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This chapter argues that Australia and New Zealand versions of the invasion novel crystallized an indigenized, militaristic settler masculinity that soon proved adaptable to other geopolitical contexts. Novels such as George Ranken’s The Invasion (1877) and Kenneth Mackay’s The Yellow Wave (1895) defined settler masculinity by valorizing character qualities previously associated with indigenous colonial resistance. The global circulation of that formal logic, spurred by the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), can be seen clearly in the work of Erskine Childers: alongside editing a history of the war’s guerilla phase, he reworked the invasion novel in The Riddle of the Sands (1903) to imagine countering a threat of metropolitan conflict with a colonial mindset. In World War I, the Australian and New Zealand role in the Dardanelles Campaign was also celebrated in texts such as John Masefield’s Gallipoli (1916) as a settler invasion of Europe. Casting militarized settler masculinity as “surplus value,” highly valuable and yet disposable, constitutes one final intersection of political economy and literary form, colony and metropole, arising from the Victorian settler empire.
The abnormal expression of lncRNAs and miRNAs has been found in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia (PE). Therefore, we determined the role of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1/miR-3127 in trophoblast cells. The expression of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 was detected by qRT-PCR. The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of trophoblast cells were evaluated using CCK-8, wound healing and transwell assays. The target gene of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 was determined by StarBase and luciferase reporter assays. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). The results showed that FOXD2-AS1 affected trophoblast cell viability in vitro, while the expression of miR-3127 was decreased. FOXD2-AS1 silencing decreased the promotion effects on trophoblast cell induced by miR-3127 inhibition. In addition, FOXD2-AS1 and miR-3127 presented the same effect on MMP2 and MMP9 levels. lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 modulated trophoblast cell proliferation, invasion and migration through downregulating miR-3127 expression. Therefore, lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 could act as a latent therapeutic marker in preeclampsia.
Apicomplexans, including species of Eimeria, pose a real threat to the health and wellbeing of animals and humans. Eimeria parasites do not infect humans but cause an important economic impact on livestock, in particular on the poultry industry. Despite its high prevalence and financial costs, little is known about the cell biology of these ‘cosmopolitan’ parasites found all over the world. In this review, we discuss different aspects of the life cycle and stages of Eimeria species, focusing on cellular structures and organelles typical of the coccidian family as well as genus-specific features, complementing some ‘unknowns’ with what is described in the closely related coccidian Toxoplasma gondii.
Invasive species drive biodiversity loss and lead to changes in parasite–host associations. Parasites are linked to invasions and can mediate invasion success and outcomes. We review theoretical and empirical research into parasites in biological invasions, focusing on a freshwater invertebrate study system. We focus on the effects of parasitic infection on host traits (behaviour and life history) that can mediate native/invader trophic interactions. We review evidence from the field and laboratory of parasite-driven changes in predation, intraguild predation and cannibalism. Theoretical work shows that the trait-mediated effects of parasites can be as strong as classical density effects and their impact on the host’s trophic interactions merits more consideration. We also report on evidence of broader cascading effects warranting deeper study. Biological invasion can lead to altered parasite–host associations. Focusing on amphipod invasions, we find patterns of parasite introduction and loss that mirror host invasion pathways, but also highlight the risks of introducing invasive parasites. Horizon scanning and impact predictions are vital in identifying future disease risks, potential pathways of introduction and suitable management measures for mitigation.
Lesser celandine (Ficaria verna Huds.), an invasive plant from Europe, is becoming widespread in river valleys throughout the northeastern United States and the Pacific Northwest. Its high rate of asexual bulbil and tuber production creates dense infestations threatening native spring ephemerals. Ficaria verna abundance and reproductive output (seeds, bulbils, and tubers) were examined in invaded transects spanning a disturbance gradient away from a river. Site characteristics (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR], soil pH, moisture, texture, and nutrients) were quantified to examine their roles in plant abundance and reproduction. A larger-scale study examined random transects not specifically chosen based on F. verna infestations. Soil characteristics and slope were hypothesized to drive F. verna abundance and reproduction; we also hypothesized that reproductive output and biomass would be highest at intermediate distances from rivers, where disturbances are infrequent. Ficaria verna abundance and reproductive output varied considerably by site; soil characteristics, rather than landscape placement, appeared to drive plant abundance and reproduction. Lower percent sand was associated with significantly higher F. verna stem density and bulbil and tuber production. CEC was significantly negatively related to F. verna biomass and tuber counts. In the larger-scale survey, slope and PAR were significantly negatively related to F. verna presence and percent cover, respectively. Overall, these findings suggest that soil texture and slope can help explain higher abundance and reproductive outputs. However, reproductive output and biomass were not significantly greater at intermediate distances, contrary to expectations. We did not observe any seed production in any of the plots, although we did see a few plants with seeds outside our study area in the second year, demonstrating a near-complete reliance on asexual reproduction in these populations. This study expands on the current limited understanding of F. verna and can help management by identifying areas likely to support dense infestations.
