To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Why do we do and believe crazy things? Two common but mostly wrong answers to this question are: (a) you have to be crazy to do crazy things and (b) people who do crazy things must be infected by crazy influence. A social-influence analysis addresses this question by identifying and describing the social-influence tactics that are common to situations producing crazy beliefs and behavior. Identification of these tactics and their typical effects is essential for understanding the power of the situation and for developing our own critical skills at appraising situations. The chapter concludes with six steps to take for reducing susceptibility to undue influence.
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a time-sensitive entity that has been shown to benefit from prehospital diagnosis by electrocardiogram (ECG). Current computer algorithms with binary decision making are not accurate enough to be relied on for cardiac catheterization lab (CCL) activation.
An algorithmic approach is proposed to stratify binary STEMI computerized ECG interpretations into low, intermediate, and high STEMI probability tiers.
Based on previous literature, a four-criteria algorithm was developed to rule out/in common causes of prehospital STEMI false-positive computer interpretations: heart rate, QRS width, ST elevation criteria, and artifact. Prehospital STEMI cases were prospectively collected at a single academic center in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from May 2012 through October 2013. The prehospital ECGs were applied to the algorithm and compared against activation of the CCL by an emergency department (ED) physician as the outcome of interest. In addition to calculating test characteristics, linear regression was used to look for an association between number of criteria used and accuracy, and logistic regression was used to test if any single criterion performed better than another.
There were 63 ECGs available for review, 39 high probability and 24 intermediate probability. The high probability STEMI tier had excellent test characteristics for ruling in STEMI when all four criteria were used, specificity 1.00 (95% CI, 0.59-1.00), positive predictive value 1.00 (0.91-1.00). Linear regression showed a strong correlation demonstrating that false-positives increased as fewer criteria were used (adjusted r-square 0.51; P <.01). Logistic regression showed no significant predictive value for any one criterion over another (P = .80). Limiting physician overread to the intermediate tier only would reduce the number of ECGs requiring physician overread by a factor of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.48-0.75; P <.01).
Prehospital STEMI ECGs can be accurately stratified to high, intermediate, and low probabilities for STEMI using the four criteria. While additional study is required, using this tiered algorithmic approach in prehospital ECGs could lead to changes in CCL activation and decreased requirements for physician overread. This may have significant clinical and quality implications.
Introduction: We wished to identify emergency department interventions that lead to improvement in door-to-ECG times for adults presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Two reviewers searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to April 2018 for studies in adult emergency departments with an identifiable intervention to reduce median door-to-ECG times when compared to the institution's baseline. Quality was assessed using the ‘Quality Improvement Minimum Quality Criteria Set’ (QI-MQCS) critical appraisal tool. The primary outcome was the absolute median reduction in door-to-ECG times as calculated by the difference between the post-intervention time and pre-intervention time. Results: Two reviewers identified 809 unique articles, yielding 11 before-after quality improvement studies that met eligibility criteria (N = 15,622 patients). The majority of studies (10/11) reported bundled interventions and most (10/11) showed statistical improvement in door-to-ECG times. The most common interventions were: having a dedicated ECG machine and technician in triage (5/11); improved triage education (4/11); improved triage disposition (2/11); and data feedback mechanisms (1/11). Conclusion: There are multiple interventions that show promise for reducing emergency department door-to-ECG times. Effective bundled interventions include having a dedicated ECG technician, triage education and better triage disposition. These changes, bundled together, can help intuitions attain best practice guidelines. Emergency departments must first understand their local context before adopting any single or group of interventions.
This paper shows that the revolving door generates inequality of influence between financial firms and creates economic distortions. We first develop a theoretical model, introducing the notion of “bureaucratic capital” and stressing how the revolving door generates inequality in bureaucratic capital leading to inequality in profits. Then this prediction is tested, using a new database that tracks the revolving door process involving the 20 biggest US “diversified banks.” We show that regulators who supply a large stock of bureaucratic capital are more likely to be hired by the top five banks. We also develop indices of the inequality of influence between banks. We show that banks in the top revenue quintile concentrate around 80% of revolving door movements. Goldman Sachs appears as the prime beneficiary of this process, capturing approximately 30% of the total stock of bureaucratic capital.
Alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke patients, and it is widely available at all primary stroke centres. The effectiveness of alteplase is highly time-dependent. Large tertiary centres have reported significant improvements in their door-to-needle (DTN) times. However, these same improvements have not been reported at community hospitals.
Red Deer Regional Hospital Centre (RDRHC) is a community hospital of 370 beds that serves approximately 150,000 people in their acute stroke catchment area. The RDRHC participated in a provincial DTN improvement initiative, and implemented a streamlined algorithm for the treatment of stroke patients. During this intervention period, they implemented the following changes: early alert of an incoming acute stroke patient to the neurologist and care team, meeting the patient immediately upon arrival, parallel work processes, keeping the patient on the Emergency Medical Service stretcher to the CT scanner, and administering alteplase in the imaging area. Door-to-needle data were collected from July 2007 to December 2017.
A total of 289 patients were treated from July 2007 to December 2017. In the pre-intervention period, 165 patients received alteplase and the median DTN time was 77 minutes [interquartile range (IQR): 60–103 minutes]; in the post-intervention period, 104 patients received alteplase and the median DTN time was 30 minutes (IQR: 22–42 minutes) (p < 0.001). The annual number of patients that received alteplase increased from 9 to 29 in the pre-intervention period to annual numbers of 41 to 63 patients in the post-intervention period.
Community hospitals staffed with community neurologists can achieve median DTN times of 30 minutes or less.
Introduction: The effectiveness of intravenous alteplase is highly time dependent, and very short door-to-needle times (DNT) of 30 minutes or less have been reported in single centre hospitals, but never in an entire population. QuICR (Quality Improvement and Clinical Research) Alberta Stroke Program aimed to reduce DNT to a median of 30 minutes across the Canadian province of Alberta. Methods: We used the Improvement Collaborative Methodology from early 2015 to September 2016 with participation from all 17 Stroke Centres in Alberta. This methodology included 4 face-to-face workshops, site visits, webinars, data collection, data feedback, intensive process mapping, and process improvements. We compared data in the pre-intervention period from 2009-2014 (collected during the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy) to data in the post-intervention period from March 2016-February 2017 (collected during the QuICR DTN Collaborative). Data from January 2015-February 2016 were excluded, as improvements were being implemented during this time. Results: There were a total of 2,322 treated cases in the pre- and post-intervention periods. The results show that the median DNT dropped from 68 minutes (n=1846) in the pre-intervention period to 36 minutes (n=476) in the post-intervention period (p<0.001). There were reductions in DNT across all hospital types: median DNT dropped from 63 to 32 minutes in Urban Tertiary Centres (p<0.001), from 73 to 32 minutes in Community with 24/7 neurology (p<0.001), from 85 to 62 minutes in Community with limited/no neurology (p<0.001), and from 74 to 52.5 minutes in rural centres (p<0.001). Conclusion: There were 21.5 to 41 minute reductions in median DNT across all hospital types including smaller rural and community hospitals. A targeted multi-site improvement collaborative can be an effective intervention to reduce DNT across an entire population.
Field identification of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and advanced hospital notification decreases first-medical-contact-to-balloon (FMC2B) time. A recent study in this system found that electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission following a STEMI alert was frequently unsuccessful.
Instituting weekly test ECG transmissions from paramedic units to the hospital would increase successful transmission of ECGs and decrease FMC2B and door-to-balloon (D2B) times.
This was a natural experiment of consecutive patients with field-identified STEMI transported to a single percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-capable hospital in a regional STEMI system before and after implementation of scheduled test ECG transmissions. In November 2014, paramedic units began weekly test transmissions. The mobile intensive care nurse (MICN) confirmed the transmission, or if not received, contacted the paramedic unit and the department’s nurse educator to identify and resolve the problem. Per system-wide protocol, paramedics transmit all ECGs with interpretation of STEMI. Receiving hospitals submit patient data to a single registry as part of ongoing system quality improvement. The frequency of successful ECG transmission and time to intervention (FMC2B and D2B times) in the 18 months following implementation was compared to the 10 months prior. Post-implementation, the time the ECG transmission was received was also collected to determine the transmission gap time (time from ECG acquisition to ECG transmission received) and the advanced notification time (time from ECG transmission received to patient arrival).
