and necessitate ground-based counts, which are costly in resources. In this study, we compare a ground-based pup production census with a reduced effort plot-sampling survey to estimate pup production, derive a total population size and assess cost effectiveness. Pup production in North Wales was estimated at 91 (95% confidence interval: 70–112) by the plot-sampling design and was a good approximation of the ‘true’ value of 96 derived from the census. The total population size in North Wales was estimated at between 242 and 307 grey seals. The plot-sampling design reduced survey effort by 46% and saved 30% on logistical costs compared to the full census. We outline the suitability of this method as part of a monitoring programme for grey seal pup production and suggest our approach may be applicable to other regions where grey seals use cryptic breeding habitat.
We develop a framework for analysing the outcome of resource competition based on
bifurcation theory. We elaborate our methodology by readdressing the problem of
competition of two species for two resources in a chemostat environment. In the case of
perfect-essential resources it has been extensively discussed using Tilman’s
representation of resource quarter plane plots. Our mathematically rigorous analysis
yields bifurcation diagrams with a striking similarity to Tilman’s method including the
interpretation of the consumption vector and the resource supply vector. However, our
approach is not restricted to a particular class of models but also works with other
trophic interaction formulations. This is illustrated by the analysis of a model
considering interactively-essential or complementary resources instead of
prefect-essential resources. Additionally, our approach can also be used for other
ecosystem compositions: multiple resources–multiple species communities with equilibrium
or oscillatory dynamics. Hence, it gives not only a new interpretation of Tilman’s
graphical approach, but it constitutes an extension of competition analyses to communities
with many species as well as non-equilibrium dynamics.
A floristic inventory was carried out in an area of palm-dominated creek forest in Jenaro Herrera, in the northeast of Peru. All trees ≥ 10 cm dbh were surveyed in a one-hectare permanent plot using the standard RAINFOR methodology. There were 618 individuals belonging to 230 species, 106 genera and 43 families. The results showed that the total basal area of the trees in the plot was 23.7 m2. The three species with the highest importance value indexes were Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav., Oenocarpus bataua Mart. (Arecaceae) and Carapa procera DC. (Meliaceae). The five most dominant families in order of importance were Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapotaceae. Although the soil of this plot was poorly drained, the number of trees and the diversity of the plot were typical for terra firme forest in the western Amazon.