This chapter explores the organizational culture of Iraq’s army between its founding in 1921 and its collapse by the time of the American invasion in 2003. During this eighty-two-year history, the organizational culture of the Iraqi Army moved from the face of a foreign occupation in the 1920s, to a political tool of internal social and political coercion, to “probably the most potent military ever wielded by an Arab government.” However, by the time American troops pulled down the statue of Saddam in Baghdad’s Firdos Square, the army’s organizational culture was but a faint echo of not only its Iran-Iraq War pinnacle but also its historic norm. Saddam’s role was the critical factor in this change. Saddam needed professional military officers competent in developing and employing a large modern armed force, but he preferred the counsel of “violent and ignorant personalities.” Saddam could never reconcile the fundamental difference between what he called tribal and civilized (or state) warfare and the professional elements of the Iraqi armed forces could not survive in his shadow.
The American Civil War presented an exceptional state of affairs in modern warfare, because strong personalities could embed their own command philosophies into field armies, due to the miniscule size of the prior US military establishment. The effectiveness of the Union Army of the Tennessee stemmed in large part from the strong influence of Ulysses S. Grant, who as early as the fall of 1861 imbued in the organization an aggressive mind-set. However, Grant’s command culture went beyond simple aggressiveness – it included an emphasis on suppressing internal rivalries among sometimes prideful officers for the sake of winning victories. In the winter of 1861 and the spring of 1862, the Army of the Tennessee was organized and consolidated into a single force, and, despite deficits in trained personnel as compared to other Union field armies, Grant established important precedents for both his soldiers and officers that would resonate even after his departure to the east. The capture of Vicksburg the following summer represented the culminating triumph of that army, cementing the self-confident force that would later capture Atlanta and win the war in the western theater.
The first 30 years of conflict between the State of Israel and its Arab neighbours was focused chiefly on Egypt, Jordan and Syria. But Egypt made peace with Israel in 1978 and Jordan in 1994, after a long period of de facto peace between the two countries; and although there has been no peace between Israel and Syria, and Israel still occupies a large part of the Syrian Golan, the area itself was generally quiet from 1974 to 2006 (when this history ends) and beyond. Instead, after the 1973 War, there was increased conflict between Israel and the Palestinians in the occupied territories of Gaza and the West Bank, and vastly escalated conflict between Israel and its northern neighbour Lebanon. These conflicts were not unconnected, but this chapter looks in particular at the case of Lebanon.
Various descriptions of the two Mughal capitals, Agra and Delhi, mention the gates of both royal forts as decorated with the statues of two warriors mounted on elephants. The list of those who had described these sculptures and reconstructed their history includes late-medieval Indian writers, European travellers to the Mughal empire, scholars from the nineteenth century onwards, authors of tourist guides; there is a popular oral narrative on them as well. The most widely spread version attributes the statues to the Rajput warriors who defended Chittor against the Mughal invasion and who were immortalised by the emperor Akbar in a sign of his recognition of their valour. This article is an attempt to ‘investigate’ the controversial story of a Mughal ruler glorifying his sworn enemies and to analyse historical circumstances that could be a background for such a narrative.
Weed invasion is a prevailing problem in modestly managed lawns. Less attention has been given to the exploration of the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under different invasion pressures from lawn weeds. We conducted a four-season investigation into a Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Thiele (native turfgrass)–threeflower beggarweed [Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.] (invasive weed) co-occurring lawn. The root mycorrhizal colonizations of the two plants, the soil AM fungal communities and the spore densities under five different coverage levels of D. triflorum were investigated. Desmodium triflorum showed significantly higher root hyphal and vesicular colonizations than those of Z. tenuifolia, while the root colonizations of both species varied significantly among seasons. The increased coverage of D. triflorum resulted in the following effects: (1) the spore density initially correlated with mycorrhizal colonizations of Z. tenuifolia but gradually correlated with those of D. triflorum. (2) Correlations among soil properties, spore densities, and mycorrhizal colonizations were more pronounced in the higher coverage levels. (3) Soil AMF community compositions and relative abundances of AMF operational taxonomic units changed markedly in response to the increased invasion pressure. The results provide strong evidence that D. triflorum possessed a more intense AMF infection than Z. tenuifolia, thus giving rise to the altered host contributions to sporulation, soil AMF communities, relations of soil properties, spore densities, and root colonizations of the two plants, all of which are pivotal for the successful invasion of D. triflorum in lawns.
