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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Since its market introduction roughly 30 years back, dynamic light scattering (DLS) has occupied a position of increasing popularity within the area of sub-micron particle and biopolymer characterization, due in large part to the non-invasiveness of the technique, the minimal sample volume & concentration requirements, and the quickness of data collection. Using ISO recommended measurement and analysis procedures, determination of the mean sample size and distribution width from DLS measurements is quite simple. In addition, modern instrumentation design and data interpretation software have removed much of the ?mystic? traditionally associated with this somewhat complex particle sizing technology. As a consequence, DLS instruments can now be routinely found in protein and nanoparticle laboratories around the globe. As might be expected, the simplicity of modern DLS instrumentation comes with a caveat. While calculation of the mean particle size for DLS is straight forward, extraction of further information, such as the intensity and/or volume (or mass) distribution is more convoluted, requiring the use of fitting algorithms. Data interpretation can be further complicated by the presence of noise, especially for samples with physical properties that are near the specified limits of the instrument/technique. This seminar covers the dos and don?ts of DLS data interpretation, and addresses the common question of ?what is the correct answer?.
The German government established a funding scheme for local climate policy in 2008. The translation of this programme into climate action varies between municipalities. This article studies the drivers and barriers for the diffusion of the programme among German municipalities. A major aim is to disentangle the diffusion effects across different steps within the policy cycle by employing Event History Analysis and spatial panel autoregressive models. Geographical proximity, party channels and transnational city networks are predictors of the diffusion process. Differences in diffusion effects between policy adoption and substantial policy output indicate that emulation as well as learning influence policy activity. Furthermore, increasing deployment of solar photovoltaic systems in neighbouring municipalities is associated with an intensification of climate policy in the focal municipality. The absence of similar effects for other renewable energy technologies hints at the “conditional nature” of policy learning with respect to the policy-makers’ vote- and policy-seeking behaviour.
Lithium solid-state composite electrolytes (LiSCEs) provide the opportunity for long life spans, low self-discharge, high reliability, high energy density, and safety. Additionally, this class of electrolytes can be used in electrolytically formed solid-state batteries (EFBs), which may promote reductions in cell manufacturing costs due to their simplicity of design and permit the formation of batteries with diverse architectures. Herein, we provide a discussion of LiSCEs, highlight some of the recent progress in EFB development, and present a forward outlook.
The increase of agricultural production in a sustainable scenario depends on the development of new technologies to optimize the use of resources, especially fertilizers. Novel technologies in materials can provide means to the controlled release of inputs as well as to enable strategies for using poorly soluble sources.
Modern agriculture is facing a productivity challenge due to the 9 billion people demands for the next 50 years. To that, the productivity increase requests improvements in input efficiency to fill economic requirements as well as reducing their environmental impacts. Several materials can be specially designed for an adequate release of these inputs (mainly fertilizers) including ion-exchange materials, coatings and high-adsorption capacity materials. Noteworthy materials are nanoparticulate fertilizers and nanocomposites, where their size and structure are useful to control the solubilization, and consequently, the nutrient availability for plants in a synchronized way, avoiding losses to environment. Therefore, this review aims to introduce a wide view of available and in-development technologies in materials for the best management of agricultural inputs, focused in the sustainable use of fertilizers and minimal environmental impact. These different strategies offer a portfolio of possible solutions for sustainable agriculture in the next years.
Unlike the conventional layer by layer growth ,three dimensional growth experiments of SiC single crystal by the Chemical Particle Deposition (CPD)method were carried out both on the polar and nonpolar plane of the SiC seed crystal. The comparison of the morphology of the grown crystals on both samples indicated that the electric field formed by the seed crystal strongly effected the diffusion of the supplied Si and C atoms and their compounds to grow the epitaxial crystal. In spite of the low ionicity of Si-C bonds, this remarkable effect of the electric field on the three dimensional crystal growth mechanism in the CPD method strongly suggested its contribution to the ordering of the stacked layers with its long working range, beyond the deformed boundary layers between the seed surface and the grown crystal.
