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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Cystoisospora belli is a coccidian parasite of humans, with a direct fecal–oral transmission cycle. It is globally distributed, but mainly found in tropical and subtropical areas. Many cases of C. belli infections have been reported in patients with HIV, and in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplants or those treated for tumours worldwide. Unsporulated or partially sporulated oocysts of C. belli are excreted in feces. When sporulated oocysts in contaminated water or food are ingested, asexual and sexual stages of C. belli are confined to the epithelium of intestines, bile ducts and gallbladder. Monozoic tissue cysts are present in extra-intestinal organs (lamina propria of the small and large intestine, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver) of immunosuppressed humans. However, a paratenic host has not been demonstrated. Cystoisospora belli infections can be persistent, lasting for months, and relapses are common; the mechanism of relapse is unknown. Recently, the endogenous stages of C. belli were re-examined and attention was drawn to cases of misidentification of non-protozoal structures in the gallbladder of patients as C. belli. Here, we review all aspects of the biology of C. belli, including morphology, endogenous stages, prevalence, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis and control.
The Global Distribution Accounts (GDA) are based on the work that has been done on the distribution of income and wealth in the last decade or two. However, this chapter also explores the distributional relationships between companies, households and governments, and explores the dynamics within these sectors (e.g. the differences between multinationals and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Finally, this chapter explores non-financial inequalities such as health, education and social networks.
The previous chapters have shown that there is one powerful community (“the GDP multinational") which is being challenged by a heterogeneous and weakly organised community (“the Beyond-GDP cottage industry). The ever-expanding range of Beyond-GDP initiatives will not lead to success however. A new strategy is based on the GDP success story and aims to create an institutionalised community with a clear goal and coherent structure based on a common language. The chapter argues that the community should not be based on the SDGs, green accounting or the SEEA. It also argues that the community should not be based on economic terminology and theory but rather on multidisciplinary building blocks such as stock/flow accounting, networks and limits. The aim of the community is to enhance well-being and sustainability and one of its most important features is its common language: the System of Global and National Accounts (SGNA). The SGNA has four system accounts (environment, society, economy and distribution), which describe how the systems are developing. However, this does not yet tell people whether the developments are good or bad. This is left to the quality accounts.
Despite being classed as an asocial species, aggregations of sea anemones can be common in abundant species. UK populations of the geographically common aggressive intertidal sea anemone Actinia equina, form clustered aggregations notwithstanding a violent nature towards neighbours and relatives. Smaller in body size, and more abundant than those found in warmer climates, little research has been undertaken to discover what factors affect body size. This study investigates whether aggregation, distance to neighbour, submergence at low tide or pH in rock pools affect body size of A. equina in their natural habitat. Populations were investigated at five sites on the Yorkshire coast during August and September 2016. A total of 562 anemones were recorded revealing that solitary anemones were significantly larger than those found in clustered aggregations. In addition, anemones found submerged in rock pools at low tide were significantly larger than those found on emergent rock, and smaller anemones were found in significantly higher pH conditions (8.5+) than larger anemones. Anemones submerged at low tide are constantly able to feed and not subject to harsh conditions such as wind exposure and temperature, hence they can achieve larger sizes. Consequently, the size of the anemones may reflect a trade-off between the benefits of aggregating in exposed environments and the costs of competition for a reduced food resource.
The Parmelia saxatilis aggregate is comprised of three species in Europe, proposed to differ in morphological, distributional or chemical characters. In this study, we sampled nearly 200 thalli from five sites across a steep ecological gradient in Scotland to investigate the distribution of the species in the aggregate, and we characterized all specimens by morphological, chemical and ITS sequence variation. In our sample, 191 specimens were identified to species using ITS. We confirm that a PCR length assay can be used for separation of P. saxatilis s. str. from P. ernstiae and P. serrana because across our sample, P. saxatilis s. str. consistently includes a group I intron c. 200 bp. Using sequences for specimen identification, we test previously proposed characters to diagnose specimens and use multivariate analysis to identify the most consistent features which may be used for identification among species. First, we test lobe morphology, presence and amount of pruina, distribution of isidia, lobe tip colour, and chemistry. Second, we use classification trees that quantify the contributions of 1) morphological and chemical factors, and 2) morphological and ecological factors, to a priori ITS-barcoded specimens. Parmelia saxatilis s. str., P. ernstiae and P. serrana all occur across the sampled gradient but differ in the frequency of occurrence, with P. saxatilis s. str. more frequent in the relatively drier east, and P. ernstiae more frequent in the wetter west. Parmelia serrana was collected around a third as often as the other two species, but more frequently on tree branches than expected. For all the morphological characters examined, all the species show some overlap and no morphological features are diagnostic, though trends are apparent by species. The classification tree approach holds promise for discovering the most meaningful variation for field workers to approach correct identifications. Chemical variation using TLC is perhaps the best way to distinguish most specimens but, even here, overlap in chemosyndromes exists among the species.