There were 388 patients with field ECG interpretations of STEMI, 131 pre-intervention and 257 post-intervention. The frequency of successful transmission post-intervention was 73% compared to 64% prior; risk difference (RD)=9%; 95% CI, 1-18%. In the post-intervention period, the median FMC2B time was 79 minutes (inter-quartile range [IQR]=68-102) versus 86 minutes (IQR=71-108) pre-intervention (P=.3) and the median D2B time was 59 minutes (IQR=44-74) versus 60 minutes (IQR=53-88) pre-intervention (P=.2). The median transmission gap was three minutes (IQR=1-8) and median advanced notification time was 16 minutes (IQR=10-25).
Implementation of weekly test ECG transmissions was associated with improvement in successful real-time transmissions from field to hospital, which provided a median advanced notification time of 16 minutes, but no decrease in FMC2B or D2B times.
This study focuses on a door-opening mobile manipulator operating in four phases (reaching the door, grasping the door handle, turning the door handle, and pulling the door). We use force/torque feedback-based control, achieving compliance of the mobile base when it comes into contact with the handle. A method is proposed for estimating the unknown force-related constraints from manipulator joint position measurements. A robust adaptive control strategy is developed for tracking the planned trajectory to open the door. Finally, a mobile manipulator opens a real door with a locked latch and unknown force-related constraints, demonstrating the validity of the proposed approach.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Stop Stroke (Pulsara; Bozeman, Montana USA) medical application on door-to-needle (DTN) time in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
This was a retrospective cohort study of the Good Shepherd Health System (Longview, Texas USA) stroke quality improvement dashboard for a 25-month period from February 2012 through February 2014. Data analysis includes all data from Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS; Baltimore, Maryland USA) reportable cases receiving Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) for AIS during the study period. The primary outcome was mean DTN times before and after initiating Stop Stroke. Secondary outcome was the effect on the DTN≤60-minute benchmark.
During the study period, there were 533 stroke activations (200 before Stop Stroke implementation and 333 after). A total of 68 patients meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed (34 pre-app and 34 post- app). The observed mean DTN times post-app decreased 21 minutes (77 to 56 minutes), a 28% improvement (P=.001). Further, the patients meeting DTN≤60 minutes improved from 32% (11 of 34) to 82% (28 of 34) after the app’s implementation.
In this cohort of patients with AIS, Stop Stroke improved mean DTN times and number of patients treated within 60 minutes of arrival. These results demonstrate the app’s effect of increasing awareness of suspected AIS and improving coordination of care, evidenced by the magnitude of its effect on treatment times.
DicksonR, NedelcutA, McPeek NedelcutM. Stop Stroke: A Brief Report on Door-to-Needle Times and Performance After Implementing an Acute Care Coordination Medical Application and Implications to Emergency Medical Services. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):343–347.
A vast amount of experimental evidence suggests that get-out-the-vote encouragements delivered through door-to-door canvassing have large effects on turnout. Most of the existing studies have been conducted in the United States, and are inspiring European mobilization campaigns. This article explores the empirical question of whether the American findings are applicable to Europe. It combines existing European studies and presents two new Danish studies to show that the pooled point estimate of the effect is substantially smaller in Europe than in the United States, and finds no effects in the two Danish experiments. The article discusses why the effects seem to be different in Europe compared to the United States, and stresses the need for further experiments in Europe as there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the European effects. While one possible explanation is that differences in turnout rates explain the differences in effect sizes, the empirical analysis finds no strong relationship between turnout and effect sizes in either Europe or the United States.
Early reperfusion therapy in the treatment of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients can improve outcomes. Silent myocardial infarction is associated with poor prognosis, but little is known about its effect on treatment delays. We aimed to characterize STEMI patients presenting without complaints of pain to the emergency departments (EDs) in Singapore.
Retrospective data were requested from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry (SMIR), a national level registry in Singapore. Painless STEMI was defined as the absence of pain (chest, back, shoulder, jaw, and epigastric pain) during ED presentation. The primary outcome was door-to-balloon (D2B) time, defined as the earliest time a patient arrived in the ED to balloon inflation. Secondary outcomes were 1-month and 1-year mortality and occurrence of adverse events.
