To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chapter 3 explains the blending process – a thoughtful combination of F2 F and online component. This chapter delineates what the process entails and describes the BLL path. Readers will understand the crucial aspects of the pedagogical plan at the base of the blending process in order to guide a successful blending process. To this end, the chapter identifies and explains the essential organization of the blended path and differentiates between its two main types: input front-loading and input back-loading.
In recent years, scholars from a wide variety of disciplines have begun to study the process of emotional contagion. These disciplines include cultural psychology, anthropology, primatology, the neurosciences, biology, social psychology, and history. Primitive emotional contagion appears to be a basic building block of human interaction. It assists in “mind-reading” (allowing people to understand others’ thinking), sharing others’ emotions, as well as coordinating and synchronizing their activities with others. Primitive emotional contagion is also an important component of empathy. In this chapter we will discuss the many ways people can “mind-read” and feel themselves into others’ emotional experiences – especially those from disparate cultures and ethnic groups. We will also discuss the ways in which an understanding of the contagion process may be integrated into intercultural training programs. We begin by reviewing the theory of Emotional Contagion.
This chapter describes the behavior change technique of goal setting. Goal setting is an established and ubiquitous technique that has been used successfully in varied and diverse contexts, for multiple behaviors, and in numerous populations. Goal setting encompasses many different perspectives from individual-level goal setting (e.g., making a new year’s resolution or reading one book a week) to goal setting by global organizations (e.g., the United Nations’ sustainable development goals). This chapter considers many different kinds of goal setting interventions, including those that have emerged in popular culture and those derived from specific theories. Given that goal setting is ubiquitous, numerous theories have emerged to explain how and why goals operate, with Locke and Latham’s (1990) goal setting theory, the focus of the current chapter, as the only theory that deals with goal setting as a behavior change technique in its own right. Goal setting theory is described in detail and used to illustrate how different types of goal setting interventions might operate. The final section includes a step-by-step guide of what to do, what not to do, and what can be left to personal preference when setting goals.
In Chapter 9: Feedback, you will choose the focus and timing of your formative and summative feedback. You will determine how peer feedback will be incorporated into your course and how learners will use the feedback. You will create or revise a feedback tool to use in your learning activity, which you will finalize in this chapter.
Introduction: The Canadian College of Family Medicine Emergency Medicine Program (CCFP-EM) program is a 1-year enhanced skills program available to family medicine graduates interested in emergency medicine. Strong mentorship relationships were thought to assist residents with navigating the challenges of this program. Over the past 4 years, the CCFP-EM program at one academic centre initiated a novel mentorship program that matches residents with staff physicians in three areas of mentorship: clinical, research, and personal. This study aimed to determine the program success and areas for improvement. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study through an online survey distributed to all CCFP-EM residents and staff mentors from July 2015 to June 2019. Surveys included questions on the degree of satisfaction with the mentorship program, perceptions on the mentor/mentee experience, and areas for improvement. We asked staff and residents to rate their level of satisfaction with each mentorship component. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze satisfaction levels. Open-ended responses were analyzed for common themes. Results: 51.3% (19/37) of residents and 63.6% (35/55) of staff participated. For clinical mentorship, 68.5% of residents and 96.0% of staff rated the program as satisfactory/outstanding. For research mentorship, 73.7% of residents and 76.5% of staff rated the program as satisfactory/outstanding. The personal mentorship program was rated satisfactory/outstanding by 72.2% of residents and 95.3% of staff. Analysis for common themes revealed that continuity of support, development of autonomy, and opportunity for direct teaching were the main areas valued by residents. However, scheduling, teaching time, and mentor-mentee compatibility were the main challenges for residents. For mentors, scheduling was a main barrier to clinical mentorship, time constraint and resident commitment were the barriers to research mentorship, and resident engagement was the main barrier to personal mentorship. When asked which component(s) of mentorship should be continued for future residents, “personal mentorship only” was the most popular choice for staff (37.1%), while “mentorship in all three areas” was the most popular choice for residents (47.4%). Conclusion: Mentorship is an important aspect of the CCFP-EM program valued by staff and residents alike. Utilizing resident and staff feedback will allow for continuous improvement to the mentorship program.
Chapter 20 discusses the importance of good speaking skills and strategies, and its authors present the findings about what a good language teacher does to draw on pedagogical content knowledge for speaking instruction.
Like many other aspects of the world of work, PM has undergone substantial changes over the years, especially in the last decade. This chapter discusses the changing nature of PM practice and PM research, as well as the PM-related implications of other, more general, changes in the nature of work. It is clear that PM practices will continue to be impacted by the changing nature of work. As such, our PM research needs to continue to evolve, to meet the realities of the changing nature of PM practice. We offer several suggestions in this regard.
