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This chapter explores how Tudor and Stuart families used portraiture to project and record their Protestant identities and reformed lineages over several generations. It asks why portraits as familiar visual sources displayed within a domestic context became important and considers how visual mnemonics were leveraged to secure spiritual status and determine ancestry or broader social status in a rapidly changing social order. The chapter demonstrates how the display of portraiture helped families recall and celebrate the personal narratives of their own Reformation histories in later centuries. It shows how portraiture could provide an assurance of constancy to reformed Christian ideals and a sense of spiritual stability over time, offering evidence of a potential pattern of election to Christian salvation.
This chapter explores the competing memories about the transmission of Sir Thomas More’s hair-shirt – the penitential garment he wore beneath his clothing for most of his adult life – the object’s significance to More’s descendants, and its devotional and memorial function within the religious communities they founded or patronised between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. At the heart of the hair-shirt story are two Margarets: his blood daughter, Margaret Roper (1505–44), and his adopted ward, Margaret Giggs (1508–70). Different historical accounts claim each Margaret as uniquely aware of More’s asceticism, and that they each received the hair-shirt from him when he died. These claims suggest each woman had a superlative connection to More’s spirituality and beliefs. The hair-shirt symbolises More’s deep commitment to God throughout his political career and service to Henry VIII, a commitment that would cost him his life. More’s state execution both literally and figuratively exposed the hair-shirt and his largely private devotional practices. The hair-shirt became a new surface on which memories of the Reformation, and the construction of English Catholic identity have been formed from the sixteenth century to the present day.
Family physicians are role models for their societies in disaster management and have an important place in it. This study was carried out during the specialty training of the residents, who are currently family physicians fighting against COVID-19 in the field, and was aimed to identify the awareness levels of residents regarding the roles and duties of family physicians before, during, and after disasters and to increase their awareness of disaster medicine and management.
The duties and responsibilities of a family physician in disasters should be a part of their specialty training. This study has contributed to the limited literature, increased awareness, and opened a new avenue of research for studies to be conducted with family physicians by demonstrating the current situation of family physicians in disaster management.
This is an observational and descriptive study. The knowledge, experience, opinions, willingness, attitudes of the residents, and the awareness levels of the residents regarding their roles and duties in a disaster were evaluated along with their sociodemographic information. The surveys were applied in the family medicine clinics of the all residents by the interview method (n = 233).
Only 9.2% of the residents stated that they had received training on disaster medicine where they currently work. The knowledge level of the residents on this subject was found as ‘Unsure’. In total, 80% of the residents stated that family physicians should have a role in disasters. It was found that 83.3% of the residents had never joined a disaster drill, 94.3% had never participated in making or applying a disaster plan, and 97.7% had never worked in any disaster.
The residents participating in the study lacked not only information on disaster management but also experience. The residents’ willingness to receive training, work voluntarily, significantly question the curriculum, and specialize in disaster medicine were a positive outcome.
To investigate family structure differences in adolescents’ consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar-added soft drinks with adjustments for sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables.
Cross-sectional data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey.
Norwegian primary and secondary schools.
Adolescents (n= 4475) aged 11, 13, 15 and 16 years.
After adjusting for covariates, living in a single-mother family was associated with lower vegetable consumption (OR 0.76, CI 95% 0.63, 0.91) and higher soft drink consumption (OR1.29 (1.06,1.57). Living in a mother and stepfather family was negatively associated with fruit (OR 0.71, CI 95% 0.54, 0.95) and vegetable (OR 0.72, CI 95% 0.54,0.97) consumption. Living in a single-father family was associated with lower sweets consumption (OR 0.48, CI 95% 0.32,0.72). No significant interactions were demonstrated between family structure and sociodemographic or socioeconomic co-variates.
The study suggests that an independent association between family structure and adolescents food habits exists
Property and social privilege are two of the most enduring forms of authority, and families often jealously guard the control and transfer of these sources of influence. This chapter explains the social conventions around the Hindu extended family (encompassing control of property, social alliances, and the politics of mobility and public voice) that govern the intrahousehold distribution of power. After exploring how they have been constructed, I study the unintended consequences of multiple attempts during British colonial rule to legislate gender-equalizing social reforms. The British attempted to homogenize diverse religious, spiritual, and pragmatic traditions into a single code with a tiny elite of highly educated Brahman men at the top. Comfortably, the elite’s sense of “tradition” looked much like the male British colonial ideal of “classical patriarchy” in terms of control of property and social authority. Ironically, this British-Brahman imposition has become integral to India’s legal code. The chapter next details the changes to the ecosystem of norms around women’s traditional property rights, and their enforcement, from independence to contemporary India. Where relevant, I include insights from my field research about the continuity of familial expectations around what it means to be a “good” Hindu son or daughter.