Localized network processes are central to the study of political science, whether in the formation of political coalitions and voting blocs, balancing and bandwagoning, policy learning, imitation, diffusion, tipping-point dynamics, or cascade effects. These types of processes are not easily modeled using traditional network approaches, which focus on global rather than local structures within networks. We show that localized network processes, in which network edges form in response to the formation of other edges, are best modeled by shifting from the traditional theoretical framework of nodes-as-actors to what we term a nodes-as-actions framework, which allows for zeroing in on relationships among network connections. We show that the proposed theoretical framework is statistically compatible with a local structure graph model (LSGM). We demonstrate the properties of LSGMs using a Monte Carlo experiment and explore action–reaction processes in two empirical applications: formation of alliances among countries and legislative cosponsorships in the US Senate.
The coupling of acoustic energy with materials structures and processes is at the core of such current and emerging application areas as ultrasound-enabled materials characterization, structuring, and processing. High concentration of acoustic energy, such as upon the collapse of a cavitation bubble, has been shown to provide conditions for the synthesis of unusual material phases and structures, while intriguing reports on acoustic activation of surface diffusion, desorption, and catalysis hold high promise for applications where heating must be avoided or rapid switching of surface conditions is required. Some of the recent scientific and technical advances in the general area of acoustically enabled materials synthesis, processing, and characterization are reviewed in this issue of MRS Bulletin. Additional discussion of experimental data and computational results providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms and channels of the acoustic energy coupling to atomic-scale surface features and adsorbates is also provided in this article.
With the rapid decline of traditional media in China, the party-state faces the growing challenge of shaping public opinion online. This article engages with one response to this challenge – a state-sanctioned digital media experiment aimed at creating a new form of journalism that appeals to the public and helps to disseminate Party propaganda. We analyse the emergence of a national success story, Shanghai-based model media outlet Pengpai, and its diffusion across different regions. We argue that the synergy between local officials and media entrepreneurs has propelled Pengpai’s national fame. We further demonstrate that while there has been a cross-national attempt to diffuse this model, it has produced mixed results owing to a number of factors, including the superficial commitment of local officials and media professionals. These findings demonstrate that state-sanctioned decentralized experimentation can deliver unpredictable results in the sphere of media policy, and they further question the capacity of the party-state to effectively reinvent public persuasion in the digital age.
In the present world scenario the demand for fresh water and clean energy is driving the need to convert a microbial fuel cell (MFC) into an algal-based microbial desalination cell (MDC) that can support algal growth along with desalination of saline water. In this study, the performance of a five-chambered MDC fed with saline water having two different salt concentrations, namely 2.5 g/L and 5.0 g/L in desalination chamber, as well as MDC operated without algae in catholyte was investigated. The algal-based MDC operated with 5 g/L of total dissolved solid (TDS) in desalination chamber exhibited the best performance results among all other combinations giving a maximum power density of 45.52 mW/m2 and a desalination efficiency of 71 ± 2 %. Also, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 78 % and coulombic efficiency of 12.24 % was achieved with 5 g/L NaCl concentration in desalination chamber. Based on this experimental performance evaluation, it can be inferred that algal-based MDC can provide a promising and sustainable approach for wastewater treatment with the capability of simultaneous desalination, algal production and electrical energy recovery.
Molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to determine the oxygen anion diffusivity in pure ceria (CeO2) and doped ceria MxCe1-xO2-0.5x (M=Gd, Sm and Pr) with varying level of dopant concentration from 5-30% (x = 0.05-0.3). Doping with Gd showed an improvement in oxygen anion diffusivity value by two order of magnitude (D = 4.67x10-8 cm2/s at 1173 K) as compared to the undoped ceria (D = 1.33x10-10 cm2/s at 1173 K). 10% of doping level was estimated as the optimum concentration of all the dopants at which all of the doped ceria materials showed maximum diffusivity of oxygen anion. Among the three dopants studied, Pr was observed to show maximum diffusivity of oxygen anion in the temperature range of 773-1173 K of simulations.