Large-scale control of invasive plants can benefit strongly from reliable assessment of spatial variation in plant invasibility. With this knowledge, limited management resources can be concentrated in areas of high invasion risk. We assessed the influence of spatial environments and proximity to roads on the invasibility of African mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan) over the 280,000-ha Barry M. Goldwater Range West in southwestern Arizona, USA. We used presence/absence data of B. tournefortii acquired from a vegetation classification project, in which lands were mapped to the level of vegetation subassociations. Logistic regression models suggested that spatial environments represented by the subassociations, not proximity to roads, represented the only factor significantly explaining B. tournefortii presence. We then used the best model to predict B. tournefortii invasibility in each subassociation. This prediction indicates management strategy should differ between the western part and the central to eastern part of the range. The western range is a large spatial continuum with intermediate to high invasion risk, vulnerable to an untethered spread of B. tournefortii. Controlling efforts should focus on preventing existing local populations from further expansion. The central and eastern ranges are a mosaic varying strongly in invasion risk. Control efforts can take advantage of natural invasion barriers and further reduce connectivity through removal of source populations connected with other high-risk locations via roads and other dispersal corridors. We suggest our approach as one effective way to combine vegetation classification and plant invasion assessment to manage complex landscapes over large ranges, especially when this approach is used through an iterative prediction–validation process to achieve adaptive management of invasive plants.
The chapter identifies warnings within the EU foreign policy system related to the Russian annexation of Crimea and the destabilisation of Eastern Ukraine in 2014 and examines the reasons for the differentiated impact among EU decision-makers. The Ukraine case was a strategic surprise to the overwhelming majority of EU policy-makers and posed significant diagnostic problems, but senior ministers within the system were warning their peers on the basis of previous cases, historical analogies, expert knowledge and recent indications of changed Russian intent. However, the persuasiveness of the few and late warnings suffered, first of all, from distraction by external crises coupled with limited bandwidth in the EU, shortages in relevant and reliable intelligence, high resistance against divergent policy predispositions of the warning and, finally, significant suspicions of national biases against key warning sources. The supranational part of the system was almost completely blindsided to geopolitical risk, while the newly established EEAS was partly unable and partly unwilling to persuade the Commission. It is fair to say that the system as a whole acted as an impediment to having a holistic discussion of warning as part of foreign policy discourse.
The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot of biodiversity, originating as the result of various geological, climatic and hydrological transformations, including alternating glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary. There is a long tradition of descriptive studies in the Mediterranean Sea, whereas manipulative experiments have been introduced in the 1990s with an initial focus on biological interactions. Experiments are now increasingly used to examining species interactions in relation to regional stressors and global threats such as ocean warming, acidification, extreme climate events and biological invasions. We offer a synthesis of this research using regime shifts as a unifying concept. We start with a brief introduction to regime shifts and the underlying theory, followed by a discussion of ongoing regime shifts in the Mediterranean, such as the transition from macroalgal forests to turf-dominated assemblages and the collapse of sessile organisms in response to heatwaves, species invasions, infectious diseases and pest metabolites. We then examine the implications of threshold-like biological responses and hysteresis for habitat restoration and rehabilitation. We conclude with an overview of the research that is needed to understand the interplay between species interactions and rapid environmental change, for which the Mediterranean is providing several dramatic examples.
Many invasive species managers state that their objective is to “control” an invader. However, the appropriate choice of a management option requires a more explicit statement of management objectives, in terms of both the relevant time horizon and spatial scale. Using data from a 2-yr mowing experiment, we show that the most effective management strategy for controlling an invasive thistle depends fundamentally on the management goals. We integrate field data from a two-cohort experiment with modeling to assess 14 mowing treatments (differing in intensity, frequency, and timing, and thus also in their required logistical effort) based on their effectiveness in (1) reducing population density of the existing cohort, (2) decreasing projected long-term population growth, and (3) limiting projected population spread of an invasive thistle, musk thistle (Carduus nutans L.). The treatment with high intensity and a single late mow caused the largest reduction in plant survival (and density of existing adult plants); the treatment with high intensity and an early mow in addition to a late mow was most effective at reducing population growth rate and population spread. Against expectation and conventional wisdom, the most frequent mowing treatment did not provide the most effective management outcome for any stated objective. This study highlights the necessity of clearly defined management aims; the term “control” is too vague to be truly useful. The results also provide important insights for the management of this invasive species.
