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This chapter provides more comprehensive coverage of promotions than is typically seen in compensation texts. The subject is important for compensation because employees' biggest raises usually involve promotions, so promotions are intimately connected to pay growth. Plus, promotion prospects are valued by workers and might make them willing to accept lower pay than they would receive in (otherwise identical) jobs that offer little or no promotion prospects, which connects to the concept of compensating differentials (Chapter 3). This chapter gets the reader-manager thinking about compensation structures within an entire organization, i.e., how the compensation differs across levels of the job hierarchy. The chapter opens by describing the role of promotions in creating worker incentives, both productive and perverse, and in matching workers to jobs ideally within the company. The question of why promotions usually come with big raises is covered, as is the important and common managerial problem of internal-versus-external hiring. The implications of turnover for promotions (and vice versa) are covered, as are up-or-out policies that require employers to fire non-promoted workers.
This chapter teaches readers how to think about government regulations on pay. Although a lot is said about specific US laws, the primary focus is on how to think about regulation in general, so the discussion is portable across countries even where the local laws differ. Section 4.3 introduces a prescriptive mnemonic concept called the “3 Cs” of constraints: Comprehend, Circumvent, Comply. The idea is that managers first need to comprehend the constraints that impede their efforts to maximize company profit. They should then search for creative ways to circumvent those constraints (without violating ethics or the law). Finally, to the extent that they cannot circumvent the constraints, they must comply with them. The ethical issues surrounding the second of these Cs are discussed. Both anti-discrimination laws and wage-and-hour laws are discussed, including FLSA, ADA, ADEA, EPA, FMLA, and others. There is extensive discussion of floors and ceilings on both the monetary and non-monetary components of pay. An example of floors on paid time off draws on the concept of the marginal worker from Chapter 3 to show that regulations limit the variety of pay plans offered in the market.
The emergence of advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), brachytherapy, conformal radiotherapy, magnetic resonance-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT), stereotactic synchrotron radiotherapy (SSRT) and microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), has increased the importance of the verification of volumetric dose distribution. The verification of dose distribution is usually done by 2D films and 3D gel dosimeters, but PRESAGE® due to its affordability, reproducibility, precision, accuracy, unique dosimetric and physical properties is considered as an effective candidate in providing 3D dose data. PRESAGE® is insensitive to oxygen contamination, machinable and can be molded to a variety of shapes and sizes. It is absorbing rather than scattering light which facilitates high-accuracy readout by optical computed tomography (OP-CT). This review focuses on the feasibility of using PRESAGE® in various complicated radiotherapy techniques by comparing its measured doses with 2D films and treatment planning system (TPS) calculated doses.
This Article argues that the cooperation obligations of the Member States under EU law are best understood as forming part of an overall duty of EU loyalty and elaborates on the consequences of framing it in this way. EU loyalty legally requires Member States to make the common EU interest their own. The Article further demonstrates that EU loyalty is more relevant and more stringently applied in EU external relations than within the EU legal order. Loyalty obligations of the Member States reach into the future, extend to hypothetical situations, and are at a comparatively high level of abstraction aimed to protect the Union's ability to act effectively on the international plane. This limits Member States’ margin of manoeuvre, including when they take unilateral external action within the realm of their retained national competences. The Article explains that this may be functionally justified by the high stakes of non-concerted external action. However, and in particular with the EU's increased external powers and the ever-growing relevance of international cooperation, the stringent application of cooperation requirements should be (better) explicated and justified.
The use of triage systems is one of the most important measures in response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) caused by emergencies and disasters. In these systems, certain principles and criteria must be considered that can be achieved with a lack of resources. Accordingly, the present study was conducted as a systematic review to explore the principles of triage systems in emergencies and disasters world-wide.
The present study was conducted as a systematic review of the principles of triage in emergencies and disasters. All papers published from 2000 through 2019 were extracted from the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases. The search for the articles was conducted by two trained researchers independently.
The classification and prioritization of the injured people, the speed, and the accuracy of the performance were considered as the main principles of triage. In certain circumstances, including chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, certain principles must be considered in addition to the principles of the triage based on traumatic events. Usually in triage systems, the classification of the injured people is done using color labeling. The short duration of the triage and its accuracy are important for the survival of the injured individuals. The optimal use of available resources to protect the lives of more casualties is one of the important principles of triage systems and does not conflict with equity in health.
