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This chapter discusses the policy and educational context of provision for newcomer migrant children in Europe and the United Kingdom (including a review of relevant EU documentation relating to the social and academic integration of newcomer children in schools) before focusing on the specific context of the East of England which is the setting for our empirical study. We review statistical data relating to regional provision of support for EAL in schools and discuss the findings of a regional school survey conducted for the project.
The aim of this study is to develop an integrated definition and a conceptual model covering the dimensions of disaster literacy.
A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the definitions and conceptual frameworks of disaster literacy. The content analysis of definitions and conceptual frameworks were conducted to identify the central dimensions of disaster literacy and to develop an integrated model.
In this study, 8 disaster literacy definitions and 4 conceptual model studies related to disasters were found. In line with these studies, a comprehensive definition of disaster literacy was presented. In addition, based on content analysis, a 16-matrix integrative conceptual model of the mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery dimensions of disaster literacy, and the access, understanding, appraisal, and application areas of disaster information processing were developed.
In this study, a comprehensive definition and conceptual framework of disaster literacy were presented in an integrated model. By using this model, practices that are special to the phases of a disaster can be identified and supported in society. In addition, the model can contribute to empirical studies by providing the basis for the development of tools to measure disaster literacy.
With the increasing recognition of the pedagogical applications of corpus linguistics, there has been a growing interest in developing teachers’ corpus literacy to popularize the use of corpora in language education. This longitudinal study investigated Arab Gulf EFL student teachers’ immediate and long-term responses to corpus literacy instruction. After teaching a corpus literacy component to two classes of student teachers in a graduate computer-assisted language learning course they attended, the author collected focus group data about their views on this instruction and their own expected future uses of corpora in language learning, teaching and research. Two years later, a group of these student teachers (n = 19) responded to a follow-up questionnaire exploring their beliefs about corpus literacy integration and their multiple uses of corpora. The student teachers reported very positive immediate and long-term perceptions of corpus literacy instruction, but it was found that such instruction has not brought about all the desired changes in their long-term uses of online corpora as a linguistic and pedagogical resource, or their attitudes towards doing corpus-based TESOL research. However, it is expected that the popularization benefits gained from corpus literacy integration could lead to better future developments in using corpora for language education and research purposes in the target context.
In a poll (ReImagineEdu, 2016) looking at the digital profile of nearly 1,000 learners, it was reported that 78% of students worry about digital technologies distracting them from study. In attempting to contribute to this emerging debate (Aaron & Lipton, 2018), this article investigates the experiences, perceptions and awareness of undergraduate language learners (n = 215, over a 3-year period) of the distractive nature of technology and the discerned impact upon their own student language learning and performance. The study is based on data gathered from university language students engaged in a specific language technology module. The module, interalia, sought to develop awareness of the time spent online by participants while using a number of resources. A mixed-methods approach was employed to conduct this research where qualitative and quantitative data emerged respectively from individual student blogs, reflective reports of their blogging experiences, group interviews and questionnaires. Our outcomes reveal a severe lack of student awareness on the final amount of time they spent online, this being due to a number of factors. However, there is some awareness and perception on their part of how heavily disruptive technology can be for their language learning. Our final conclusions include several recommendations and propose a deictic critical digital literacy for dealing with such distractions – we are calling this a strategic agentive literacy.
The Academic Development Study of Australian Twins was established in 2012 with the purpose of investigating the relative influence of genes and environments in literacy and numeracy capabilities across two primary and two secondary school grades in Australia. It is the first longitudinal twin project of its kind in Australia and comprises a sample of 2762 twin pairs, 40 triplet sets and 1485 nontwin siblings. Measures include standardized literacy and numeracy test data collected at Grades 3, 5, 7 and 9 as part of the National Assessment Program: Literacy and Numeracy. A range of demographic and behavioral data was also collected, some at multiple longitudinal time points. This article outlines the background and rationale for the study and provides an overview for the research design, sample and measures collected. Findings emerging from the project and future directions are discussed.
To test the effectiveness of theoretically driven role model video stories in improving knowledge of palliative care among a diverse sample of older adults.
We developed three 3–4 min long theoretically driven role model video stories. We then recruited cognitively intact, English-speaking adults aged 50 and older from senior centers, assisted living, and other community-based sites in the greater Los Angeles area. Using a pretest–posttest study design, we surveyed participants using the 13-item Palliative Care Knowledge Scale (PaCKS) and also asked participants about their intentions to enroll in palliative care should the need arise. Participants first completed the pretest, viewed the three videos, then completed the posttest comprised of the same set of questions.
PaCKS score improved from an average of 4.5 at baseline to 10.0 following video screening (t(126) = 12.0, p < 0.001). Intentions to enroll oneself or a family member in palliative care rose by 103% (χ2 = 7.8, p < 0.01) and 110% (χ2 = 7.5, p < 0.01), respectively. Regression analysis revealed that participants who believed the role models are real people (β = 2.6, SE = 1.2, p < 0.05) significantly predicted higher change in PaCKS score. Conversely, participants with prior knowledge of, or experience with, palliative care (β = −5.9, SE = 0.8, p < 0.001), non-whites (β = −3.6, SE = 0.9, p < 0.001), and widows (β = −2.9, SE = 1.1, p < 0.01) significantly predicted lower changes in PaCKS score.