Organic cropping systems are characterized by soil-disturbance events that can be diversified over years through crop rotations and within seasons by varying planting dates. The Farming Systems Project at Beltsville, MD, USA, is a long-term experiment that includes three organic rotations, corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], corn–soybean–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn–soybean–wheat–alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Analysis of weed presence and cover over the first 18 yr of this experiment revealed that the tall, erect annual broadleaf weeds smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), horseweed (Erigeron canadensis L.), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.), and/or velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) were most prominent in corn and soybean. Generally, these species exhibited traits adapted to the disturbance regimes, nutrient availability, crop environment and duration, and local meteorological conditions associated with the summer annual corn and soybean crops. Abundance of A. hybridus, D. stramonium, and A. theophrasti were controlled primarily by rotation diversity, whereby presence and cover of these species were highest in the short corn–soybean rotation and lowest in the longer rotations that had more diverse seasonal soil-disturbance regimes. Early-season temperature was the primary factor controlling C. album presence and cover, which were higher at lower temperatures associated with earlier planting dates. Higher early-season precipitation was the primary factor associated with higher presence of annual grass species. The relative abundance of species in organic corn and soybean was determined primarily by the diversity of crops and disturbance operations in rotation, the timing of spring tillage and planting, and annual meteorological conditions driving emergence periodicity.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Two pot experiments (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) were conducted in a screen house to evaluate the growth and reproductive behavior of two biotypes (A, collected from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–fallow; B, collected from a fence near a water channel) of E. colona in response to water stress (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% water holding capacity [WHC]). Averaged across both biotypes, the plant height, biomass, and seed production of E. colona were reduced at 25% WHC compared with 100% WHC. However, E. colona still produced a considerable amount of seeds at 25% WHC (at least 365 seeds plant−1). Biotype A produced more seeds in the second experiment, while biotype B produced more seeds in the first experiment. In Experiment 2, at 100% WHC, biotype A produced more seeds (17,618 seeds plant−1) than biotype B (4,378 seeds plant−1), and similar observations were noticed for root biomass. Growth and seed production of E. colona at all moisture levels and environmental conditions ensure survival in an unpredictable environment and contribute to the weedy nature of this species. Results indicate that biotype A is more invasive than biotype B under favorable environmental conditions (100% WHC). This study suggests an enhanced competitive ability of some biotypes of E. colona in response to a range of environmental and soil moisture conditions in Australia. Under favorable environmental conditions, biotype A could be more problematic, as it has higher seed production than biotype B. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable weed control methods for such biotypes in the early stages of crop growth to prevent loss of stored moisture.
Relationships between alien plant species and their aboveground effects have been relatively well studied, but little is known about the effects of invasive plants on belowground faunal communities. Nematodes are abundant, ubiquitous and diverse soil biota, and alterations of their community compositions can illustrate changes in belowground ecosystems. In 2016 and 2017, we determined the response of species diversity, community composition and trophic composition of the soil nematode communities to invasion by the alien plant Solidago gigantea in two ecosystems, forest and grassland, where invasion takes place. Nematode abundance was higher and number of identified nematode species was lower at invaded than uninvaded sites, indicated by lower species diversity, regardless of ecosystem. Herbivorous nematodes were the most affected trophic group. Herbivore abundance was higher at invaded than uninvaded sites and in grassland than forest. The herbivorous species Boleodorus thylactus, Geocenamus sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Paratylenchus bukowinensis, Pratylenchoides crenicauda and Rotylenchus robustus were more abundant at the invaded sites. Abundances of nematodes in the other tropic groups were limited or not affected. The invasion did not significantly affect the ecological and functional indices, except for the Channel Index in 2016. Differences were observed in values of Enrichment Index (indicator of resource availability), Channel Index (indicator of ascendant bacterial/fungal decomposition channel) and Basal Index (indicator of depleted-perturbed soil food webs) between grassland and forests. We can thus conclude that invasion by S. gigantea significantly alters nematode community indicators (abundance, species diversity and specific trophic groups); however, this effect seems to be significantly influenced by the type of ecosystem where invasion takes place.
The Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is one of many animal species classified as alien under the biosecurity system in New Zealand. However, it is against the possums that a relentless campaign is perpetrated. This article attempts to explain some of the many reasons behind such intense negativity, and in doing so, show a link between the management of invasive species as a biosecurity risk and young people’s nativist views. A qualitative, interpretive mode of inquiry was used to analyse data that showed a link between the management of invasive species as a biosecurity risk and young people’s controversial views. An educational program that presents an objective view of invasive species is recommended.