The design of the principles of triage in triage systems is based on scientific studies and theories in which attempts have been made to correctly classify the injured people with the maximum correctness and in the least amount of time to maintain the survival of the injured people and to achieve the most desirable level of health. It is suggested that all countries adopt a suitable and context-bond model of triage in accordance with all these principles, or to propose a new model for the triage of injured patients, particularly for hospitals in emergencies and disasters.
Chapter 6 examines severe and protracted economic contractions following the Great Recession of 2008–09 in two countries on the European periphery: Latvia and Greece. It documents the evolution of main macroeconomic aggregates and social indicators in these two countries before, during, and after the 2008–09 crisis. The chapter also critically examines the role played by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other European institutions in the design and implementation of austerity in these economies, and draws lessons for other nations from these two experiences. The chapter also discusses the futility of democratic consultation (referendums) in Greece for the amelioration of conditionality and austerity.
Chapter 2 provides an overview of theories and empirics of recession and depression, reviewing Austrian, Keynesian, and monetarist financial theories, and secular stagnation approaches to economic slumps. It looks at international , national, and regional recessions and the different shapes of business cycles (V, U, L and W). The chapter also discusses international dimensions of slumps and the scope and limits for undertaking countercyclical policies.
Chapter 4 examines the unravelling of Russian liberalism in the years from 1909 to 1917, and explores how and why other ideational currents (for example, religious mysticism) surpassed liberalism in the popular imagination. This chapter considers the reasons for the decline and transformation of Russian liberalisms in the years between 1909 and the First World War, and links them with certain insurmountable contradictions within liberal theory itself. If prior to 1905 a significant portion of Russia’s educated classes was able to put aside some of their most profound intellectual differences because of their shared belief that freedom and self-realization could be achieved following the removal of the autocratic state, diverging views of the significance and ramifications of the revolution now fed more clearly into conflicting political commitments. During this period Russian liberalism seems to lose even the limited degree of cohesion and focus it had displayed earlier.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of highly preserved stress proteins that are expressed in response to stress. Two studies were carried out to investigate whether HSP genes in hair follicles from beef calves can be suggested as indicators of heat stress (HS). In study 1, hair follicles were harvested from three male Hanwoo calves (aged 172.2 ± 7.20 days) on six dates over the period of 10 April to 9 August 2017. These days provided varying temperature–humidity indices (THIs). In study 2, 16 Hanwoo male calves (aged 169.6 ± 4.60 days, with a BW of 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were maintained (4 calves per experiment) in environmentally controlled chambers. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement involving two periods (thermoneutral: TN; HS) and four THI treatment groups (threshold: THI = 68 to 70; mild: THI = 74 to 76; moderate THI = 81 to 83; severe: THI = 88 to 90). The calves in the different group were subjected to ambient temperature (22°C) for 7 days (TN) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). Every three days (at 1400 h) during both the TN and HS periods, the heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) of each individual were measured, and hair follicles were subsequently collected from the tails of each individual. In study 1, the high variation (P < 0.0001) in THI indicated that the external environment influenced the HS to different extents. The expression levels of the HSP70 and HSP90 genes at the high-THI level were higher (P = 0.0120, P = 0.0002) than those at the low-THI level. In study 2, no differences in the THI (P = 0.2638), HR (P = 0.2181) or RT (P = 0.3846) were found among the groups during the TN period, whereas differences in these indices (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) were observed during the HS period. The expression levels of the HSP70 (P = 0.0010, moderate; P = 0.0065, severe) and HSP90 (P = 0.0040, severe) genes were increased after rapid exposure to heat-stress conditions (moderate and severe levels). We conclude that HSP gene expression in hair follicles provides precise and accurate data for evaluating HS and can be considered a novel indicator of HS in Hanwoo calves maintained in both external and climatic chambers.
Breast cancer patients referred for external beam radiotherapy and who have large and/or pendulous breasts can present positioning and immobilisation challenges. Deep infra-mammary and/or lateral wrap skin folds can occur that can lead to unwanted radiation-induced skin toxicity. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the immobilisation techniques adopted for this subgroup of patients in order to inform best practice.
A survey aimed to identify the current clinical practice in radiotherapy centres throughout the United Kingdom and Ireland was undertaken. The email survey was distributed with support of the Radiotherapy Services Managers group.
