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This chapter reviews the transformative effects of technology on dictionary-making, focusing on four main areas: the use of databases for storing and organising dictionary text; the creation and exploitation of corpora for use as the dictionary’s evidence base; the enhancement of the value and usability of corpus data through the application of software tools developed in the NLP (natural language processing) community; and the migration of dictionaries from print to online media. During the last half-century, activity in all these areas has brought fundamental changes to the way dictionaries are created and made available to their users. We trace the development of corpus-based lexicography in English, from the early work of John Sinclair and his colleagues in the 1980s to the present day. Lexicographers working in English and other widely used languages now have access to resources which would scarcely have been imaginable thirty years ago: very large corpora (measured in tens of billions of words) and sophisticated corpus-querying tools are routinely available. The move from print to digital publication is a more recent development, but no less significant. The far-reaching implications of these changes – for dictionary-makers and dictionary-users alike – are explored at every stage.
Couple-level reports of contraceptive use are important as wives and husbands may report their use differently. Using matched couple data (N = 63,060) from India’s NFHS-4 (2015–16), this study examined concordance in spousal reports of current contraceptive use and its differentials. Reporting of contraceptive use was higher among wives (59.0%) than husbands (25.2%). Concordance was low; 16.5% of couples reported the current use of the same method, while 20.4% reported the current use of any method. Many husbands did not report female sterilization as a means of contraception being used by their wives. Reconstruction of contraceptive use among men, based on the ‘ever-use of sterilization’ question asked to men, increased concordance by 10%. Multivariate analyses showed that concordance was low in urban and southern India, among younger women and among women with a lower wealth index. Men’s control over household decision-making and negative attitudes towards contraception were associated with lower concordance. The findings highlight the importance of using couple-level data to estimate contraceptive prevalence, and the role of education programmes to inculcate positive attitudes towards contraception, fostering gender equality and involving men in family planning efforts. The results also raise the issue of data quality as the survey questions were asked differently to men and women, which might have contributed to the wide observed discordance.
Self-reported measures for body mass index (BMI) are considered a limitation in research design, especially when they are a primary outcome. Studies have found some populations to be quite accurate when self-reporting BMI; however, there is mixed research on the accuracy of self-reported measurements in adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine the accuracy of self-reported BMI by comparing it with measured BMI in a sample of U.S. adolescents and to understand gender differences. This cross-sectional study collected self-reported height and weight measurements of students from five high schools in four states (Tennessee, South Dakota, Kansas and Florida). Trained researchers took height and weight of students for an objective measurement. BMI was calculated from both sources and categorized (underweight, normal, overweight and obese) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI-for-age percentiles. Participants (n 425; 51⋅0 % female) had a mean age of 16⋅3 years old, and the majority were White (47⋅5 %). Limits of agreement (LOA) analysis revealed that BMI and weight were underreported, and height was overreported in the overall sample, in females, and in males. LOA analysis was fair for BMI in all three groups. Overall agreement in BMI categorisation was considered substantial (Κ 0⋅71, P < 0⋅001). As BMI increased, more height and weight inaccuracies led to decreased accuracy in BMI categorisation, and the specificity of obese participants was low (50⋅0 %). This study's findings suggest that using self-reported values to categorize BMI is more accurate than using continuous BMI values when self-reported measures are used in health-related interventions.
Chapter 4 discusses corpus linguistics and how electronic corpora have informed vocabulary studies. The main insights have been in the areas of frequency and phraseology. The chapter includes an extended discussion of formulaic language, which has been shown to be a major component of vocabulary knowledge.
To understand how dietary intake data collected via a brief ecological momentary assessment (EMA) measure compares to that of data collected via interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recalls, and explore differences in level of concordance between these two assessment types by individual- and meal-level characteristics.
Parents completed three 24-h dietary recalls and 8 d of brief EMA surveys on behalf of their child; in total, there were 185 d where dietary intake data from both EMA and 24-h recall were available. The EMA measure asked parents to indicate whether (yes/no) their child had consumed any of the nine total food items (e.g. fruit, vegetable, etc.) at eating occasions where both the child and parent were present.
Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were completed in person in the study participant’s home; participants completed EMA surveys using a study provided in iPad or their personal cell phone.
A diverse, population-based sample of parent–child dyads (n 150).
