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Individuals’ behavior change is affected by the environments in which they live. This chapter takes an ecological perspective on how interventions in community contexts can change individual behaviors related to physical and psychological outcomes. The chapter first outlines the concept of ecology before applying it to three approaches to changing behavior in the community context: (1) social norms; (2) social settings; and (3) social policy. Examples of community behavior change programs and research are given for each approach. In terms of social norms, the chapter discusses how research on interpersonal violence, sexual health, and alcohol use on college campuses has incorporated norms-based interventions to change people’s views of their own and others’ behavior. In terms of social settings, the chapter outlines a range of settings and highlights research on creation of food pantries as a community-based example of a means to combat food insecurity. With regard to social policy, examples are provided of community efforts to target changes in local policy. Last, suggestions for future research on behavior change interventions at the community level are provided. The lack of attention paid to ripple effects, the relationship between ecological levels, and methodological issues that make gathering data on community change challenging are discussed.
Groups are increasingly used to deliver behavior change interventions, but such interventions are seldom based on theory and research on social group processes. A consequence of this is that existing group interventions are often heterogenous and difficult to evaluate. The social identity approach addresses important questions relevant to the design and delivery of group interventions for supporting behavior change. Drawing on this approach, the social identity model of behavior change explains how group processes can be harnessed in behavior change interventions. The model prioritizes the establishment of shared social identity among intervention group members and outlines how, through six core group resources, social identification can shape delivery of intervention content to achieve behavior change. Evidence for the key resources specified in the model is presented, and a step-by-step guide provided, to support the operationalization of the model’s principles in practice.
This chapter provides the economic framework and context in which entertainment and media businesses operate. Covers hours of work, growth rates, population effects, productivity, price effects, industry structures, valuation variables, and basic economic concepts.
Lewin (1951) recognized that it “is usually easier to change individuals formed into a group than to change any one of them separately” (p. 228). More than sixty-five years later, social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel & Turner, 1979) and self‐categorization theory (SCT; Turner et al., 1987; collectively referred to as the social identity perspective/approach) offer many insights into why and how this is the case. At the heart of the social identity perspective is a comprehensive and systematic theory of the “group,” which generated a new view of the self-process where humans are both individuals and group members with both personal (“I”) and social (“we”) identities. Importantly, social and personal identities can change and, in turn, so too can behavior. An important part of the behavior change “puzzle”, often overlooked by researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, is that it is necessary to engage not only the “I” or “me” but also the “we.” This chapter outlines the potential of social identity processes, including in-group norms and social influence, in advancing understanding of behavior change. Taken together, research and practice applying the social identity approach to behavior change demonstrate considerable promise in promoting change in group contexts and for multiple behaviors in multiple domains such as work, education, and community settings.
Catholicism and Protestantism have different ways of promoting the family unit that could influence survival and fertility at a population level. Parish records in the Austrian village of Hallstatt allowed the reconstruction of Catholic and Protestant genealogies over a period of 175 years (1733–1908) to evaluate how religion and social changes affected reproduction and survival. Life history traits such as lifespan beyond 15 years, number of offspring, reproductive span, children born out of wedlock and child mortality were estimated in 5678 Catholic and 3282 Protestant individuals. The interaction of sex, time and religion was checked through non-parametric factorial ANOVAs. Religion and time showed statistically significant interactions with lifespan >15 years, number of offspring and age at birth of first child. Protestants lived longer, had a larger reproductive span and an earlier age at birth of first child. Before the famine crisis of 1845–1850, Protestants showed lower values of childhood mortality than Catholics. Comparison of the number of children born out of wedlock revealed small differences between the two religions. Religion influenced reproduction and survival, as significant differences were found between Catholics and Protestants. This influence could be explained in part by differential socioeconomic characteristics, since Protestants may have enjoyed better living and sanitary conditions in Hallstatt.