From January 2010 to December 2012, the SMIR collected 6412 cases; 10.9% of patients presented without any pain. These patients were older (median age =75 v. 58 years old), more likely to be females (39.9% v. 16.1%), Chinese (74.9% v. 62.7%), obese (median body mass index [BMI] =24.5 v. 22.1), and with history of hypertension (71.1% v. 54.6%), diabetes mellitus (48.6% v. 37.0%), and acute myocardial infarction (20.0% v. 12.3%). They had a longer median D2B (80.5 v. 63 minutes, p<0.001) and a higher occurrence of 30-day (38.4% v. 5.7%) and 1-year mortality rates (47.3% v. 8.5%).
A small proportion of STEMI patients presented without any pain to the ED. They tended to have a higher D2B and risks of mortality. Targeted effort is required to improve diagnostic and treatment efficiency in this group.
The time interval from diagnosis to reperfusion therapy for patients experiencing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality.
It is hypothesized that the time required for interfacility patient transfers from a community hospital to a regional percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) center using an Advanced Life Support (ALS) transfer ambulance service is no different than utilizing the “911” ALS ambulance.
Quality assurance data collected by a tertiary care center cardiac catheterization program were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected on all patients with STEMI requiring interfacility transfer from a local community hospital to the tertiary care center's PCI suite, approximately 16 miles away by ground, 12 miles by air. In 2009, transfers of patients with STEMI were redirected to the municipal ALS ambulance service, instead of the hospital's contracted ALS transfer service. Data were collected from January 2007 through May 2013. Temporal data were compared between transports initiated through the contracted ALS ambulance service and the municipal ALS service. Data points included time of initial transport request and time of ambulance arrival to the sending facility and the receiving PCI suite.
During the 4-year study period, 63 patients diagnosed with STEMI and transferred to the receiving hospital's PCI suite were included in this study. Mean times from the transport request to arrival of the ambulance at the sending hospital's emergency department were six minutes (95% CI, 4-7 minutes) via municipal ALS and 13 minutes (95% CI, 9-16 minutes) for the ALS transfer service. The mean times from the ground transport request to arrival at the receiving hospital's PCI suite when utilizing the municipal ALS ambulance and hospital contracted ALS ambulance services were 48 minutes (95% CI, 33-64 minutes) and 56 minutes (95% CI 52-59 minutes), respectively. This eight-minute period represented a 14% (P = .001) reduction in the mean transfer time to the PCI suite for patients transported via the municipal ALS ambulance.
In the appropriate setting, the use of the municipal “911” ALS ambulance service for the interfacility transport of patients with STEMI appears advantageous in reducing door-to-catheterization times.
TennysonJC, QualeMR. Reduction in STEMI Transfer Times Utilizing a Municipal “911” Ambulance Service. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(1):1-4.
Mortuary practices could vary almost indefinitely in the Viking Age. Within a theoretical framework of ritualization and architectural philosophy, this article explores how doors and thresholds were used in mortuary practice and ritual behaviour. The door is a deep metaphor for transition, transformation and liminality. It is argued that Viking Age people built ‘doors to the dead’ of various types, such as freestanding portals, causewayed ring-ditches or thresholds to grave mounds; or on occasion even buried their dead in the doorway. The paper proposes that the ritualized doors functioned in three ways: they created connections between the dead and the living; they constituted boundaries and thresholds that could possibly be controlled; and they formed between-spaces, expressing liminality and, conceivably, deviance. Ultimately, the paper underlines the profound impact of domestic architecture on mortuary practice and ritual behaviour in the Viking Age.
The provision of services in the contractual welfare state is conditional. If one wants to receive a service, one has to comply with the demands of the provider. If one fails to do so, the organisation threatens to terminate its services, and indeed often does so. There are, however, people who breach their contracts time after time, falling back into the same dire situation that prompted them to ask for help in the first place. Social workers must then visit these people to help them re-enter the contract. This article draws on an in-depth analysis of such ‘behind the front door’ policies, focussing on single mothers on welfare. It argues that for many single mothers on welfare, social security fails to provide emotional and relational security, which undermines their ability to fulfil the terms of the contract. So long as the welfare state is based on the idea of (material) social security, ‘behind the front door’ workers remain urgently needed.