We compare the power of two different approaches to detect passive genotype–environment (GE) covariance originating from cultural and genetic transmission operating simultaneously. In the traditional nuclear twin family (NTF) design, cultural transmission is estimated from the phenotypic covariance matrices of the mono- and dizygotic twins and their parents. Here, phenotyping is required in all family members. A more recent method is the transmitted–nontransmitted (T–NT) allele design, which exploits measured genetic variants in parents and offspring to test for effects of nontransmitted alleles from parents. This design requires two-generation genome-wide data and a powerful genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the phenotype in addition to phenotyping in offspring. We compared the power of both designs. Using exact data simulation, we demonstrate three points: how the power of the T–NT design depends on the predictive power of polygenic risk scores (PRSs); that when the NTF design can be applied, its power to detect cultural transmission and GE covariance is high relative to T–NT; and that, given effect sizes from contemporary GWAS, adding PRSs to the NTF design does not yield an appreciable increase in the power to detect cultural transmission. However, it may be difficult to collect phenotypes of parents and the possible importance of gene × age interaction, and secular generational effects can cause complications for many important phenotypes. The T–NT design avoids these complications.
As there is currently no cure for dementia, providing psycho-social support is imperative. Counselling and psychotherapeutic interventions offer a way to provide individualised support for people with dementia and their families. However, to date, there has not been a systematic review examining the research evidence for these interventions. This review aimed to examine the following research questions: (1) Are counselling/psychotherapeutic interventions effective for people with dementia?, (2) Are counselling/psychotherapeutic interventions effective for care-givers of people with dementia? and (3) Which modes of delivery are most effective for people with dementia and care-givers of people with dementia? A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE (via PubMed), PsycINFO and CINAHL in March 2019. Keyword searches were employed with the terms ‘dement*’, ‘counsel*’, ‘psychotherapy’, ‘therap*’, ‘care’ and ‘outcome’, for the years 2000–2019. Thirty-one papers were included in the review, from seven countries. Twenty studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or adopted a quasi-experimental design. The remaining studies were qualitative or single-group repeated-measures design. The review identified variation in the counselling/psychotherapeutic approaches and mode of delivery. Most interventions adopted either a problem-solving or cognitive behavioural therapy approach. Mixed effectiveness was found on various outcomes. The importance of customised modifications for people with dementia was highlighted consistently. Understanding the dyadic relationships between people with dementia and their care-givers is essential to offering effective interventions and guidance for practitioners is needed. Information about the cognitive impairment experienced by participants with dementia was poorly reported and is essential in the development of this research area. Future studies should consider the impact of cognitive impairment in developing guidance for counselling/psychotherapeutic intervention delivery for people with dementia.
Although the literature on social capital, social support and social networks uses the concept of emotional support, studies rarely recognise nuances of the emotional relationships in late life. Using a personal communities framework, we examine the subjective meaning of family and friendship ties that form the network of emotionally close relationships of a cohort of Chilean people between 60 and 74 years of age. Chile is an interesting case to investigate personal communities, as the country is facing both a rapid process of population ageing and the consequences of abrupt socio-cultural changes triggered by a military government. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews using personal communities diagrams that enabled study participants to reflect on what and how different types of personal ties were important to them. Data analysis included thematic analysis of interview transcripts and classification of identified personal communities using Pahl and Spencer's typology. The personal communities framework proved useful in capturing the composition of older people's networks of close relationships and in reflecting the diverse ways different ties are relevant in late life. We further developed a complementary typology based on the distinction between ‘clustered’ and ‘hierarchical’ personal communities. This complementary typology adds a cultural dimension to understand better emotional closeness in late life in a context of rapid socio-cultural changes affecting levels of social trust.
Oreskes, Conway and Tyson ask a deceptively simple question: how did so many Americanscome to believe that economic and political freedoms are indivisible from one another? Onepart of the answer involves organized campaigns by trade associations to sell neoliberalprinciples to the American people. This chapter examines one such campaign: the NationalAssociation of Manufacturers’ propaganda effort of 1935–1940. A central part of thiscampaign was the radio show The American Family Robinson. This folksy drama of small-townAmerican life didactically warned of “foreign” socialist theories and reassuredlisteners of the beneficence of business leaders. The program offers a case studyin corporate propaganda. In its bid to convince listeners that the American way of lifedepends on the free market – and that any move toward social democracy presents athreat – the show dramatizes argumentative and rhetorical procedures that continue toshape American political culture.