Climate change can cause geographic displacement of the ecological niche of a species, so that similar species that previously did not coexist could begin to face new interactions. Such geographic displacement and increased competition can also be exacerbated by anthropic intervention. Until less than 100 years ago, Vultur gryphus and Coragyps atratus did not coexist. Nowadays, possibly as a result of climate change, changes in the distributions of both species created areas where they are now sympatric. Through ecological niche modeling, we evaluated the possible effects that future scenarios of climate change and human influence would have on the distribution and sympatry between the two species. Our models predict that the current distribution of V. gryphus will be reduced between 18% and 24% by 2050 and between 21% and 32% by 2070. Additionally, they predict that the distribution of C. atratus will be reduced by 31–52% by the year 2050 and 15–60% by 2070. The two algorithms predict a reduction in the areas of sympatry. However, for the northern Andes the overlap between the two species will increase, reaching up to 70% in the year 2070. The distribution of C. atratus will move towards higher areas in the altitudinal gradient, and this will generate an increase in the current sympatry between both species. No clear trend was observed on the effect of human influences on the areas of overlap between the scenarios evaluated. The possible effects of climate change and anthropic intervention in future scenarios found in this study highlight the need to include these effects in future analyses and conservation programs of V. gryphus and other threatened vultures.
With world population senescence and globalization, more present-day older adults will evince cognitive aging that is influenced over a longer life span by a wide range of social practices and motivational beliefs from cultural groups across the world. Although there is no dispute that brain structure and function aggregate biological and experiential influences, a useful framework is still needed regarding the specific neural mechanisms underlying the exchange between biology and experience with age, and the effect on cognition. We introduce a predictive coding framework of the aging cognitive brain that views the older brain as making predictions about the environment based on a lifetime of experience in it. The influence of cultural experiences in shaping the aging predictive brain then reflects individual differences in processing social signals about appropriate or inappropriate behaviors and cognitive styles amid neural resources changes. We briefly annotate relevant findings on age effects and cultural differences in neurocognitive processing. We further review findings showing that cultural cognitive differences are present in children, persist in young adulthood, and are either maintained or accentuated in older adulthood. Finally, we consider that the predictive aging brain is an enculturated one, reflecting the accumulation of a lifetime of experiences that have fortified culture-specific modes of thought and neural processing in older adults.
There are concerns that some non-profit organisations, financed by the food industry, promote industry positions in research and policy materials. Using Freedom of Information (FOI) requests, we test the proposition that the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), one prominent non-for profit in international health and nutrition research, promotes industry positions.
U.S. Right to Know filed five FOI from 2015 to 2018 covering communications with researchers at four US institutions: Texas A&M, University of Illinois, University of Colorado and North Carolina State University. It received 15 078 pages, which were uploaded to the University of California San Francisco’s Industry Documents Library. We searched the Library exploring it thematically for instances of: (1) funding research activity that supports industry interests; (2) publishing and promoting industry-sponsored positions or literature; (3) disseminating favourable material to decision makers and the public and (4) suppressing views that do not support industry.
Available emails confirmed that ILSI’s funding by corporate entities leads to industry influence over some of ILSI activities. Emails reveal a pattern of activity in which ILSI sought to exploit the credibility of scientists and academics to bolster industry positions and promote industry-devised content in its meetings, journal and other activities. ILSI also actively seeks to marginalise unfavourable positions.
We conclude that undue influence of industry through third-party entities like ILSI requires enhanced management of conflicts of interest by researchers. We call for ILSI to be recognised as a private sector entity rather than an independent scientific non-profit, to allow for more appropriate appraisal of its outputs and those it funds.
This chapter begins by describing some of the main lines of influence on Coetzee, including major literary figures, philosophical and theological traditions, and a range of South African writers and thinkers. It distinguishes the psychoanalytic and philosophical registers in which the concept of intertextuality has been discussed by such figures as Roland Barthes and Julia Kristeva, as well as (more implicitly) by writers including Fyodor Dostoevsky and Samuel Beckett. Most broadly, it develops an argument that Coetzee was not simply influenced by this way of thinking about the nature and value of literature. Instead, his fiction can be understood as a complex engagement with both the imaginative power and the moral problems that it generates.
