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Nonsocial emotional and mental impacts of on-site nature stimulus experiences also emerge as a common theme when people describe zoos and zoogoing. Chapter 8 thus delves into what is known about mental models of connectedness, continuity, and belonging that appear to be linked to empathy, guilt, concern, and care – emotional responses that often arise automatically when humans encounter live animals. In addition to a psychological exploration of ions of nature and the concept of biophilia, we highlight patterns of affiliation, caring, and connectedness that emerge in zoo settings to shed light on the extent to which experiences that spark empathy toward animals can facilitate the development of moral emotional responses likely to ground or reinforce a conservation ethic. Building on primary research about the implicit connections people tend to develop during zoo visits – irrespective of the fact that zoo spaces are clearly human-designed – we demonstrate that zoo experiences overall impact humans’ capacity to connect and extend their scope of care to nonhuman entities in important ways. In particular, we consider why and how rich emotional relationships between zoo animals and the staff who care for them can and should be at the forefront of efforts to facilitate emotional connections to animals and caregiving that might build on and inform zoo users’ existing ideas, concerns, and motivations.
This chapter explores the submerged yet generative relationship of influence between the poetries of Louis MacNeice (1907-63) and Seamus Heaney (1939-2013) – two major Northern Irish poets of very different backgrounds and primary aesthetic dispositions. Notwithstanding their respective signature identifications with modernity, flux and hybridity on the one hand and tradition, continuity and community on the other, the chapter proposes that Heaney turns to MacNeice in order to seek out new directions for his own growth as artist. The chapter centrally argues that these two poets share a common concern with renewing the relationship between immutable reality and the alterity of dream-life. In consequence, their engagements with territorial conflict lead both poets to open vital space for non-conformity with the totalizing logic of enforced national destiny. Within this space, MacNeice and Heaney offer a linked vision of creativity renewed rather than foreclosed through recognizing human frailty in the face of mortality.
Reflection on food cultivation in modern cities opens up new lines of inquiry into the past, showing examples of civic authorities on the one hand, and community groups and individuals on the other, creating cultivated spaces for food production in periods of social and economic transformation. Examples from tenth-century Rome introduce the different kinds of evidence available for a study of the phenomenon, both material and textual. The material evidence of the cities of Italy (roads, houses, public buildings, and parks) provides the backdrop of urban change, the gaps in the urban fabric into which new gardens were placed. The available documentary evidence comprises charters of land sales, rents, and donations of urban properties, and there is discussion here of how those sources were produced and what they can tell us about the fabric of early medieval Italian cities as well as the people who lived in them. The chapter then sketches the historiographic landscape of the subject. Urban cultivation and gardening has long been recognised to have existed in early medieval Italy, but its relevance to broader pictures of social and economic history has not yet been evaluated.
Over the past few years, much has been written on the changing world of work, with discussions focusing, for instance, on the rise of automation (Spencer 2018), changes in the nature of the employment relationship (Sweet and Meiksins 2013), the (failed) promises of the gig economy (Cant 2019; Wood, Graham, Lehdonvirta & Hjorth 2019) or new ways of collaborating and co-producing (de Vaujany, Leclerq-Vandelannoitte & Holt 2020). Importantly though, these discussions are not novel, neither are the phenomena they seek to describe. The history of work is full of déjà vu. Communities, participatory systems, horizontality, democracy at work and nomadism are far from being new topics per se. In the nineteenth century, the Arts and Crafts Movement, socialist utopian communities, anarchy and Marxism had already involved public debates around these topics (see Granter 2016; Leone and Knauf 2015; Tilly 2019). Yet, there is clearly a renewed interest for these themes in research attempting to grapple with the multifaceted nature and the complex meaning of contemporary work (see for instance Aroles, Mitev & de Vaujany 2019; Fayard 2019; Simms 2019; Susskind 2020).
Exploring the different facets of the new world of work (including the hacker and maker movements, platform work, and digital nomadism), this edited volume sets out to investigate and theorise how these new work practices are experienced by various actors. It explores such changes at both the micro and macro levels and sets out to link them back to wider social, managerial and political issues. In doing so, it aims to reflect on the similarities and differences between new and 'old' work practices and problematize discourses surrounding the future of work. This volume is characterized by the diversity of methods mobilized, the plurality of concepts, lenses and theories deployed as well as the richness of the empirical accounts used by the authors. It will appeal to a broad readership of management and organizational scholars as well as sociologists interested in current changes to the world of work.