Significance of results
This study suggests that theoretically driven role model video stories may be an effective strategy to improve palliative care knowledge. Role model video stories of diverse palliative care patients provide one way to mitigate health literacy barriers to palliative care knowledge.
“In Chapter 9, the authors discuss the ability of good language teachers to employ a range of formative and summative assessment practices to assess the individual learner’s needs and to address these needs in their instructional practice. The authors draw on the analysis of responses given by language practitioners in the higher education setting to suggest that learning-oriented assessment can enhance language teaching by helping learners engage with assessment feedback and benefit from it.”
Joanne Leal’s chapter investigates how far and how exactly cinema is able to offer a representational counterbalance to conservative notions of national belonging and exclusionary constructions of what social cohesion should mean. It considers these issues mainly within a Western European framework, asking what film can do to promote intercultural sensitivities within contemporary European contexts in which attitudes to the impact of globalization and particularly the transnational movement of people are often ambivalent and sometimes actively hostile. In particular it examines critical assessments of the positive intercultural impact of watching foreign cinema, the possible political effects of films which encourage empathetic responses to transnational tales contained in generically familiar forms and the critical potential of two kinds of film which uses less conventional cinematic means to represent a globalized social world.
Disaster literacy, which is a concept involved in moral quality, knowledge, and ability, impacts the disaster response. This study aimed to evaluate disaster education needs and to determine the affecting factors of disaster literacy among college students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted through questionnaires. A total of 7200 college students from 10 colleges and universities in 5 provinces and cities in China were investigated.
Disaster education needs were urgently. For the participants, 79.43% stated that their families were not prepared for disaster prevention items, 96.36% suggested a campus emergency rescue team, and 88.64% obtained disaster knowledge through TV or Internet, and only 12.89% had offered relevant courses in their disciplines. The total scores of college students’ disaster literacy were 87.85 ± 19.86, which was at a low level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, major, grade, place of residence, parental education, mother’s occupation, disaster experience, disaster training experience, and family disaster preparedness significantly affected college students’ disaster literacy, especially grade, family disaster preparedness, and place of residence.
College students’ disaster literacy education is urgently needed. Families, communities, colleges and the government should attach importance to disaster literacy education for college students.
The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a self-administered nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire for Italian university students.
The NK questionnaire included ninety questions on experts’ nutritional recommendations, nutritional content of food, health aspects of food and diets, relationship between diet and diseases, and proper food choices. It was administered to the same population under the same conditions on two different occasions with a time interval of 3 weeks between the two administrations.
The survey was carried out at the University of Parma (Italy) during the 2018–2019 academic year.
Data were collected for 132 bachelor and master degree students attending the University of Parma, either attending or not nutrition classes during their studies (19–30 years, 29·5 % males, 57·6 % with an academic nutrition background).
The questionnaire revealed high overall internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α > 0·8) and a good temporal stability with high correlation of the total score (r = 0·835, P < 0·001). Moreover, it showed a good ability to discriminate between subjects with potentially different NK.
This NK questionnaire proved to be a reliable, valid and easy-to-use tool for assessing the NK of Italian university students, either with or without nutrition background.
Family caregivers of people with dementia can experience loss and grief before death. We hypothesized that modifiable factors indicating preparation for end of life are associated with lower pre-death grief in caregivers.
Caregivers of people with dementia living at home or in a care home.
In total, 150 caregivers, 77% female, mean age 63.0 (SD = 12.1). Participants cared for people with mild (25%), moderate (43%), or severe dementia (32%).
Primary outcome: Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory Short Form (MMCGI-SF). We included five factors reflecting preparation for end of life: (1) knowledge of dementia, (2) social support, (3) feeling supported by healthcare providers, (4) formalized end of life documents, and (5) end-of-life discussions with the person with dementia. We used multiple regression to assess associations between pre-death grief and preparation for end of life while controlling for confounders. We repeated this analysis with MMCGI-SF subscales (“personal sacrifice burden”; “heartfelt sadness”; “worry and felt isolation”).
Only one hypothesized factor (reduced social support) was strongly associated with higher grief intensity along with the confounders of female gender, spouse, or adult child relationship type and reduced relationship closeness. In exploratory analyses of MMCGI-SF subscales, one additional hypothesized factor was statistically significant; higher dementia knowledge was associated with lower “heartfelt sadness.”
We found limited support for our hypothesis. Future research may benefit from exploring strategies for enhancing caregivers’ social support and networks as well as the effectiveness of educational interventions about the progression of dementia (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03332979).
To examine the relationship between household food insecurity (FI) and children’s involvement in family meal choices and food preparation, used as proxies for children’s food skills, and to explore gender differences within these associations.
Households were classified as food-secure or food-insecure using the six-item, short-form Household Food Security Survey Module. Children’s involvement in family meal choices and food preparation were treated as proxies for children’s food skills. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression models were used.
Public schools in Nova Scotia, Canada.
