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The strain rate sensitivity (m) of (Ni0.92Zr0.08)100−xAlx (0 ≤ x ≤ 4 at.%) eutectic with varying average lamellae thickness (λw) in the range of 39–275 nm has been investigated in the strain rate range of 8 × 10−5 and 8 × 10−3 s−1 at room temperature. The microstructure of the nano-/ultrafine eutectic composites (NECs) is comprised of alternate lamellae of fcc γ-Ni and Ni5Zr along with 20–31 vol% γ-Ni dendritic phase. The m value of all the investigated NECs lies between 0.0080 and 0.0102, whereas the activation volume (V*) has been estimated to be between 29.7b3 and 49.8b3. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the dislocation-mediated plastic flow including dislocation–lamellae interaction, and their pile-up at the interface, which result in the narrow variation of m for a wide range of λw due to its interlocked lamellar microstructure. A mathematical model has been developed to correlate the m with λw for the experimented NECs with wide microstructure length scale and solute content.
To advance the utilization of solar thermal energy, a novel solar-driven microcapsule was designed by the combination of high-performance CuS nanoconverter and the microencapsulated n-Eicosane with a brookite TiO2 shell via in situ sol–gel method. The resultant n-Eicosane@TiO2/CuS microcapsules possessed excellent thermal properties with high latent heat density (171.7 J/g), high encapsulation efficiency (71.7%), and increased thermal conductivity (0.730 W/(m K)). SEM analysis clearly verified that CuS nanoparticles exhibited a uniform distribution on the surfaces. Most of all, the addition of CuS not only enlarged the absorption spectra from the UV to the visible and NIR region but also achieved high solar-to-thermal conversion efficiency (94.41%). Due to the high heat storage capability and solar irradiation utilization efficiency, this solar-driven microcapsule possesses great potential for the solar energy utilization.
Neural Networks applied to Machine Translation need a finite vocabulary to express textual information as a sequence of discrete tokens. The currently dominant subword vocabularies exploit statistically-discovered common parts of words to achieve the flexibility of character-based vocabularies without delegating the whole learning of word formation to the neural network. However, they trade this for the inability to apply word-level token associations, which limits their use in semantically-rich areas and prevents some transfer learning approaches e.g. cross-lingual pretrained embeddings, and reduces their interpretability. In this work, we propose new hybrid linguistically-grounded vocabulary definition strategies that keep both the advantages of subword vocabularies and the word-level associations, enabling neural networks to profit from the derived benefits. We test the proposed approaches in both morphologically rich and poor languages, showing that, for the former, the quality in the translation of out-of-domain texts is improved with respect to a strong subword baseline.
The aim of this research was to develop the UV-cured epoxy/carbon composites. The rheological properties of the uncured neat epoxy and epoxy composite with graphite, graphene, and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were evaluated to observe the macroscopic flow behavior and the microstructure by shear force. The results showed that epoxy/carbon composites at high filler content exhibited shear-thinning behavior with a high yield stress value and epoxy/MWCNT at 30 phr showed this characteristic obviously. The fractured surface and particle dispersion in the epoxy matrix were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Epoxy/carbon composites at high filler content displayed rough fracture surface with particle agglomeration, thus the electrical conductivity increased. The result showed that the epoxy/MWCNT composites had high potential to use as a conductive adhesive with a 3D printing process due to high electrical conductivity with high viscosity that could be formed easily during processing.
This paper investigates the syntax–semantics interface within the domain of the realization of applied objects in Bantu languages, and I argue that the syntactic structure and semantic contribution of a given argument-licensing functional head (here, the applicative) do not covary. Specifically, I show that in principle, both high and low applicatives can (and should) be available with any type of applicative and not tied to a specific semantics (such as transfer of possession) or thematic role, as proposed in earlier work. Furthermore, I reject the centrality of thematic roles as a component of grammar that determines the grammatical function of applied objects, and I propose instead a typology of Bantu applied objects based on their semantic and morphological properties. This approach makes several predictions about applied objects: (i) syntactic and semantic diagnostics for high and low applicatives need not pattern together, (ii) syntactic asymmetry (such as c-command) can arise for applied objects which pattern symmetrically with other diagnostics (such as passivization), and (iii) the type of an applied object does not universally capture symmetry properties cross-linguistically. The view put forward in this paper provides a framework that can better capture this type of variation with object symmetry in Bantu languages as well as language-internal facts about applied objects; more generally, this paper sheds light on the nature of the syntax–semantic interface by showing that the meaning of a functional head is not necessarily determined by its syntactic position.