Post-abortion care (PAC) integrates elements of care that are vital for women’s survival after abortion complications with intervention components that aid women in controlling their fertility, and provides an optimal window of opportunity to help women meet their family planning goals. Yet, incorporating quality family planning services remains a shortcoming of PAC services, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents evidence from a mixed method study conducted in Tanzania that aimed at explaining factors that contribute to this challenge. Analysis of data obtained through client exit interviews quantified the level of unmet need for contraception among PAC clients and isolated the factors associated with post-abortion contraceptive uptake. Qualitative data analysis of interviews with a subset of these women explored the multi-level context in which post-abortion pregnancy intentions and contraceptive behaviours are formed. Approximately 30% of women interviewed (N=412) could recall receiving counselling on post-abortion family planning. Nearly two-thirds reported a desire to either space or limit childbearing. Of those who desired to space or limited childbearing, approximately 20% received a contraceptive method before discharge from PAC. The factors significantly associated with post-abortion contraceptive acceptance were completion of primary school, prior use of contraception, receipt of PAC at lower level facilities and recall of post-abortion family planning counselling. Qualitative analysis revealed different layers of contextual influences that shaped women’s fertility desires and contraceptive decision-making during PAC: individual (PAC client), spousal/partner-related, health service-related and societal. While results lend support to the concept that there are opportunities for services to address unmet need for post-abortion family planning, they also attest to the synergistic influences of individual, spousal, organizational and societal factors that influence whether they can be realized during PAC. Several strategies to do so emerged saliently from this analysis. These emphasize customized counselling to enable client–provider communication about fertility preferences, structural intervention aimed at empowering women to assert those objectives in family and health care settings, availability of information and services on post-abortion fertility and contraceptive eligibility in PAC settings and interventions to facilitate constructive spousal communication on family planning and contraceptive use, after abortion and in general.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
In 1760, Anna Maria Lopes de Brito, knowing that she was suffering from a life-threatening disease, made the necessary preparations for her death. Brito registered a will, where she identified herself as a native of the Coast of Mina, in Africa. She also revealed that her owner “mercifully” freed her and her husband, “for which reason they married each other,” and that the couple had built a modest estate through gold mining. Finally, Brito declared that, as a member of the black brotherhood of Our Lady of Rosario, her body would be buried in the brotherhood’s chapel, where masses would be celebrated for the benefit of her soul’s salvation. The records Anna Maria Lopes de Brito left behind reveal something of the life of a freed African woman in colonial Brazil’s slave and mining society. Brito’s freedom was marked by limitations she faced in her choice of life partner, occupation, and social relationships. Still, Brito used different legal resources available to her to secure in death some of the benefits freedom had to offer: the care of her community for her well-being in the afterlife, and the assurance that the fruits of her labor would continue to benefit her children.
In 1823, Bessy Chambers filed a complaint in the St. George’s slave court in Jamaica. Chambers, along with twenty-four unnamed enslaved people from the New Layton estate, charged that the overseer had forced her to work despite her pregnancy, causing her to miscarry. While her story contests notions of a benign system of slavery in its twilight years, the multidimensionality of Chambers’ gendered freedom claims also disputed the limiting vision of abolition reform for the enslaved, and for women in particular. Chambers and other enslaved women who had a long history of engaging in distinctly gendered struggles against slavery refused to accept the new subordinate roles abolitionist envisioned for them, although they could not always escape its oppressive reach. In going to court, Chambers revealed a right to self-determination as essential to her conceptualization of womanhood. Her pursuit of legal personhood must therefore be viewed as a dual fight against slavery and the restricted freedom abolitionists proposed.
In 1781 Lima, a mulato libre named Pedro Nolasco Boller filed a civil suit on behalf of his enslaved daughter María Hipólita Lozano. In their statements, both father and daughter described Lozano’s life in the Salvatierra home as exceedingly brutal. She was exposed to regular physical and sexual abuse at the hands of both husband and wife, and it was this accretion of assaults that forced her to run away. When that attempt at freedom was foiled, Lozano moved quickly to find other ways out: with the help of her extended network (which included her parents, her husband, as well as her godfather) she secured a new owner, who seemed to offer at least a modicum of refuge and a safer place to have her child; and she later turned to the courts to facilitate this transition when Fernando José Salvatierra tried to stymie it. In analyzing this case, my chapter highlights how, even when juridical freedom lay out of their reach, enslaved women nonetheless deployed myriad and evolving strategies to remake their lives.