Among meals reported in both the EMA and dietary recalls, concordance of reporting of specific types of food ranged from moderate agreement for meat (kappa = 0·55); fair agreement for sweets (kappa = 0·38), beans/nuts (kappa = 0·37), dairy (kappa = 0·31), fruit (kappa = 0·31) and vegetables (kappa = 0·27); and little to no agreement for refined grains, whole grains and sweetened beverages (73 % overall agreement; kappa = 0·14). Concordance of reporting was highest for breakfast and snacks, as compared with other eating occasions. Higher concordance was observed between the two measures if the meal occurred at home.
Data suggest that among meals reported in both the EMA and dietary recalls, concordance in reporting was reasonably good for some types of food but only fair or poor for others.
Continuous point-of-care patient monitoring is now the standard in emergency room and critical care settings, and the technology to produce small, affordable, safe bedside vital sign monitors is ubiquitous. The statistical methods to validate these emerging monitoring technologies, however, are in their infancy. Validation statistics have centered on the Bland–Altman method and cardiac output measurement, but this method fails to evaluate the ability of a device to reliably detect serial changes (trend analysis). Newer statistical methods such as concordance and polar plots have been developed to assess trending. Small-sized studies assessing within-subject trending require other statistical approaches. Since clinical validation studies must be of a sufficient standard to be used in evidence-based reviews, researchers assessing the value of emerging clinical monitoring technologies must have an understanding of these new statistical methodologies. They must also take into consideration the precision of the reference method and issues pertaining to setting the criteria for accepting a new monitoring method, particularly when using percentage error and the traditional <30% benchmark.
It has been well established that suicidal behavior is familial. Twin studies provide a unique opportunity to distinguish genetic effects from other familial influences. Consistent with findings from previous twin studies, including case series and selected samples, data from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry clearly demonstrate the importance of genetic influences on suicide. Twin studies of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts also implicate genetic influences, even when accounting for the effects of psychopathology. Future work is needed to evaluate the possibility of age and gender differences in heritability of suicide and nonfatal suicidal behavior.
The concordance and degree of overlap between 13 diagnostic systems for schizophrenia, including the five European systems of Berner, Bleuler, Langfeldt, Pull and Schneider, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study (N = 51) taking the phase of illness (acute or residual) into account. The diagnostic assessments were processed by computer using a 183-item standardised checklist and a data-processing program in GW-Basic language. The inter-rater reliability, as assessed by Kappa coefficient, was good to excellent for each diagnostic system established by this method (K from 0.5 to 1). When comparing the concordance between pairs of 13 diagnostic systems for schizophrenia in acute and residual phase groups, results showed that only two significant relationships were not influenced by the phase of illness (Carpenter x RDC; Catego x Schneider), while 24 were. These included only two relationships in the acute group (Carpenter Catego; Carpenter Schneider) and 22 links between pairs of systems in the residual group. In the acute group, no diagnosis of schizophrenia, including duration criteria such as those of DSM III-R, Feighner, Langfeldt, Pull and RDC, was linked to other systems. In the residual group, the operational systems such as Catego, DSM III-R, Feighner, Newhaven, Pull and RDC had more than five relationships with the other systems whereas the non-operational systems of Bleuler, ICD9, Langfeldt and Schneider had less than four relationships with the others. Except Pull's criteria, the European diagnostic systems, in particular Berner's and Bleuler's, seemed to differ from the others because of the few relationships displayed. The results underline the importance of taking the phase of illness into account when comparing between studies utilizing different diagnostic systems for schizophrenia. They also show the relationships between European and international diagnostic systems, insufficiently established so far.
The validation of mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) into Moroccan Colloquial Arabic language demonstrated good psychometric properties. The concordance between translated MINI’s and expert diagnoses was good with kappa values greater than 0.80. The reliability inter-rater and test–retest were excellent with kappa values above 0.80 and 0.90, respectively.