Twenty-six of the 74 radiotherapy centres responded to the survey. Responses demonstrated that supine positioning with or without additional immobilisation was preferable. Of the eight different immobilisation techniques identified, patients positioned supine on a breast board wearing a bra was the most common. Only two of the centres reported using a prone technique.
Immobilisation and reproducibility are key for successful external beam radiotherapy particularly when advanced treatment techniques are being employed. No single technique gained widespread acceptance as the optimum for the effective immobilisation of patients with large and/or pendulous breasts. Further evaluative research in the form of a multi-centre trial is warranted in order to clearly establish the most effective immobilisation methods/devices for this ever expanding, subgroup of cancer patients.
External aortic compression (EAC) has long been used to control exsanguinating post-partum hemorrhage, but it has only recently been described in the prehospital trauma setting. This paper reports four cases where manual EAC was used during transport to manage life-threatening bleeding, twice from stab wounds, once from ruptured ectopic pregnancy, and once from severe lower-limb trauma. It showed that EAC has life-saving potential in the prehospital setting, but that safety and efficacy during transport requires the use of a hands-free compression device, such as an aortic tourniquet.
High-pressure low-temperature metamorphic sediments of the Phyllite–Quartzite unit sensu stricto and the Talea Ori group are investigated in the field, microstructurally and by U–Pb dating of detrital zircons to shed light on their palaeogeographic origin. Zircon age spectra with ages >450 Ma of the Phyllite–Quartzite unit sensu stricto indicate a palaeogeographic origin at the northern margin of East Gondwana. In contrast, the lower stratigraphic, siliciclastic formations of the Talea Ori group show a high number of well-rounded Cambrian to Early Carboniferous aged zircons and a Neoproterozoic zircon age spectrum with East Gondwana affinity. Based on the comparison of zircon age data, a possible distal sediment source is the Sakarya Zone at the southern active margin of Eurasia. To reconcile the zircon data with the geological observations we propose different alternative models, or a combination of these, including sediment transport from the Sakarya Zone and/or a westerly source towards the northern margin of Gondwana as well as terrane-displacement of the Sakarya Zone. Also, a palaeogeographic origin of the Talea Ori group at the southern active margin of Eurasia cannot be excluded. This alternative, however, would not be consistent with the usually assumed association of the Talea Ori group with the Plattenkalk unit characterized by a palaeogeographic origin at the northern margin of Gondwana.
Orthopedic treatment in a field hospital setting differs significantly from that in everyday practice in a high-income country. Field hospitals are deployed in a variety of scenarios, most commonly following earthquakes and armed conflicts, which cause a high incidence of musculoskeletal injuries. One should anticipate a large caseload of life and limb threatening injuries, delayed presentation with subsequent infections, limited operating theatre sterility, and a paucity of imaging, instrumentation, and fixation hardware.
These limitations dictate a damage control treatment approach, which includes “life over limb"": prioritizing life saving to limb saving procedures. Contamination and infection are treated by aggressive surgical debridement of contaminants and non-viable tissues. Fracture fixation is performed using the simplest and quickest methods; usually external fixation for open fractures casting for closed fractures, avoiding open reduction and internal fixation due to limited surgical sterility.
Indications for amputation include non-viable limbs due to irreparable vascular damage or severe crush injuries and infections uncontrollable by surgical and medical means.
Surgical decisions should take into account the cultural variability in the disaster milieu and informed consent should be obtained using interpreters, family and community members, and local medical personnel.
This chapter mainly focuses on research into the history of standard varieties of English in Kachru’s Inner and Outer Circles. There is a long research tradition relating to the diachrony of the two major Inner Circle varieties of British and American English but it is only since about 2000 that there has been a growing number of diachronic studies on the other mother-tongue Englishes, spoken in Ireland, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Interest in the historical development of Outer Circle varieties (the so-called New Englishes) is even more recent, with most studies emphasizing the external history of these Englishes. Investigations of the development of linguistic structure are very rare indeed, especially regarding spoken English. One section of this chapter outlines models of the evolution of World Englishes (WEs) and their implications for research. There are also sections on existing corpora that can be used in researching the history of WEs as well as on ongoing corpus compilation and the difficulties such projects meet. Finally, the usefulness of scattered, individual early data for the reconstruction of earlier stages of WEs is illustrated.