5244 children in the fifth grade (10–11 years old) participating in the Children’s Lifestyle and School Performance Study (CLASS).
Most children reported being involved in family meal choices or food preparation at least weekly (74 and 68 %). The likelihood of helping choose family meals once a week was 33 % lower among girls from food-insecure households compared to girls from food-secure households. No differences in boys’ involvement in family meal choices were observed according to household FI status. Boys from food-insecure households were 65 % more likely than boys from food-secure households to assist with food preparation/cooking four times per week. No differences in girls’ involvement in food preparation were observed according to household FI status.
Findings support that household FI is not due to a lack of food skills but most likely due to inadequate access to resources. This supports the call for upstream policies targeting the structural issues underpinning household FI such as low income.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to flood preparedness literacy and the relationship between flood preparedness literacy and behaviors.
A quantitative descriptive correlational study. The sample included 134 people residing in a central Thai province. Descriptive statistics, point-biserial correlation coefficient, and Spearmanʼs rank correlation were used in the data analysis.
The results revealed that the factors related to flood preparedness literacy with a statistical significance were marital status (rpb = 0.207; P < 0.01), hearing ability (r = 0.197; P < 0.05), instrumental activities of daily living (r = 0.226; P < 0.01), and social support (r = 0.388; P < 0.01). Flood preparedness literacy was correlated with flood preparedness behaviors (r = 0.281; P < 0.01).
The factors related to flood preparedness literacy as mentioned above should be assessed to identify vulnerable groups for specific care provision. Furthermore, nurses should promote these factors to contribute to effective responses during flood disasters.
This chapter conducts a material and linguistic analysis of royal Tudor proclamations, considering how the properties of the genre inform the performance of power in a text designed to be both spoken and seen. The analysis considers material features, such as layout, oversize initials and typeface, alongside key linguistic properties, including lexical bundles and nominal and pronominal references to monarch and subject. The findings are compared against the those for royal correspondence. The chapter proposes that proclamations underwent a process of epistolarization in the Tudor period, becoming more interactive and directly representative of the monarch's prerogative.
As countries develop, they are likely to face challenges in meeting growing energy demand and in ensuring energy security. Given this, and the problem of climate change, improving demand-side energy efficiency is pivotal to ensuring sustainable development. However, agents often underinvest in energy-efficient technologies due to behavioral failures such as low levels of energy-related financial literacy, defined as the combination of energy knowledge and cognitive abilities needed to evaluate the lifetime costs of durables. Using novel data, we analyze the levels and determinants of energy-related financial literacy of households in urban areas in the eastern lowlands of Nepal, and whether it is correlated with their attitudes towards replacement of energy-inefficient appliances. We find that respondents have low levels of energy-related financial literacy, and higher levels of literacy are associated with more rational attitudes towards appliance replacement. The findings of this study are relevant to addressing the energy-efficiency gap in developing countries.
Health anxiety is an under-recognised but a frequent cause of distress. It is particularly common in general hospitals.
We carried out an 8-year follow-up of medical out-patients with health anxiety (hypochondriasis) enrolled in a randomised-controlled trial in five general hospitals in London, Middlesex and Nottinghamshire. Randomisation was to a mean of six sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy adapted for health anxiety (CBT-HA) or to standard care in the clinics. The primary outcome was a change in score on the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, with generalised anxiety and depression as secondary outcomes. Of 444 patients aged 16–75 years seen in cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, neurology and respiratory medicine clinics, 306 (68.9%) were followed-up 8 years after randomisation, including 36 who had died. The study is registered with controlled-trials.com, ISRCTN14565822.
There was a significant difference in the HAI score in favour of CBT-HA over standard care after 8 years [1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25–3.40, p = 0.023], between group differences in generalised anxiety were less (0.54, 95% CI −0.29 to 1.36), p = 0.20, ns), but those for depression were greater at 8 years (1.22, 95% CI 0.42–2.01, p < 0.003) in CBT-HA than in standard care, most in standard care satisfying the criteria for clinical depression. Those seen by nurse therapists and in cardiology and gastrointestinal clinics achieved the greatest gains with CBT-HA, with greater improvement in both symptoms and social function.
CBT-HA is a highly long-term effective treatment for pathological health anxiety with long-term benefits. Standard care for health anxiety in medical clinics promotes depression. Nurse therapists are effective practitioners.
This chapter explores the development of a popular print culture in Ireland during the decades between 1830 and 1880, as well as the growth of an audience for such publications. It traces the history of the technological and legislative changes – such as the arrival of steam presses and the abolition of stamp and paper taxes – necessary for a popular press to emerge, as well as the social and political landscape which enabled an expanded readership to develop. In particular, the chapter examines the role of the radical political press in actively developing that readership through both its network of reading rooms across Ireland and its publishing of newspapers and juvenile story papers, including the Nation newspaper, the Irish Fireside Magazine, Young Ireland and the Shamrock magazine. These publications were intended to establish an imaginative link between popular entertainment and radical politics, especially through the use of Irish history and historical fiction in order to create a print culture which created and reinforced a national Irish audience for both the popular press and mass political movements.