Low-income women are the group with the highest levels of obesity worldwide. In low-income settings, the use of predictive equations, which yield a measure of the individuals’ BMR, is a feasible approach to estimate the individuals’ total energy expenditure (TEE), using the factorial method (calculated-TEE = BMR × physical activity level), an important step of the obesity nutritional care. The present study aimed to identify the predictive equation that, in conjunction with metabolic equivalents of tasks (MET) data from accelerometers, yields the calculated-TEE with better agreement compared with the TEE measured by doubly labelled water (TEE-DLW). Forty-five women aged 19–45 years, with excess weight and mothers of undernourished children, were included. They received DLW to determine TEE (14 d); at the same time, they used triaxial accelerometers (7 d) to estimate their MET. The Bland–Altman method, paired-sample t tests, concordance correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error were used to assess the agreement. Maximum allowed differences were defined as 24 %, based on the within-variance coefficient of the energy intake of the sample. Eleven equations were studied. The calculated-TEE obtained by five equations showed non-significant bias: Dietary Reference Intake (Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids), FAO/WHO/UNU ((2001) Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series), Harris & Benedict ((1919) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA4, 370–373), Henry & Rees ((1991) Eur J Clin Nutr45, 177–185) and Schofield ((1985) Hum Nutr Clin Nutr39, 5–41). The mean percentage differences were –1·5, –0·8, 2·2, –2·2 and 2·0 %, respectively. Considering all parameters, FAO/WHO/UNU ((2001) Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series) equation performed slightly better than the others; nevertheless, no equation in conjunction with the estimated-MET showed a calculated-TEE with its CI for the Bland–Altman limits of agreement inside the pre-defined acceptable range.
We give simple homological conditions for a rational homology 3-sphere
to have infinite order in the rational homology cobordism group
, and for a collection of rational homology spheres to be linearly independent. These translate immediately to statements about knot concordance when
is the branched double cover of a knot, recovering some results of Livingston and Naik. The statements depend only on the homology groups of the 3-manifolds, but are proven through an analysis of correction terms and their behavior under connected sums.
In this paper we extend the definition of slice-torus invariant to links. We prove a few properties of the newly-defined slice-torus link invariants: the behaviour under crossing change, a slice genus bound, an obstruction to strong sliceness, and a combinatorial bound. Furthermore, we provide an application to the computation of the splitting number. Finally, we use the slice-torus link invariants and the Whitehead doubling to define new strong concordance invariants for links, which are proven to be independent of the corresponding slice-torus link invariant.
Measures of concordance have been widely used in insurance and risk management to summarize nonlinear dependence among risks modeled by random variables, which Pearson’s correlation coefficient cannot capture. However, popular measures of concordance, such as Spearman’s rho and Blomqvist’s beta, appear as classical correlations of transformed random variables. We characterize a whole class of such concordance measures arising from correlations of transformed random variables, which includes Spearman’s rho, Blomqvist’s beta and van der Waerden’s coefficient as special cases. Compatibility and attainability of square matrices with entries given by such measures are studied—that is, whether a given square matrix of such measures of concordance can be realized for some random vector and how such a random vector can be constructed. Compatibility and attainability of block matrices and hierarchical matrices are also studied due to their practical importance in insurance and risk management. In particular, a subclass of attainable block Spearman’s rho matrices is proposed to compensate for the drawback that Spearman’s rho matrices are in general not attainable for dimensions larger than three. Another result concerns a novel analytical form of the Cholesky factor of block matrices which allows one, for example, to construct random vectors with given block matrices of van der Waerden’s coefficient.
In this note, we collect various properties of Seifert homology spheres from the viewpoint of Dehn surgery along a Seifert fiber. We expect that many of these are known to various experts, but include them in one place, which we hope will be useful in the study of concordance and homology cobordism.
We define a homology theory of virtual links built out of the direct sum of the standard Khovanov complex with itself, motivating the name doubled Khovanov homology. We demonstrate that it can be used to show that some virtual links are non-classical, and that it yields a condition on a virtual knot being the connect sum of two unknots. Further, we show that doubled Khovanov homology possesses a perturbation analogous to that defined by Lee in the classical case, and we define a doubled Rasmussen invariant. This invariant is used to obtain various cobordism obstructions; in particular, it is an obstruction to sliceness. Finally, we show that the doubled Rasmussen invariant contains the odd writhe of a virtual knot and use this to show that knots with non-zero odd writhe are not slice.
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating effect of self-concordance on the relationship between internet altruistic behaviour (IAB) and subjective wellbeing (SWB). A total of 356 Chinese university students (159 males and 197 females) participated, using the questionnaires in the Internet Altruistic Behavior Scale (IABS), the Self-Concordance Scale (SCS) and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS). Correlation results indicated that IAB was positively correlated with self-concordance and SWB. The hierarchical regression analyses indicated that both IAB and self-concordance positively affect SWB. Moreover, IAB affected SWB indirectly via self-concordance, which confirmed self-concordance partially mediated the relationship between IAB and SWB. These findings extend the previous research on the association between altruism and SWB.