We investigated whether children's inhibitory control (IC) is associated with their ability to produce irregular past tense verb forms as well as learn from corrective feedback following overregularization errors. Forty-eight 3;6 to 4;5 year old children were tested on the irregular past tense and provided with adult corrective input via models of correct use or recasts of errors following ungrammatical responses. IC was assessed with a three-item battery of tasks that required suppressing a prepotent response in favor of a non-canonical one. Results showed that IC was associated with children's initial production of irregular forms, but not associated with their post-feedback production. Findings are discussed in terms of current theories of past tense use and acquisition.
The current study analyzes Spanish present tense morphology with a focus on overregularization. It examines written production from two groups of English/Spanish bilingual children in a dual immersion setting, Spanish heritage language (SHL) speakers (n = 21) and Spanish second language (SL2) learners (n = 41), comparing them to age-matched (nine to ten years old) Spanish majority language children (n = 15). Spanish majority children show full mastery of present tense regular, stem-changing and irregular morphology. SHL children seem to have acquired mastery of regular inflectional morphology, but not of stem-changing morphology. SL2 children are significantly less accurate than both majority Spanish and SHL children in terms of both regular and irregular morphology. Evidence of overregularization, but not of irregularization, is provided for both SHL and SL2 children. The analysis of overregularization errors supports a variational approach (Yang, 2016) to acquisition, storage and access of morphology.
Additively manufactured parts produced via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) have limitations in their applications due to post-processing requirements caused by high surface roughness. The characteristics of side-skin surfaces are generally assumed to be dominated by adhered powder particles. This work aims to analyze and interpret the effects of LPBF processing parameters on side-skin surfaces. As such, this work has two sections to investigate the effect of (i) core and (ii) border LPBF parameters on side-skin surface roughness for Ti–6Al–4V. The findings show that there is a robust correlation between both core and border LPBF parameters on side-skin surface morphologies. In terms of core LPBF parameters, an interaction between laser power and beam velocity is shown to influence side-skin surface roughness, resulting in Sa values in the range of 11–26 μm. Additionally, a preliminary investigation into the effect of melting mode phenomena at the border leads to a possibility of obtaining Sa values of <10 μm, with reduced effects of adhered and partially fused powder.
Feeding ontogeny in primates has three stages. In utero, nutrition is gained maternally. After birth, primates suckle. We know little about functional variation in these stages. The transition to adult feeding – highlighted by weaning – varies across species. Variation is tied to many socioecological and morphological influences across primates. Primate feeding apparatus ontogeny is affected by many factors. Diet exhibits a complex relationship with the clearest signal marked by rapid dental mineralization and eruption in folivorous strepsirrhines. Mineralization varies across primates. Emergence and eruption of postcanine teeth tends to follow size in both suborders with smaller taxa showing earlier emergence, the exception being rapid eruption in some folivores. Compared to teeth, less is known about the musculoskeletal ontogeny of the feeding apparatus. Most studies compare closely related species and link musculoskeletal robustness to challenging diets. Looking forward, better understanding of primate feeding apparatus growth will require improved samples (a challenge for long-lived species) and emphasis on the evolutionary significance of feeding throughout ontogeny.
Co-occurrence restrictions on Biblical Hebrew root consonants have received thorough treatment in the specialized literature. However, combinations involving glides on the one hand, and nominal roots on the other, have received very little attention. The aim of this paper is to argue for an incompatibility between medial consonants and final glides in defective nouns: a final w cannot generally follow a homorganic medial root consonant, viz. labial p, b, m and velar k, g, q. The III-w roots are rare: they came about as a result of a well-documented historical process and are found almost only in nominal roots. Previous investigations have overlooked this incompatibility owing to the incomplete scope of the studies.
The genus Megastigmus Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera: Megastigmidae) contains potential biocontrol agents of the invasive eucalypt galling chalcid Leptocybe spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with several species reported in various parts of the world. Species discrimination is challenging due to intraspecific morphological variation, difficulty in measuring sizes of body parts, and the lack of information regarding the global distribution of parasitic Megastigmus. We used two species commonly associated with Leptocybe in its native range to review taxonomic methods and determine the most reliable morphological characters in species delimitation. We examined size variation of body characters, and conducted species discrimination using multivariate ratio analysis, mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and nuclear 28S rDNA (28S) sequences. Morphological traits were effective in species delimitation yet revealed high variation in several characters employed in current keys. Knowledge generated on morphology and DNA justified the description of a new species, M. manonae, sp. n., the first record of M. pretorianensis in Australia, and revised diagnostic characters for M. zvimendeli. Based on these diagnostic characters and molecular data, we synonymize three species (M. judikingae, syn. n., from Australia, M. sichuanensis, syn. n., from China and M. icipeensis, syn. n., from Kenya) with M. zvimendeli. Our findings highlight the importance of molecular markers in assisting taxonomic decision-making and the need for coordinated work in identifying Megastigmus associated with Leptocybe spp.