The basis of Aristotle’s strategy for bringing together time and distance covered in an account of motion is his understanding time, distance, and motion as continua. Against the background of Parmenides’ notion of continuity and the atomistic understanding of magnitudes, this chapter investigates Aristotle’s notion of continuity. It demonstrates the extent to which Aristotle adopts a mathematical notion of continuity according to which divisibility without end is crucial, and it expounds his appropriation of this mathematical notion for the physical realm. The main characteristics of Aristotle’s account of continuity turn out to be a new part-whole relation (in which the whole is prior to the parts since it is only by dividing the whole that we gain parts), a new account of limits, a new understanding of infinity, and a careful distinction between potential divisibility and actual division. We see how this new understanding of continuity helps counter the mereological problems of Zeno’s motion paradoxes by making it illegitimate to define time, space, and motion in terms of an additive part-whole-relation.
This chapter summarizes the results and concludes by pointing out two limitations of the volume. Overall continuity has prevailed in the protest arena during the Great Recession. Neither during the shock period nor during the period of the Euro-crisis has this deep economic crisis led to a general return of economic protest across Europe, nor has it led to a transformation of the action repertoire of the protestors in the streets. Southern Europe has been different, because it experienced a double crisis – economic and political, which expressed itself in a tremendous wave of protest above all in Greece, but also in Spain and to a lesser extent in Portugal. In Italy, we saw more of the business as usual that characterized the protest arena in the rest of Europe. The main effect of the protest wave that swept through southern Europe has been the transformation of the party systems in the respective countries. New challenger parties rose up, party systems fragmented and coalition formation became difficult. The focus of the volume on protest in the streets is limited in two respects: On the one hand, with the rise of new challenger parties from the left and the right, protest politics are shifting into the electoral arena, which we have not analysed in this volume. On the other hand, protest politics may be increasingly influenced by the new opportunity structure provided by the information communication technologies (ICTs), which was not the focus of our study either.
This chapter examines modern Kabbalah’s autonomous yet continuous relationship with premodern Kabbalah. Its autonomy is attributed to various external factors such as new technologies, geopolitical and ideological shifts, vernacular developments and dramatic historical events. These factors are evident in the self-consciousness of modern kabbalists and reflected in a shift toward larger fraternal groups, as well as increasingly disseminated personal, exoteric styles of writing. The continuity is presented through a synopsis of medieval Kabbalah, which addresses a few continuous themes: exegesis, which includes a discussion of the commitment to certain sacral texts as well as its theosophy (primarily the sefirotic system), theurgy, gender and magic (albeit with some reservation). This synopsis concludes with a comparative reflection addressing medieval Kabbalah’s relationship to Christianity and Islam. The author closes by stressing that modern kabbalists inherited not a doctrine but a series of complexities and debates, which, fueled by the dynamic processes of modernity, accounts for the richness and vastness that is modern Kabbalah.
The class of distortion riskmetrics is defined through signed Choquet integrals, and it includes many classic risk measures, deviation measures, and other functionals in the literature of finance and actuarial science. We obtain characterization, finiteness, convexity, and continuity results on general model spaces, extending various results in the existing literature on distortion risk measures and signed Choquet integrals. This paper offers a comprehensive toolkit of theoretical results on distortion riskmetrics which are ready for use in applications.
This paper discusses the place of the infinite in Kant’s philosophy, in particular as required for continuity in mathematics and physics. A fine-grained examination of the roles that the infinite and the infinitesimal play in Kant’s theory that illuminates the notion of construction in Kant’s philosophy of mathematics also uncovers challenges to certain prominent interpretations of Kant’s reliance on logic and intuition in mathematics.
The book’s Epilogue briefly sketches developments since the Maastricht Treaty. Moreover, it draws the lessons from the history of European integration since the 1950s. Among other things it argues that for a long time there was not just one Project Europe, but many – most of them conceived as alternatives to nationalistic forms of politics. It was by no means inevitable that the European Community would come to be the dominant forum of cooperation and integration in Cold War Western Europe. Not until the 1960s were there growing signs that the EC was on the way to becoming a different class of actor than, for example, the OECD. And even in the early 1980s its status was anything but certain. Rather than proceeding as the implementation of a masterplan, today’s EU appeared in fits and starts. Above the level of detail it set out to make the future more predictable. It was this hope that shines through all the treaties and directives, summits and compromises, plans and proposals. While many saw precisely that as a value in its own right, the idea of Project Europe as an attempt to contain the future is less certain again today.