Le dysfonctionnement des mécanismes d’adaptation cognitive se retrouve dans diverses pathologies et sous différentes formes : altérations de l’organisation temporelle du comportement, hyper- ou hypo-réactivité aux feedbacks de l’action, persévérations, etc. Le cortex frontal des primates est une des pièces maîtresses de l’adaptation cognitive et, de fait, une cible privilégiée pour les études fondamentales et cliniques. Cet exposé se concentre sur une subdivision du cortex frontal des primates humain et non humain, le cortex cingulaire médian. Le rôle précis de cette région est extrêmement débattu, et son organisation fonctionnelle méconnue même si elle est la cible d’approches thérapeutiques modernes, notamment pour le traitement de dépressions ou de TOC résistants, qui peuvent être considérés sous l’angle de dysfonctionnements adaptatifs. Nous proposons ici d’éclairer le débat en combinant recherches fondamentales chez le singe et neuro-imagerie individuelle chez l’Homme. Nous montrerons, sur la base d’études histologiques, électrophysiologiques et d’IRM fonctionnelle chez l’Homme et le singe, que les cartes somatomotrices identifiables dans le cortex cingulaire médian traitent les informations pertinentes pour l’adaptation. Nos expériences ont deux caractéristiques importantes. Elles utilisent tout d’abord des protocoles comportementaux similaires chez l’humain et le singe. Par ailleurs, elles tirent partie des variations morphologiques cérébrales inter-individuelles chez l’Homme, afin d’affiner au mieux les cartographies fonctionnelles obtenues par l’imagerie fonctionnelle. Nos expériences chez le singe, puis leur réplication chez l’Homme, montrent que le cortex cingulaire médian traite en priorité les feedbacks de l’action qui sont pertinents pour l’adaptation, mais pas ceux obtenus lorsque l’adaptation n’est pas nécessaire [2,3]. De façon remarquable, le traitement des feedbacks de l’action implique les représentations somatomotrices cingulaires correspondantes à la nature de ces feedbacks (gustatifs, tactiles) . Ces approches comparatives chez le singe et l’Homme suggèrent donc que le cortex cingulaire médian fonctionne comme un système de surveillance incarné des informations nécessaires ou pertinentes pour l’adaptation cognitive.
Recent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend the use of CPR prompt/feedback devices during CPR training because it can improve the quality of CPR.
Chest compression depth and full chest recoil show a trade-off relationship. Therefore, achievement of both targets (adequate chest compression depth and full chest recoil) simultaneously is a difficult task for CPR instructors. This study hypothesized that introducing a visual feedback device to the CPR training could improve the chest compression depth and ratio of full chest recoil simultaneously.
The study investigated the effects of introducing a visual feedback device during CPR training by comparing the results of skill tests before and after introducing a visual feedback device. The results of skill tests from 2016 through 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The strategy of emphasizing chest compression depth was implemented during the CPR training in 2017, and a visual feedback device was introduced in 2018. The interval between the CPR training and skill tests was seven days. Feedback was not provided during the skill tests.
In total, 159 students completed skill tests. Although the chest compression depth increased significantly from 50 mm (42–54) to 60 mm (59–61) after emphasizing chest compression depth (P < .001), the ratio of full chest recoil decreased simultaneously from 100% (100–100) to 81% (39–98; P < .001). The ratio of full chest recoil increased significantly from 81% (39–98) to 95% (77–100) after introducing a visual feedback device (P = .018). However, the students who did not achieve 80% of the ratio of full chest recoil remained significantly higher than in 2016 (1% in 2016, 49% in 2017, and 27% in 2018; P < .001).
Although introducing a visual feedback device during CPR training resulted in increasing the ratio of full chest recoil while maintaining the adequacy of chest compression depth, 27% of the students still did not achieve 80% of the ratio of full chest recoil. Another educational strategy should be considered to increase the qualities of CPR more completely.
This chapter addresses the essential ethical and professional considerations when conducting psychological assessments. Testing impacts the life of examinees in a variety of ways from licensing examinations and screening for certain professions to custody evaluations and competency to be executed. Ethical practice in the area of assessment reflects good clinical practice. Topics include informed consent, confidentiality, the involvement of third parties in assessment, external consequences, test construction, test revisions, obsolete tests and outdated test results, cultural competence, test data and test security, assessment in the digital age, as well as the less frequently addressed topic of report writing and providing assessment feedback. A good ethical decision-making framework as well as the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA 2017a) and the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA et. al. 2014) provide guidance on preventing ethical issues from becoming ethical challenges both currently and as new ethical issues in assessment continue to emerge.
In this book, Sander Van der Leeuw examines how the modern world has been caught in a socio-economic dynamic that has generated the conundrum of sustainability. Combining the methods of social science and complex systems science, he explores how western, developed nations have globalized their world view and how that view has led to the sustainability challenges we are now facing. Its central theme is the co-evolution of cognition, demography, social organization, technology and environmental impact. Beginning with the earliest human societies, Van der Leeuw links the distant past with the present in order to demonstrate how the information and communications technology revolution is undermining many of the institutional pillars on which contemporary societies have been constructed. An original view of social evolution as the history of human information-processing, his book shows how the past offers insight into the present, and can help us deal with the future. This title is also available as Open Access.