Telocytes (TCs) are very long, non-neuronal, somatic cells whose function is widely believed to be involved in providing connections between different cells within the body. The cellular characteristics of TCs in various organs have been studied by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence and electron microscopy in different vertebrate species, and here we investigate the proposed properties of these cells in the context of the “meridian” in Chinese Traditional Medicine (CTM). The results show that TCs and their long extensions, telopodes (Tps) develop a complicated network by homo- and heterocellular junctions in the connective tissue throughout the body, which can connect the skin with distant organs. In concept, this is the analogue of ancient meridian maps connecting skin acupoints with the viscera. Various active cells and extracellular vesicles including exosomes move along Tps, which, along with developed mitochondria within the podoms of Tps, may account for the structural evidence for “Qi” (vital energy and signal communication) in CTM. Morphological associations of TCs with the nerve, vascular, endocrine, and immune systems are also compatible with previously proposed meridian theories in CTM. Close relationships exist between TCs and collagen fiber bundles and some structures in skin fascia provide the microanatomical support for acupuncture treatment based on the meridian principle. The dynamicity in the distribution and structure of TCs reflects the plasticity of the meridian at the cellular level. As the same attribute, both the meridian and the TC have been associated with various diseases. Here, we summarize structural analogues between the TC and the meridian, suggesting that TCs have the cytological characteristics of the CTM meridian. We, therefore, hypothesize that TCs are the “essence cells” of the CTM meridian, which can connect and integrate different cells and structures in the connective tissue.
This chapter focuses on river confluences as a distinctive type of river planform. Topics covered in the chapter include the characteristics of confluence planform geometry, the distinction of confluence types based on planform symmetry, the factors controlling flow structure and patterns of sediment transport in confluences, current understanding of flow structure and patterns of sediment transport in confluences, dynamic changes in bed morphology in relation to changes in hydrological conditions of incoming flows, mixing downstream of confluences, changes in channel geometry at confluences, and changes in confluence planform over time.
The chapter begins with a discussion of what word learning entails within a MDM framework. It then moves onto discussing psycholinguistic models of vocabulary acquisition, in particular Kroll and Stewart (1994), Pavlenko (2009), and Schonebaert et al. (2009). It is argued that the 1LEx MDM framework can provide insight into some of the empirical puzzles that motivate these models.
In Distributed Morphology, PF is the sequence of steps that a derivational chunk takes on its way to the externalization systems. This chapter argues that these steps are also integarated in the bilingual’s mind. The empirical evidence comes from clitic combinations in Catalan/Spanish and consonant mutation in English/Welsh. It is subsequently argued that even word order and prosodification are integrated. A section of the chapter is devoted to MacSwan and Colina’s (2014) ‘PF Interface Condition,’ which makes the prediction that one cannot code-switch within the word. I argue that code-switching does not obey this restriction and the phonological effects that lead to this conclusion follow from phase theory.
This chapter presents an extended discussion of gender assignment and gender concord in four code-switching varieties: Basque/Spanish, English/Spanish, Nahuatl/Spanish, and German/Spanish. The detailed discussion of these data provides extensive support for the 1Lex MDM model.
This chapter explores recent work on code-switching and code-blending that work within theoretical paradigms similar to mine. Some of this work is couched within distributed morphology, while some other work uses soft constraints in the Optimality Theory tradition. The discussion provides additional context to the proposals in this monograph while emphasizing its novelty.
Pottery Mound is a large Ancestral Puebloan site situated within the Middle Rio Grande (MRG) region of New Mexico. This article adds to our understanding of relationships between Pottery Mound, the Western Pueblos, and Mexico through use of biological distance analysis based on dental nonmetric traits. Extensive material and cultural influences, as well as migration events from Western Pueblos to Pottery Mound, have been proposed by several scholars, while others have highlighted parallels to Mexico, especially Paquimé. A total of 1,528 individuals from the U.S. Southwest and Mexico were used to examine relationships between Pottery Mound and these areas. We find no evidence of close biological similarity between Pottery Mound and the Western Pueblos or northern Mexico. Instead, the results indicate biological affinity between Pottery Mound and sites in the MRG region and Mogollon areas. This similarity suggests that although there is evidence for trade between Pottery Mound and other sites in the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica, trade may not have been accompanied by significant gene flow from those areas from which the trade goods originated. It is possible that neighboring regions, such as the Mogollon, served as intermediaries for trade between Pottery Mound and distant regions.
This chapter provides an overview of the morphosyntactic categories associated with the verb in Germanic and the various inflectional and periphrastic exponents of those categories, with a particular focus on inflectional classes. Characteristics common to most or all of the modern languages are emphasized, but important features of individual languages and branches are also described.