After the recent detection, by both morphology and DNA barcodes, of the larval stages of an unknown species of pea crab (Pinnotheres sp.) in European waters, adults of this crab are herein reported and described as a new species. The current known geographic distribution of the species comprises the Gulf of Cádiz in the eastern Atlantic and the adjacent Mediterranean waters of the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Alboran Sea), where this crab is well-established inside the anomiid bivalve Anomia ephippium. In the Gulf of Cádiz, the species displayed a relatively high prevalence: on average, 55.6–77.7%, in A. ephippium samples. The dominant demographic categories of the new species were soft females (61.8–77.0%) with fewer males (17.7–21.10%). Most of the host bivalves carried only one crab; in bivalves harbouring two crabs, heterosexual pairs were collected more frequently than expected by chance, which suggests that they could be mated pairs. A strong correlation between host size and soft female size was found (r = 0.73, P < 0.01) indicating that space availability within hosts seems to be relevant in determining the size of the sedentary phase of the new crab species.
The coastal waters of east Lewis from the Butt of Lewis to Loch Erisort are a proposed Marine Protected Area (MPA) for Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus). A total of 100.4 h (2006.4 km) of active search effort (Beaufort sea states ≤3) was collected during 72 dedicated boat surveys between 2010 and 2017 (primarily in August and September) in the southern part of the MPA and south to the Shiant Isles. Forty Risso's dolphin sightings and 24.1 h of encounter effort were recorded, predominantly along the southern and eastern Eye Peninsula in 20–40 m water depths and at distances <1 km from shore. Group size ranged from one to 50 animals (mean = 11.8 dolphins) and calves occurred in 37.5% of sightings. A total of 2404 shore-based scans (Beaufort sea states ≤3) carried out from Tiumpan Head between September 2011 and December 2017 resulted in 271 (11.3%) ‘dolphin-present’ scans. Dolphins were present year-round, with a seasonal increase between May and October. ‘Calf-present’ scans only occurred between April and October. Photo-identification images from 28 boat surveys produced a minimum population size of 117 animals. There was evidence of high inter- and intra-annual site fidelity, with individual dolphins photographically captured in up to six of the eight survey years, and between two and seven capture dates being recorded for over 45% of individuals within most years. The combined datasets support the importance of east Lewis for Risso's dolphins, and recommendations are made for ongoing monitoring of dolphin occurrence throughout the wider MPA.
The Endangered Asian elephant Elephas maximus comes into widespread conflict with agrarian communities, necessitating active management. The species’ distribution is of primary importance for management planning. However, data-based countrywide distribution maps have not been available for any of the 13 Asian elephant range states. We conducted a 5 × 5 km grid-based questionnaire survey in Sri Lanka to produce an island-wide elephant distribution map. Elephants occur over 59.9% of Sri Lanka and people are resident in 69.4% of elephant range, indicating the challenge of separating people and elephants at a landscape scale. Elephants in Sri Lanka have lost 16.1% of their range since 1960 but their current distribution remains largely contiguous. We found the range of adult males was 15.1% greater, and less seasonal, than that of herds, possibly because males have a higher tolerance for conflict with people. The distribution of conflict coincided with the co-occurrence of humans and elephants. We conclude that a human–elephant coexistence model is the only viable option for effectively mitigating human–elephant conflict and conserving elephants in Sri Lanka. The findings are currently being used to effect a paradigm change in elephant conservation and management in the country.
