The Middle Shale Member of the Amdeh Formation is interpreted to be of Early Ordovician age based on its trace fossils, stratigraphic context and a newly discovered fauna of conodonts. The member abruptly overlies the Lower Quartzite Member, which may be Early Cambrian, and passes gradationally-upward into the Upper Quartzite Member, which is probably Early–Middle Ordovician. The 542.5 m thick Middle Shale Member can be divided into two parts: a shaly lower part, and a sandy upper part that contains an influx of heavy minerals. Bioturbation by marine trace fossils is one of the most obvious characteristics of the member. The shales and sandstones are interpreted to be of Cruziana and Skolithos ichnofacies and represent shallow-marine shelf, shoreface, beach and coastal deposits. Sparse shelly fossils occur in the sandy upper part, principally bivalves, inarticulate brachiopods, ostracods and conodonts. The small assemblage of conodonts includes elements interpreted to be Tremadocian (Tetraprioniodus, Drepanoistodus, Drepanodus, Scolopodus, ?Tropodus, Semiacontiodus and Teridontus), and others which may be Floian or ancestral forms of Floian taxa (Balognathidae gen. et sp. indet. A & B and aff. Erraticodon). No acritarchs have been recovered, probably due to high temperatures experienced during burial to >6 km. It is likely that the Middle Shale Member is the seaward equivalent of the Mabrouk and Barakat formations, and an outcrop gamma-ray log supports such a correlation. The trace fossils, sedimentology, conodont fauna and the general lack of macrofossils are in keeping with the regional Tremadocian–Floian of the Arabian margin of Gondwana.