The opening chapter sets out the aims of the book in more detail. There is a contrast between the way in which physics is taught and how it is used in a research context. Lecture courses provide a streamlined presentation of the material that every physicist ought to know, but this does not necessarily reflect the actual process of discovery and innovation in physics. The book is intended to bring to life the process of carrying out research in physics. The roles of creativity and imagination are emphasised and illustrated by seven case studies of key areas of physics. Tracing how giants like Maxwell and Einstein came to their revolutionary innovations brings to life the process of discovery in physics. Theoretical analyses are given at a level accessible to undergraduates in experimental and theoretical physics. The book should be considered complementary to standard physics courses and is intended to enrich the appreciation of the content of physics and theoretical physics courses.
This chapter is the first of three to treat different aspects of Jeanne’s administration to assess how and why the balance of power could vary within a single ruling partnership. It examines the basic material foundations of lordship: land, inheritance, and money, including a survey of the financial challenges in Jeanne and Charles’ rule. It shows that coordination on significant matters was paired with the ability to act independently and more efficiently on lesser transactions. But these shared concerns did not erase distinctions between Jeanne and Charles’ personal responsibilities and status, which influences our understanding of why spousal co-rule functioned so readily in medieval society. Building on the centrality of inheritance within noble society, the chapter highlights two dynamics that enabled the distribution of power between spouses: the emphasis on lineage among the aristocracy, and the practices of divided succession and co-lordship that were prevalent across France, neither of which has been sufficiently studied in relation to co-ruling couples. By reconciling competing ideals of unitary and multiple lordship, these partible seigneurial standards offer an alternative or supplemental framework for contextualizing such ruling partnerships beyond the delegations of authority stressed in studies of monarchy in this period.
The chapter lays out the argument of the book: that Joyce’s texts elaborate a set of problems posed by Ignatius Loyola, working these problems into new approaches to narration, hermeneutics, and irony. It also situates this argument in wider contexts of Joyce studies, current theories of reading, negative theology, and the psychoanalytic theory of Melanie Klein.
The historiography of elite women has often contrasted ‘power’, the effective ability to command and be obeyed, with ‘authority’, the sanctioned right to lead. Using Jeanne’s charters as an idealized projection of her actual position, this chapter argues that this model is too restrictive to reflect contemporary understandings of lordly roles. On the surface, these texts seem to associate Jeanne with ‘authority’ and Charles with ‘power’, but a closer examination reveals that neither authority nor power was monolithic: different types of authority coexisted with different types of power, and all could vary jointly or independently. Moreover, these concepts were not static points of reference, but were actively manipulated by contemporaries according to various social norms. This suggests that instead of using the power/authority dichotomy, a more effective model of power dynamics would account for both the people or things over which power was exerted, and the practical and ideological grounds on which it worked. Approaching power from this contextually specific angle enables more diverse comparisons by privileging no single explanatory factor, aim, or outcome of power, and gives greater insight into the complexity of medieval political structures and their social functions.
The main objective of this study was to compare clinical and functional outcomes of patients with schizophrenia in Italy and Sweden with a special focus on daily functioning performance and real life milestones. Also, to study if outcome is to be regarded as a consequence of premorbid function, the level of symptom control and functional capacity or if other influences, such as cultural differences, must parallel be considered.
Ninety-five patients from three centres, Milan and Naples in Italy and Trollhattan in Sweden were investigated. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment - Brief version were used together with patients’ school history and their status of accommodation and occupation.
Patients in Trollhattan were more likely to live independently and patients in Naples to have a work or take part in education. Differences in symptoms and the performance test were present but subtle.
Differences in real life milestones were not explained by corresponding differences in symptoms, premorbid function or the performance-based test. It is therefore not appropriate only to present functional outcome as an expression of how successful treatment has been.