Temporal and spatial scarcity of water in semi-arid and seasonal ecosystems often leads to changes in movements and behaviour of large vertebrates, and in the neotropics this dynamic is poorly understood due to logistical and methodological limitations. Here we used camera trapping to elucidate variation in patterns of seasonal use of waterholes and pathways by 10 large-mammal and four large-bird species in the dry forest of north-western Costa Rica. From 2011 to 2015, we deployed trail cameras at 50 locations, including waterholes and three types of pathway (roads, human trails and animal paths). We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of location and seasonality on the rates at which independent photographs were taken. We found interacting effects of location and seasonality for the capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus), the tiger heron (Trigrisoma mexicanum), the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the tapir (Tapirus bairdii) suggesting that these species were the most influenced by waterholes during the dry season. Comparison of waterhole sites and specific types of pathways (roads, animal paths and human trails) showed that location influenced photo-capture rates of almost all species, suggesting a useful insight to avoid and account for bias in camera trap studies. Furthering our ecological understanding of seasonal water regimes and large vertebrates’ behaviours allow for better understanding of the consequences of climate change on them.
Since Rob Pollack and Glenn Stevens used overconvergent modular symbols to construct
-functions for non-critical slope rational modular forms, the theory has been extended to construct
-functions for non-critical slope automorphic forms over totally real and imaginary quadratic fields by the first and second authors, respectively. In this paper, we give an analogous construction over a general number field. In particular, we start by proving a control theorem stating that the specialisation map from overconvergent to classical modular symbols is an isomorphism on the small slope subspace. We then show that if one takes the modular symbol attached to a small slope cuspidal eigenform, then one can construct a ray class distribution from the corresponding overconvergent symbol, which moreover interpolates critical values of the
-function of the eigenform. We prove that this distribution is independent of the choices made in its construction. We define the
-function of the eigenform to be this distribution.
Three new species of the Neotropical genus Barbacenia (Velloziaceae, Pandanales) from Tocantins, Brazil, are described and illustrated, based on morphology and leaf anatomy. The known species richness of the genus is mapped within the countries of South America and the states of Brazil.
Chapter 6 makes the case for periodic delivery of the EITC. Returning to the Advance Earned Income Tax Credit as a failed experiment in periodic delivery, the chapter describes the advantages of periodic payment, outlines the pros and cons of different possible periodic payment structures, and identifies challenges that would arise in a transition from lump sum to periodic distribution. It describes how decoupling the credit from income tax return filing would reduce low-income taxpayer reliance on unfavorable borrowing practice and remove the incentives for return preparers to engage in misbehavior. It also proposes ways that the IRS might improve its procedures for verifying benefit eligibility, and the need to balance that with an application process that is simple for taxpayers to understand.
We develop a classical macroeconomic model to examine the growth and distributional consequences of education. Contrary to the received wisdom, we show that human capital accumulation is not necessarily growth-inducing and inequality-reducing. Expansive education policies may foster growth and reduce earning inequalities between workers, but only by transferring income from workers to capitalists. Further, the overall effect of an increase in education depends on the actual characteristics of the educational system and on the nature of labor market relations. Although the primary aim of the paper is theoretical, we argue that the model identifies some causal mechanisms that can contribute to shed light on recent stylized facts on growth, distribution, and education for the USA.
Based on studies of types and recent collections, the number of species of Etlingera Giseke in the Philippines is doubled from eight to 16. Three species (Etlingera alba, E. brevilabrum and E. sessilanthera) are reported here for the first time, E. pandanicarpa is synonymised with the Bornean E. fimbriobracteata, and four new combinations (E. bulusanensis, E. linearifolia, E. pubimarginata and E. subviridis) and one new name (E. pilosa) are published here. Nine lectotypifications are proposed, of which three represent second-step designations. About two-thirds of the species are currently thought to be endemic, but future fieldwork is likely to result in more species of Etlingera in the Philippines, either endemic or as new records from neighbouring islands.
Artefact biographies are a valuable means of conceptualising the relationships between people, places and objects in the past. It is rare, however, that the detailed contextual information required by such approaches can be extracted from the archaeological assemblages typically found in the often dense and confusing palimpsests of complex urban sites. Eighteenth- to twentieth-century ceramic wares associated with Oxbridge colleges provide one way of exploring this issue. Detailed historical records of property owners and tenants can be combined with ceramics linked to individual colleges by corporate markings such as coats of arms or badges. This enables fine-grained reconstructions which show, in many cases, that ordinary vessels had far from ordinary histories of use and discard.
Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is both an effective concurrent declarative programming language and a versatile computational logic formalism. In CHR, guarded reactive rules rewrite a multi-set of constraints. Concurrency is inherent, since rules can be applied to the constraints in parallel. In this comprehensive survey, we give an overview of the concurrent, parallel as well as distributed CHR semantics, standard and more exotic, that have been proposed over the years at various levels of refinement. These semantics range from the abstract to the concrete. They are related by formal soundness results. Their correctness is proven as a correspondence between parallel and sequential computations. On the more practical side, we present common concise example CHR programs that have been widely used in experiments and benchmarks. We review parallel and distributed CHR implementations in software as well as hardware. The experimental results obtained show a parallel speed-up for unmodified sequential CHR programs. The software implementations are available online for free download and we give the web links. Due to its high level of abstraction, the CHR formalism can also be used to implement and analyse models for concurrency. To this end, the Software Transaction Model, the Actor Model, Colored Petri Nets and the Join-Calculus have been faithfully encoded in CHR. Finally, we identify and discuss commonalities of the approaches surveyed and indicate what problems are left open for future research.
Hypotrachyna is a speciose genus of primarily tropical and oceanic lichen-forming fungi. It includes species with distinct distribution patterns, such as pantropical, restricted and disjunct species. We used a dataset of mitochondrial SSU, nuclear ITS and LSU ribosomal DNA from 89 specimens to study the historical biogeography of the genus. We employed Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches for phylogenetic analyses, a likelihood-based approach to ancestral area estimation, and a Bayesian approach to estimate divergence times of major lineages within the genus based on molecular evolutionary rates for ITS and a secondary calibration point at the Hypotrachyna clade – Parmeliopsis split. Our analyses suggest that the genus might have originated in the Neotropics during the Eocene and that the split of major lineages happened primarily during the Eocene and Oligocene. The major diversification within those clades is estimated to have occurred during the Miocene. Pantropical species distributions are explained by long-distance dispersal. A number of currently accepted species were found to be non-monophyletic, illustrating that the delimitation of species in the genus needs attention.
The coast of Brazil is an important low latitude nursery ground for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The number of humpback whales in this region has increased and its population is reoccupying areas where it has been depleted during the whaling period. The goal of this study was to conduct land-based observations during 2014 and 2015 to characterize patterns of habitat use and relative abundance of humpback whales that migrate to one of these reoccupation areas: Serra Grande, Bahia state. The observed mean group size was 2.12 ± 0.96 individuals and did not vary through the reproductive season nor between years. Dyads (32.9%) and singletons (26.7%) were more frequently observed, and groups with calves represented 21.2% of the sightings. The mean number of whales counted per hour increased from 2014 (3.44 ± 3.35) to 2015 (5.12 ± 4.18). Habitat use varied during the season; whales used shallower waters closer to shore as the season progressed. The spatial distribution of groups with calves was dependent on the presence and number of escorts. Spatial segregation of groups with calves closer to shore is a key factor in understanding the overall distribution of whales in the area, suggesting that social strategies are affected by environmental factors, as seen in other wintering grounds. Small-scale studies from land-based stations, in areas such as this where there is no previous knowledge about the species, are cost effective. They provide information about the overall behavioural and spatial patterns while anthropogenic activity is still low, allowing habitat protection and management decisions before implementation and increase of human activities.
Despite global deterioration of coral reef health, not all reef-associated organisms are in decline. Bioeroding sponges are thought to be largely resistant to the factors that stress and kill corals, and are increasing in abundance on many reefs. However, there is a paucity of information on how environmental factors influence spatial variation in the distribution of these sponges, and how they might be affected by different stressors. We aimed to identify the factors that explained differences in bioeroding sponge abundance and assemblage composition, and to determine whether bioeroding sponges benefit from the same environmental conditions that can contribute towards coral mortality. Abundance surveys were conducted in the Wakatobi region of Indonesia on reefs characterized by different biotic and abiotic conditions. Bioeroding sponges occupied an average of 8.9% of available dead substrate and variation in abundance and assemblage composition was primarily attributed to differences in the availability of dead substrate. Our results imply that if dead substrate availability increases as a consequence of coral mortality, bioeroding sponge abundance is also likely to increase. However, bioeroding sponge abundance was lowest on a sedimented reef, despite abundant dead substrate. This suggests that not all forms of coral mortality will benefit all bioeroding sponge species, and sediment-degraded reefs are likely to be dominated by a few resilient bioeroding sponge species. Overall, we demonstrate the importance of understanding the drivers of bioeroding sponge abundance and assemblage composition in order to predict possible impacts of different stressors on reefs communities.