Research on compliance has shown that people can be induced to comply with various requests by using techniques that capitalise on the human tendencies to act consistently and to reciprocate. Thus far this line of research has been applied to interactions between individuals, not to relations between institutions. We argue, however, that similar techniques are applied by courts vis-à-vis the government, the legislature and the public at large, when courts try to secure legitimacy and acceptance of their decisions. We discuss a number of known influence techniques – including ‘foot in the door’, ‘low-balling’, ‘giving a reputation to uphold’ and ‘door in the face’ – and provide examples from Israeli case law of the use of such techniques by courts. This analysis offers new insights that can further the understanding of judicial decision-making processes.
The Golden Window above the Golden Door of Caukoṭ Darbār, a building on the western side of the (former) Royal Palace complex, is a major attraction in the city of Patan (Nepal). The gilt window panel features a representation of Avalokiteśvara in his form as Sṛṣṭikartā (“creator”) emanating Hindu divinities from his body. The sides, base and tympanum of the window likewise display Hindu divinities. The construction of the window has been ascribed to different kings of the late Malla period (1483–1768) and is said to illustrate their support for the Buddhist practices of their subjects, while providing a Hindu interpretative framework for such practices. In this paper I identify the divinities on the window and examine textual and visual sources that shed light on the date of the window's construction, including the inscriptions above and at the sides of the Golden Door. I show that there is no evidence for such an early dating of the window and that the Golden Window was probably constructed sometime in the nineteenth century in either the Śāh period (1769–1846) or, more likely, the Rāṇā period (1846–1951). I conclude with some thoughts on the possible significance of the peculiar configuration of divinities surrounding the Bodhisattva on the window.
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends a benchmark door-to-electrocardiogram (ECG) time of 10 minutes for acute myocardial infarction patients, but this is based on expert opinion (level of evidence C). We sought to establish an evidence-based benchmark door-to-ECG time.
This retrospective cohort study used a population-based sample of patients who suffered an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Ontario between 1999 and 2001. Using cubic smoothing splines, we described (1) the relationship between door-to-ECG time and ECG-to-needle time and (2) the proportion of STEMI patients who met the benchmark door-to-needle time of 30 minutes based on their door-to-ECG time. We hypothesized nonlinear relationships and sought to identify an inflection point in the latter curve that would define the most efficient (benefit the greatest number of patients) door-to-ECG time.
In 2,961 STEMI patients, the median door-to-ECG and ECG-to-needle times were 8.0 and 27.0 minutes, respectively. There was a linear increase in ECG-to-needle time as the door-to-ECG time increased, up to approximately 30 minutes, after which the ECG-to-needle time remained constant at 53 minutes. The inflection point in the probability of achieving the benchmark door-to-needle time occurred at 4 minutes, after which it decreased linearly, with every minute of door-to-ECG time decreasing the average probability of achievement by 2.2%.
Hospitals that are not meeting benchmark reperfusion times may improve performance by decreasing door-to-ECG times, even if they are meeting the current AHA benchmark door-to-ECG time. The highest probability of meeting the reperfusion target time for fibrinolytic administration is associated with a door-to-ECG time of 4 minutes or less.
The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations recommends that patients admitted to hospital with pneumonia receive their first dose of antibiotics within 6 hours of presenting to the emergency department (ED). Previous research in the United States indicates that rural hospitals may be better at achieving this benchmark than urban centres. This particular quality indicator has not yet been evaluated in Canada. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the target door-to-antibiotic (DTA) time of 6 hours or less could be met in a rural ED.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Descriptive data for each case was collected, including demographic and timeline information. We analyzed DTA time, antibiotic type, route of administration, hospital length of stay and disposition at discharge.
We reviewed a total of 320 charts from Apr. 1, 2003, to Mar. 31, 2008. The final sample consisted of 143 patients (50.3% women) whose median age was 79 years. The median DTA time was 151 minutes and 81.8% of patients received their first dose of antibiotics within 6 hours. Patients received antibiotics either orally (47.6%), intravenously (47.6%) or both (4.8%). Single-agent respiratory fluoroquinolones were used 71.4% of the time. Median length of hospital stay was 4 days; most patients were discharged home (79.7%), 11 died, 11 were transferred and 7 were discharged to a nursing home.
A DTA time of 6 hours or less is achievable in a rural ED.