If readers determine the fate of books, we might think the Annals of Quintus Ennius enjoyed but ephemeral success. Its fragments are few, its original audience and intent unclear. In this paper I ask how so vast a monument became such a ruin, and what the evidence of its survival reveals about the process of its destruction. Those who knew the poem best are among that handful of Romans – Cicero and Vergil prominent among them – whom we know best. What did “ordinary” Romans know, pretend to know, or could they be expected to know of it? Close attention to the poem’s reception suggests that it was best known through favored extracts and that the idea of the Annals was more firmly fixed in the Roman literary consciousness than the poem itself.
The fourteen papers in this volume take advantage of advances in the study of Ennius’ Annales that have occurred in the generation since Otto Skutsch published his monumental edition and commentary on the poem, while also taking advantage of Jackie Elliott's recent provocation to question the most basic assumptions that underlie Skutsch’s work. The result is a collection of essays as diverse in their individual interests and objectives as we believe Ennius and his Annals also were. The essays are organized under four rubrics, namely (1) Innovation, (2) Authority, (3) Influence, and (4) Interpretation. An afterword reflects on the findings of the volume as a whole, with equal emphasis on new questions that the individual papers raise and on solutions that they propose, while raising additional points that should provoke further research.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established the practice of indicator-based governance in international development. Yet, knowledge about their effectiveness in re-steering domestic policy remains limited. This chapter explores the extent and pathways of domestic policy adjustment to MDG 3, intended to promote gender equality. The study combines a comprehensive mapping of gender policy adoption in 15 Sub-Saharan African countries over 15 years with two case studies of the causal mechanisms of MDG adjustment in Kenya and Ethiopia. The principal findings are threefold: (1) there was considerable policy adjustment to MDG 3 across countries, pointing to the effectiveness of GPI-based development governance in re-steering policy priorities. (2) Despite the significant effects on policy goal-setting, further implementation remained limited, suggesting superficial behavioral change. (3) Process-tracing of the Kenyan and Ethiopian policy processes shows that behavioral change was primarily driven by the causal mechanisms of aid conditionality, social influence, and civil-society mobilization, all enabled through MDG intense performance monitoring. The decisive role of incentive-based mechanisms in generating policy change, and the limited elite socialization, explains why MDG 3 implementation was slow and contested. These findings have implications for debates about development GPIs and gender equality change and the reproduction of global power structures.
This study reports a production experiment investigating the realization of objects with different verb types in controlled discourse contexts in 68 three- to seven-year-old sequential Cantonese–English bilingual children. The results show the bilingual children behaved similarly to the Cantonese monolingual peers in object omission, but exhibited protracted development and produced target-deviant forms following a Cantonese pattern in omitting objects specified in prior discourse in English. The bilingual children also showed non-target-like uses of the Cantonese post-verbal object pronoun keoi5, which were unattested in monolingual children. Our findings show evidence for bidirectional cross-linguistic influence: the direction of influence goes from the weaker to the stronger language and from the stronger to the weaker language. Vulnerability of object realization in bilingual acquisition can be better understood in terms of the interaction between cross-linguistic influence, input (e.g., quantity and structural frequencies) and other linguistic elements involved in the interface relation (e.g., verb type).
This chapter considers the transatlantic influences that shaped Irish literary culture in the romantic period. In particular, it focuses on two understudied phenomena. First, the chapter provides an account of texts published in Ireland that concern African slavery and the transatlantic slave trade, written by pro-slavery sympathisers, white abolitionists, and writers of African descent like Ignatius Sancho and Olaudah Equiano. Second, it zeroes in on a forgotten Irish novel, Sarah Isdell’s The Vale of Louisiana, published in Dublin in 1805, which dramatises the transatlantic, trans-Caribbean travels of an English family, addresses slavery directly, and borrows heavily from a canonical early American novel, Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798). The chapter concludes on the other side of the ‘steep Atlantic’, as Sydney Owenson called it, and briefly addresses the publication and reception of Irish writers in the early United States, especially Thomas Moore and Maria Edgeworth, where they found an unpredictable and productive future.