In human–robot cooperative industrial manipulators, safety issues are crucial. To control force safely, contact force information is necessary. Since force/torque sensors are expensive and hard to integrate into the robot design, estimation methods are used to estimate external forces. In this paper, the goal is to estimate external forces acting on the end-effector of the robot. The forces at the task space affect the joint space torques. Therefore, by employing an observer to estimate the torques, the task space forces can be obtained. To accomplish this, loadcells are employed to compute the net torques at the joints. The considered observers are extended Kalman filter (EKF) and nonlinear disturbance observer (NDOB). Utilizing the computed torque obtained based on the loadcells measurements and the observer, the estimates of external torques applied on the robot end-effector can be achieved. Moreover, to improve the degree of safety, an algorithm is proposed to distinguish between intentional contact force from an operator and accidental collisions. The proposed algorithms are demonstrated on a robot, namely WallMoBot, which is designed to help the operator to install heavy glass panels. Simulation results and preliminary experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in estimating the joint space torques generated by the external forces applied to the WallMoBot end-effector and to distinguish between the user-input force and accidental collisions.
To date, there are no published data on the association of patient-centered outcomes and accurate public-safety answering point (PSAP) dispatch in an American population. The goal of this study is to determine if PSAP dispatcher recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge.
This retrospective cohort study is an analysis of prospectively collected Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) data from the San Antonio Fire Department (SAFD; San Antonio, Texas USA) OHCA registry from January 2013 through December 2015. Exclusion criteria were: Emergency Medical Services (EMS)-witnessed arrest, traumatic arrest, age <18 years old, no dispatch type recorded, and missing outcome data. The primary exposure was dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was neurologically intact survival (defined as Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] 1 or 2) to hospital discharge. The secondary outcomes were: bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), automated external defibrillator (AED) use, and prehospital return of spontaneous return of circulation (ROSC).
Of 3,469 consecutive OHCA cases, 2,569 cases were included in this analysis. The PSAP dispatched 1,964/2,569 (76.4%) of confirmed OHCA cases correctly. The PSAP dispatched 605/2,569 (23.6%) of confirmed OHCA cases as another chief complaint. Neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge occurred in 99/1,964 (5.0%) of the recognized cardiac arrest group and 28/605 (4.6%) of the unrecognized cardiac arrest group (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.71–1.70). Bystander CPR occurred in 975/1,964 (49.6%) of the recognized cardiac arrest group versus 138/605 (22.8%) of the unrecognized cardiac arrest group (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 2.70–4.11).
This study found no association between PSAP dispatcher identification of OHCA and neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge. Dispatcher identification of OHCA remains an important, but not singularly decisive link in the OHCA chain of survival.
The geomagnetic field supports a wide range of magnitudes, spatial scales and temporal variations. Outlined here are particular recent advances in temporal variability, stretching from geomagnetic field polarity reversals over millions of years, through secular field variations and ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves (1mHz – 5Hz), to very low frequency(VLF) emissions with frequencies in the kHz range. Long-term variations are discussed with respect to paleomagnetic, geological and archaeological records. Both external and internal fields contribute to temporal variations on decadal to daily time scales. More rapid oscillations at ULF wave frequencies associated with Sun-Earth connection contribute to weather in space. These involve the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere system, and may affect charged/neutral particle populations. Waves are generated external and internal to the magnetosphere and through integration of global magneto-hydrodynamic or local magneto-ionic modelling with satellite and ground observations, progress has been made in understanding the dynamics of waves and energy transfer within the coupled system. Equally important to space weather is the understanding of ULF and VLF waves on energetic charged particles in the Van Allen radiation belts during geomagnetic storms.
Much has been said about Moore’s proof of the external world, but the notion of proof that Moore employs has been largely overlooked. I suspect that most have either found nothing wrong with it, or they have thought it somehow irrelevant to whether the proof serves its antiskeptical purpose. I show, however, that Moore’s notion of proof is highly problematic. For instance, it trivializes in the sense that any known proposition is provable. This undermines Moore’s proof as he conceives it since it introduces a skeptical regress that he goes at length to resist. I go on to consider various revisions of Moore’s notion of proof and finally settle on one that I think is adequate for Moore’s purposes and faithful to what he says concerning immediate knowledge.