The current categorical split of mood disorders in bipolar disorders and depressive disorders has recently been questioned. Two highly unstable personality features, i.e. the cyclothymic temperament (CT) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), have been found to be more common in bipolar II (BP-II) disorder than in major depressive disorder (MDD). According to Kraepelin, temperamental instability was the ‘foundation’ of his unitary view of mood disorders.
The aim was to assess the distributions of the number of CT and borderline personality items between BP-II and MDD. Finding no bi-modal distribution (a ‘zone of rarity’) of these items would support a continuity between the two disorders.
Study setting: an outpatient psychiatry private practice. Interviewer: A senior clinical and mood disorder research psychiatrist. Patient population: A consecutive sample of 138 BP-II and 71 MDD remitted outpatients. Assessment instruments: The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version (SCID-CV), the SCID-II Personality Questionnaire for self-assessing borderline personality traits (BPT) by patients, the TEMPS-A for self-assessing CT by patients. Interview methods: Patients were interviewed with the SCID-CV to diagnose BP-II and MDD, and then patients self-assessed the questions of the Personality Questionnaire relative to borderline personality, and the questions of the TEMPS-A relative to CT. As clinically significant distress or impairment of functioning is not assessed by the SCID-II Personality Questionnaire, a diagnosis of BPD could not be made, but BPT could be assessed (i.e. all BPD items but not the impairment criterion). The distribution of the number of CT and BPT items was studied by Kernel density estimate.
CT and BPT items were significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD. The Kernel density estimate distributions of the number of CT and BPT items in the entire sample had a normal-like shape (i.e. no bi-modality).
The expected finding, on the basis of previous studies and of the present sample features, was a clustering of CT and BPT items on the BP-II side of the curves. Instead, no bi-modality was present in the distributions of the number of CT and BPT items in the entire sample, showing a normal-like shape. By using the bi-modality approach, a continuity between BP-II and MDD seems supported, questioning the current categorical splitting of BP-II and MDD based on classic diagnostic validators.
Mental disorders show varying degrees of continuity from childhood to adulthood. This study addresses the relationship of child and adolescent mental disorders to early adult psychiatric morbidity.
From a population at risk of 830,819 children and adolescents aged 6-16 years, we selected all those (n = 6043) who were enrolled for the first time in the Danish Psychiatric Register with an ICD-10 F00-99 diagnosis in 1995-1997, and identified any mental disorder for which they received treatment up to 2009.
Neurodevelopmental and conduct disorders were the principal diagnostic groups at 6-16 years and exhibited a characteristic male preponderance; while affective, eating, neurotic, stress-related and adjustment disorders were more common in girls. Over a mean follow-up period of 10.1 years, 1666 (27.6%) cases, mean age 23.4 years, were referred for treatment to mental health services, and they had a markedly higher risk than the general population (RR 5.1; 95% CI 4.9-5.4). Affective, eating, neurodevelopmental, obsessive-compulsive and psychotic disorders had the strongest continuity. Heterotypic transitions were observed for affective, eating, neurodevelopmental, personality and substance use disorders.
These findings suggest that individuals with psychiatric antecedents in childhood and adolescence had a high risk of being referred for treatment in early adulthood, and many mental disorders for which they required treatment revealed both homotypic and heterotypic continuity.
This chapter provides an outline of developments in the Church in Wales since 1920. It seeks to place the specialised chapters which follow in their broader ecclesial context. The study uses the tried and tested technique of periodisation as a convenient way of approaching the subjects treated. The landmark developments in the first period (1920-1945) include the creation of the administration of the Church, forming new dioceses, and establishing sound ecclesiastical finances. The second period (1946-1970) is one of greater self-confidence in the Church, with modest liturgical development and ecumenical cooperation. The third period (1971-1995) is characterised by liturgical innovation and greater ecumenical progress, the ordination of female deacons, but also an increasing reduction in clergy numbers. The final period (1996-2020) is one of rapid change, including the ordination of female priests and bishops, a reorganisation of parochial structures, and a severe decline in Church membership.