Self-administered web-based 24-h dietary recalls (24 hR) may save a lot of time and money as compared with interviewer-administered telephone-based 24 hR interviews and may therefore be useful in large-scale studies. Within the Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study, the web-based 24 hR tool Compl-eat™ was developed to assess Dutch participants’ dietary intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of this tool against the interviewer-administered telephone-based 24 hR method. A subgroup of participants of the NQplus study (20–70 years, n 514) completed three self-administered web-based 24 hR and three telephone 24 hR interviews administered by a dietitian over a 1-year period. Compl-eat™ as well as the dietitians guided the participants to report all foods consumed the previous day. Compl-eat™ on average underestimated the intake of energy by 8 %, of macronutrients by 10 % and of micronutrients by 13 % as compared with telephone recalls. The agreement between both methods, estimated using Lin's concordance coefficients (LCC), ranged from 0·15 for vitamin B1 to 0·70 for alcohol intake (mean LCC 0·38). The lower estimations by Compl-eat™ can be explained by a lower number of total reported foods and lower estimated intakes of the food groups, fats, oils and savoury sauces, sugar and confectionery, dairy and cheese. The performance of the tool may be improved by, for example, adding an option to automatically select frequently used foods and including more recall cues. We conclude that Compl-eat™ may be a useful tool in large-scale Dutch studies after suggested improvements have been implemented and evaluated.
Family members are often called upon to make decisions for an incapacitated relative. Yet they have difficulty predicting a loved one's desire to receive treatments in hypothetical situations. We tested the hypothesis that this difficulty could in part be explained by discrepant quality-of-life assessments.
The data come from 235 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and over who rated their quality of life and desire for specified interventions in four health states (current state, mild to moderate stroke, incurable brain cancer, and severe dementia). All ratings were made on Likert-type scales. Using identical rating scales, a surrogate chosen by the older adult was asked to predict the latter's responses. Linear mixed models were fitted to determine whether differences in quality-of-life ratings between the older adult and surrogate were associated with surrogates’ inaccuracy in predicting desire for treatment.
The difference in quality-of-life ratings was a significant predictor of prediction inaccuracy for the three hypothetical health states (p < 0.01) and nearly significant for the current health state (p = 0.077). All regression coefficients were negative, implying that the more the surrogate overestimated quality of life compared to the older adult, the more he or she overestimated the older adult's desire to be treated.
Discrepant quality-of-life ratings are associated with surrogates’ difficulty in predicting desire for life-sustaining interventions in hypothetical situations. This finding underscores the importance of discussing anticipated quality of life in states of cognitive decline, to better prepare family members for making difficult decisions for their loved ones.
Background: Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary prerequisite for development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). However, HPV infection is not sufficient to drive this process, and genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. Methods/Design: The Cervical Cancer, Genetics and Environment Twin Study was established to investigate the environmental and genetic influences on variation in susceptibility to cervical pre-cancer in 25- to 69-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins recruited through the Australian Twin Registry. Reviews of Papanicolaou (Pap) screening histories were undertaken to identify individual women with a history of an abnormal Pap test. This was followed by detection of HPV in archival Pap smears of selected twin pairs to determine HPV persistence. Selected twin pairs also completed a detailed questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and HPV knowledge. In future analyses, under the assumptions of the classical twin design, case-wise concordance for persistent HPV infection and HSIL will be calculated for MZ and DZ twin pairs, and twin pairs (both MZ and DZ) who are discordant for the above outcomes will be used to assess the contributions of measured environmental risk factors. Discussion: The study examines factors related to HPV persistence and development of HSIL among female MZ and DZ twins. The results will contribute to our understanding of the natural history of cervical HPV infection and the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in disease progression.
This article presents the first study on using a parallel corpus to teach Cantonese, the variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong. We evaluated this approach with Mandarin-speaking undergraduate students at the beginner level. Exploiting their knowledge of Mandarin, a closely related language, the students studied Cantonese with authentic material in a Cantonese-Mandarin parallel corpus, transcribed from television programs. They were given a list of Mandarin words that yield a range of possible Cantonese translations, depending on the linguistic context. Leveraging sentence and word alignments in the parallel corpus, the students independently searched for example sentences to discover these translation equivalents. Experimental results showed that, in both the short- and long-term, this data-driven learning approach helped students improve their knowledge of Cantonese vocabulary. These results suggest the potential of applying parallel corpora at even the beginners’ level for other L1-L2 pairs of closely related languages.