We visually observed color changes of discontinuous gold surfaces on paper substrates through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at room temperature due to surface diffusion of gold nanostructures. Isolated nanoparticles and an uncompleted nanosheet of gold were obtained by thermal vapor deposition. After preservation for 8 months in air at room temperature, the particle sizes and shapes remarkably changed with color changes. The surface diffusion of the discontinuous gold on the paper would be derived from solid-state dieting, resulting in the growth of the nanosheet defect and coalescence of the nanoparticles. This is due to the total energy minimization of the surfaces of gold nanostructures and the paper and the interface between gold and the paper.
Diffusion barrier materials play an important role in both structure reliability and performance stability of thermoelectric (TE) modules. Preferred barrier materials are screened out from various candidates by comparing the interdiffusion at the barrier material/TE substrate interfaces. Traditionally, for each barrier material candidate, complicated fabrication processing of TE elements (electrode/barrier material/TE material) must be finished to obtain relative interfaces, which makes the screening costly and time consuming. In this article, using a high-throughput strategy, we developed a high-efficiency screening method of barrier materials. By cosintering the mixture of TE substrate material and various barrier material candidates simply following the TE material’s sintering parameters, various microinterfaces were integrated to one single sample. This enables parallel aging and microstructure characterization of different interfaces, and preferred barrier materials can be swiftly screened out. As a result, it makes the design and optimization of TE modules much more efficient and economical.
Lung surfactant (LS), a thin layer of phospholipids and proteins inside the alveolus of the lung is the first biological barrier to inhaled nanoparticles (NPs). LS stabilizes and protects the alveolus during its continuous compression and expansion by fine-tuning the surface tension at the air-water interface. Previous modelling studies have reported the biophysical function of LS monolayer and its role, but many open questions regarding the consequences and interactions of airborne nano-sized particles with LS monolayer remain. In spite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) having a paramount role in biomedical applications, the understanding of the interactions between bare AuNPs (as pollutants) and LS monolayer components still unresolved. Continuous inhalation of NPs increases the possibility of lung ageing, reducing the normal lung functioning and promoting lung malfunction, and may induce serious lung diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and more. Different medical studies have shown that AuNPs can disrupt the routine lung functions of gold miners and promote respiratory diseases. In this work, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are performed to gain an understanding of the interactions between bare AuNPs and LS monolayer components at the nanoscale. Different surface tensions of the monolayer are used to mimic the biological process of breathing (inhalation and exhalation). It is found that the NP affects the structure and packing of the lipids by disordering lipid tails. Overall, the analysed results suggest that bare AuNPs impede the normal biophysical function of the lung, a finding that has beneficial consequences to the potential development of treatments of various respiratory diseases.
The apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium in compacted bentonites were investigated at various concentrations of NaHCO3. Purified sodium bentonite Kunipia-F® was compacted with a jig into cylindrical pellets 10 mm in diameter and 10 mm high with dry densities of 1.0 to 1.6 Mg/m3. Each bentonite pellet was inserted into an acrylic resin column and saturated with carbonated water containing 0.1 to 1.0 M NaHCO3 for more than 1 month. The face of the bentonite specimen was spiked with 5 μL of 1.0 M SrCl2 tracer solution. After a few weeks, the strontium diffusion profiles were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium decreased slightly with increasing dry density. NaHCO3 concentrations of 0.5 M decreased the apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium by half at a dry density of 1.0 Mg/m3 and quarter at 1.6 Mg/m3. At a higher NaHCO3 concentration of 1.0 M, no strontium diffusion profile was observed, whereas white precipitate was observed on the face of the bentonite specimen where it was spiked with strontium. This white precipitate could be strontianite, which is strontium carbonate. Diffusion experiments using cesium were carried out for comparison, and the presence of carbonate had no effect on the apparent diffusion coefficient.