With subduction zones being the main loci of ingassing of carbon into Earth’s interior, it is critical to constrain the efficiency of deep carbon subduction versus carbon recycling back through volcanic arcs. What are the latest constraints on the fate of carbon during subduction of the oceanic lithosphere with crust and sediments? How much carbon gets subducted deeper past the arc processing zones for each lithology (sediment, basalt, mantle peridotite), and how much gets released from the subducting slab? What is the expected flux of carbon out of the slab because of carbonate dissolution in fluids, metamorphic decarbonation, and hydrous slab melting? What constraints exist based on experimental petrology, thermodynamic modeling of fluid–rock interactions, and dissolution? How much carbon is expected to come out of the slab and how does that compare with the estimated flux of CO2 out of present-day volcanic arcs? These questions are addressed in this chapter.
Building from the base of knowledge presented in the preceding chapters, this chapter explores how the cycling of carbon in subduction zones and orogenic belts varies with supercontinent cycles and mountain building. It discusses the processes that link short-term and long-term carbon cycling and the timescales of these processes, such as the response times of weathering and atmospheric drawdown at periods of enhanced volcanism. This chapter covers topics of potential fluctuations in the long-term CO2 content of Earth’s atmosphere because of mantle–climate feedback, again taking advantage of the modeling platforms available for further exploration of these topics.
This chapter provides guidance on ways to become aware of the language you use and the stories you tell about your research in order to gain insight about the assumptions you hold about research. Noticing these patterns provides the opportunity to craft new stories that reinforce your use of the creative abilities and your identity as a creative scholar.
This chapter focuses on finding diverse sources of feedback on your work. Researchers tend to work either independently or in project-focused teams. As a result, they may rarely get input on early ideas or interact with people in fields outside their own. This chapter highlights the benefits that diverse input can provide, including providing you with surprising insights you would not have otherwise encountered, helping you develop a deeper understanding of your research process, and enabling you to see your challenges in light of others’ common struggles. We present strategies for understanding your various types of feedback needs and for building a diverse support network that meets those needs.
Introduction: Residency training takes place in a work-place learning environment. Residents may work with several supervisors over the course of their training and each will provide feedback and assessments to them. Each supervisor may have a different approach to the delivery of their feedback and may deliver different assessments for the same quality of performance. Research question: among residents who receive regular feedback how do different styles of feedback by supervisors impact the residents’ learning? Methods: A qualitative methodology was used. Participants were residents from residency programs that have routine one-on-one feedback and assessment. In depth, semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted by the primary investigator (PI). These were then transcribed, reviewed and coded. The participants were University of Toronto and McMaster University residents. Sample size will be determined by thematic saturation and data collection is ongoing. The interview guide was updated in an iterative fashion to further explore themes generated in the initial interviews. Interview transcripts will be reviewed and coded by the PI with assistance from collaborators with qualitative methodological expertise. Results: Analysis of the first six participants revealed five themes. Residents described remembering feedback that generated a strong emotional response, both positive and negative; reflection on feedback as a component of using it for learning was consistent; issues with reconciling feedback received that was in conflict with previously feedback; relationship with the individual providing the feedback impacted feedback interpretation; feedback was parsed by residents to determine the rationale of the assessor and whether to incorporate feedback into learning process. Conclusion: How residents use feedback to further their learning is variable. This study identifies that styles of feedback, emotional response and relationship with the provider are all contributors to the learning that occurs after a feedback encounter. It also identifies that residents reflect on feedback differently and make decisions about how to incorporate feedback into their learning and practice. The individuality of these responses to feedback are important for trainee self-reflection in furthering their learning as well as important in faculty development as they develop skills in assessment and feedback. It is also important for training programs that facilitate the trainee supervisor interactions.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) requires precise control of the tip–sample distance to maintain a constant set-point tunneling current. Typically, the tip–sample distance is controlled through the use of a control algorithm. The control algorithm takes in the measured tunneling current and returns a correction to the tip–sample distance in order to achieve and maintain the set-point value for tunneling current. We have developed an STM simulator to test the accuracy and performance of four control algorithms. The operation and effectiveness of these control algorithms are evaluated.
Emergency medicine residents may be transitioning to practice with minimal training on how to supervise and assess trainees. Our study sought to examine: 1) physician comfort with supervision and assessment, 2) what the current training gaps are within these competencies, and 3) what barriers or enablers might exist in implementing curricular improvements.
Qualitative data were collected in two phases through individual interviews from September 2016 to November 2017, at the University of Toronto and McMaster University after receiving ethics approval from both sites. Eligible participants were final year emergency medicine residents, residents pursuing an enhanced skills program in emergency medicine, and attendings within their first 3 years of practice. A semi-structured interview guide was developed and refined after phase one, to reflect content identified in the first set of interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and collapsed into themes. Data analysis was guided by constructivist grounded theory.
A thematic analysis revealed five themes: 1) Supervision and assessment skills were acquired passively through modelling, 2) the training available in these areas is variably used, creating a diversity of comfort levels, 3) competing priorities in the emergency department represent significant barriers to improving supervision and assessment; 4) providing negative feedback is difficult and often avoided; and 5) competence by design will act as an impetus for formal curriculum development in these areas.
As programs transition to competence by design, there will be a need for formal training in supervision and assessment, with a focus on negative feedback, to achieve a standardized level of competence among emergency physicians.