This chapter reframes the traditional dichotomy between popular and official religion and argues that ritual practices in both official and domestic settings were informed by intuitive conceptualizations of supernatural agency. As an alternative to popular and official religion, the categories cognitively optimal and cognitively costly religion are proposed as a fruitful framework for understanding the diversity of religious expression in ancient Israel. It is argued that from the standpoint of human cognition, ritual offerings performed in both popular and official contexts share deep structural features in common − whether in households, villages, local shrines, or state-sponsored temples. The final section of the chapter evaluates the recent shift to the study of family or household religion in ancient Israel. An analysis of material artifacts and religious ritual practices in domestic and official contexts reveals interesting points of continuity across these domains. Overall, a cognitive perspective suggests that the difference between home and temple, ancestors and the national deity, may not have been as great as it is sometimes imagined.
This chapter evaluates the links between the power balance in household relationships and Chrysostom’s preaching on pistis (normally translated as ‘faith’). It argues that, for Chrysostom, pistis is closer to faithful obedience than cognitive belief and analyses how Chrysostom used the expected norms of faithful obedience in household relationships to reinforce congregational faithful obedience to God. The chapter uses this preaching to expose the unequal, reciprocal, and sometimes violent nature of the relationships in the late antique household. It also demonstrates how Chrysostom attempted to regulate the household through reinforcing existing power imbalances in relationships, benefiting the paterfamilias as husband, father, or master. Faithfulness to God and the paterfamilias are intertwined. Wives are exhorted to be faithful to and obey their husbands. Sons are expected to obey their fathers. Slaves are encouraged to be loyal and obedient. Masters are encouraged to treat slaves as if they were their own children – fictive kinship – but in practice this amounted to little change. Chrysostom preached a potentially revolutionary message about faithful obedience to God, but recast it into safe exhortations and a defence of existing societal structures.
Conflict and Social Control in Late Antiquity examines how the cultivation and application of violence across a range of ‘small worlds’ contributed to the making of society in the late Roman period. From households and families to schoolrooms and monasteries, chapters address the different roles that violence played in maintaining and reinforcing the social order, even during a period of intense religious and political change. Elites adopted a range of approaches – formal and informal, legal and illegal, private and public – to keep subordinates in their place. Especially important were the efforts of social elites to inculcate in their followers the idea that the social order was natural rather than contingent, and therefore should not be challenged but rather perpetuated. Chapters focus on written sources from the fourth and fifth centuries, mainly on Christian authors. Collectively, they show that rather than seeking to transform the fortunes of those who were most vulnerable in society (slaves, women, children), such writers drew creatively on pre-existing discursive traditions, in the process reproducing and (occasionally) attempting to mitigate the plight of the downtrodden.
The chapter analyses the presence of children in Byzantine Egyptian monasteries. It attempts to reconcile the seeming tension between the constant prohibition of and evidence for the ongoing presence of children in monasteries for an extended period. Ancient monastic and canonical norms provide vital information on this topic: most of them forbade any children in monasteries, even for a short period (e.g. to attend liturgies). However, some monastic sources confirm the presence of children in Byzantine-era Egyptian monasteries due to a variety of different circumstances, These varied from temporary to permanent residence, from children brought for education to those who were abandoned, traded, or donated to monasteries (because of social and economic hardships or medical conditions). For children facing such difficulties, the monastery was an opportunity to improve their quality of life, but, unfortunately, the monastic residence often became a place of violence and insecurity. Monastic obedience and submission to authority, alongside bodily punishments, were often and excessively applied in their education and formation as subjects of the monastic community and as future monastic members.
Chapter 2 draws heavily on surviving letters between inmates and their loved ones, listed addresses in prisoners’ files and visitor records in order to explore the impact of separation and ways families attempted to sustain bonds across lengthy prison sentences. Through four distinct sections, it offers a fascinating insight into family relationships, domestic arrangements, expected responsibilities and obligations. The first section examines the ways imprisoned women sought to maintain contact with their loved ones and vice versa through letter writing. The second section focuses on visitors received by inmates, revealing desires and obligations within the family unit. The third section examines convict mothers’ relationships with their children, some of whom were born in prison and others of whom accompanied their mothers to penal servitude. Changes to legislation and practices across the century restricted convict mothers’ time with their offspring and, towards the end of the century, meant that women with children had to find alternative means to fulfil mothering roles. The final section considers the influence relatives and friends could have on a convict’s release. While it is apparent that family relationships could be maintained, this chapter also shows evidence of strained relationships between incarcerated women and their families and friends.