Compared with traditional stainless steels, high nitrogen stainless steels (HNSS), have been widely used due to their high strength, toughness along with excellent corrosion resistance and low cost, formed by partial replacement of Ni (austenite-forming element) by N. The evolution of the microstructure of a Cr19Mn19Mo2N0.7 stainless steel is investigated after solution treatment at 1010, 1060, 1200 or 1250°C for 30min. A complex multilayer structure has been found under a negative pressure vacuum. A white ferritic layer at the surface is formed, and a subsurface layer with full austenitic structure and a bulk microstructure comprising of austenite and ferrite are detected. With increasing solution temperature, the surface layer thickness increases. The formation of the multilayer structure is attributed to an outward diffusion, a diffusive retardation and an abnormal accumulation of nitrogen during solution treatment.
The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and led to the release of volatile radionuclides, which were deposited on the environment in the Fukushima prefecture and the neighbouring areas. After the short-lived I-131, radiocaesium such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 have controlled radiation dose rate. The authors derived the apparent diffusion coefficients (Da) of some radionuclides such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 based on time variation of the depth distributions of respective radionuclides in soil obtained in field investigations in earlier studies. Almost all Da-values were of order 10-14 (m2·s−1) and well consistent with distribution coefficients (Kd) obtained from batch experiments. Whilst, field investigations for the relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 in soil by a scraper plate method were conducted at totally 85 locations over a period of nearly 6 years from December 2011 in the Fukushima prefecture and the neighbouring prefectures, and time variation of the effective relaxation mass depths was recently reported. Consequently, the effective relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 showed a tendency to linearly increase with increasing time. This indicates that radiocaesium gradually moves to the deeper part of soil with time. In this study, Da based on Fick’s diffusion equation was derived based on time variation of the effective relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 in soil. In order to calculate the Da based on Fick’s law, correlation between relaxation depth and square root of elapsed time was derived from the correlation between effective relaxation mass depth and elapsed time (where, relaxation depth is defined as the depth of 1/e of radionuclide concentration at the ground surface and can calculate by relaxation mass depth/soil density). The calculated Da of Cs-137 was of order 10-12 (m2·s−1) , which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than Da-values that the authors previously reported as described above. Considering that almost all relaxation depths of Cs-137 were shallow within 2cm in depth from the ground surface and near the surface layer of soil is unsaturated, it is considered that Da estimated in this analysis includes the effect of dispersion by advection (by flow in the vertical direction of rainwater).
This paper deals with a non-self-adjoint differential operator which is associated with a diffusion process with random jumps from the boundary. Our main result is that the algebraic multiplicity of an eigenvalue is equal to its order as a zero of the characteristic function
. This is a new criterion for determining the multiplicities of eigenvalues for concrete operators.
This article discusses the contingencies and complexities of CRISPR. It outlines key problems regarding off-target effects and replication of experimental work that are important to consider in light of CRISPR’s touted ease of use and diffusion. In light of literature on the sociotechnical dimensions of the life sciences and biotechnology and literature on former bioweapons programs, this article argues that we need more detailed empirical case studies of the social and technical factors shaping CRISPR and related gene-editing techniques in order to better understand how they may be different from other advances in biotechnology — or whether similar features remain. This information will be critical to better inform intelligence practitioners and policymakers about the security implications of new gene-editing techniques.
This chapter provides fundamentals on protein chromatography. Different chromatographic media are described in terms of the solute-surface interactions that can be exploited to achieve the desired separation. Then, mechanistic models are presented to describe the three key physical phenomena involved in protein chromatography, namely the thermodynamics of fluid-solid equilibrium, the hydrodynamics and the kinetics of mass transfer. Simple methods to estimate model parameters are introduced as well as short-cut methods to design chromatographic processes. Although the main goal of this chapter is to bring theoretical basics about the modelling of protein chromatography, it is complemented by numerous experimental results for illustrative and pedagogical purposes.