RJ demonstrates how the IRI instrumentalized rural development to consolidate power at home and project influence abroad. This book serves as a corrective and supplement to scholarly works that focus on the IRI’s consolidation and resilience mostly, if not entirely, in terms of repression, particularly in urban areas. Strategically and ideationally, RJ served as a soft-power mechanism that helped the IRI further bring provinces and villages into the political, economic, and sociocultural fold, and expand the state’s footprint in other parts of the Muslim and developing world. RJ’s organizational trajectory mirrored the IRI’s broader evolution during the last four decades. RJ sheds light on four important aspects of the IRI: first, the political and social changes and continuities that have transpired in Iran before the revolution until today; second, the ambiguity and reciprocity of the IRI’s state-society relations, and the agency or ability of its revolutionary activists to not simply follow and support leaders and officials, but also to influence and challenge them; third, the processes and outcomes behind the IRI’s centralization, consolidation, and state-building; and fourth and finally, the merits and shortcomings of the IRI’s bureaucratic institutionalization, and the opportunities and constraints of its associational life.
Scholars working on Kant’s Anticipations of Perception generally attribute to him an argument that invalidly infers that objects have degrees of intensive magnitude from the premise that sensations do. I argue that this rests on an incorrect disambiguation of Kant’s use of Empfindung (sensation) as referring to the mental states that are our sensings, rather than the objects that are thereby sensed. Kant’s real argument runs as follows. The difference between a representation of an empty region of space and/or time and a representation of that same region as occupied by an object entails that, in addition to their extensive magnitude, objects must be represented as having a matter variable in intensive magnitude. Since it is the presence of sensation (sensing) in a cognition that marks the difference between representing only the extensive magnitude of the object and the object as a whole, it is sensation that represents its intensive magnitude.
Effective and accurate high-degree spline interpolation is still a challenging task in today’s applications. Higher degree spline interpolation is not so commonly used, because it requires the knowledge of higher order derivatives at the nodes of a function on a given mesh.
In this article, our goal is to demonstrate the continuity of the piecewise polynomials and their derivatives at the connecting points, obtained with a method initially developed by Beaudoin (1998, 2003) and Beauchemin (2003). This new method, involving the discrete Fourier transform (DFT/FFT), leads to higher degree spline interpolation for equally spaced data on an interval
. To do this, we analyze the singularities that may occur when solving the system of equations that enables the construction of splines of any degree. We also note an important difference between the odd-degree splines and even-degree splines. These results prove that Beaudoin and Beauchemin’s method leads to spline interpolation of any degree and that this new method could eventually be used to improve the accuracy of spline interpolation in traditional problems.
From the start the fourteenth century was filled with crisis and change, from plague to rebellion, amid political conflict and increasing literacy. Historical writing changed accordingly, although new stable forms appeared in the Prose Brut and Higden’s Polychronicon. Elsewhere, more innovative chronicles in French and Latin jostled with new kinds of English ones, for and by secular as well as clerical readers and writers. This chapter focuses on three from the century’s first half: Robert Mannyng’s Chronicle, Geoffrey le Baker’s Chronica, and Thomas Gray’s Scalachronica. Some historical writing, however, clung to antiquated forms and outlooks down to the century’s end, when both the century’s social conflicts and historiographical diversities came to a head in the 1381 Rebellion. That revolt can best be appreciated against the earlier decades rather than as an abrupt start of major change, and it was with long familiarity with the rebels’ fundamental (and already partly successful) challenges that Thomas Walsingham denounced them using the most traditional monastic genres he could muster.
The conclusion reprises the book’s main arguments: about the need to understand internment at once as an important Allied measure in its own right, but also as one that intersected in complex ways with other measures such as prosecution, denazification, and demilitarization; about the severity and coerciveness of the Allied purge, but also its differentiation; and about the underlying commonality of western and Soviet internment as an extrajudicial attempt to remove core Nazi personnel. The conclusion also considers internees’ reactions and internment’s impact, highlighting its role in clearing the way for new political institutions and new political elites, and thus in the democratization of western and the Stalinization of eastern Germany. The conclusion then addresses the question of how the camps should be characterized, in particular critiquing arguments made by some scholars for labelling the Soviet camps ‘concentration camps’. In order to capture their underlying similarity with, as well as important, lethal differences, from the western camps, the conclusion suggests the Soviet camps in general be understood as Stalinist internment camps, while those that held internees and SMT convicts be termed Stalinist internment and prison camps.
The metaphysical “Law of Continuity of Alterations” (“LCA”) says that whenever an object alters from one state to another, it passes through a continuum of intermediate states. Kant treated LCA as a transcendental law of understanding. The primary purpose of the paper is to reconstruct and evaluate Kant’s three arguments for LCA. All three are found to be inadequate. However, a secondary goal of the paper is to show that LCA would have more naturally been construed as a regulative principle of reason (rather than a law of understanding). I conclude with some remarks about how this could work.