To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The essay explores the ways in which Edith Wharton’s early work, written as facts were emerging about corrupt insurance industry practices, inspired questions that Wharton would raise throughout her oeuvre about the monetization of life and death, the evaluation of pain and suffering, and the larger consequences of a managed and insured society. By the early twentieth century, insurance was a central institution in the organization and management of modern life, although it is rarely recognized as a cultural force or context in Wharton’s work. This essay corrects this neglect by asking how an early twentieth-century insurance scandal inspired Wharton’s exploration of a growing wound culture intent on regulating and managing pain and suffering, life and death, and by examining Wharton’s representations of a managerial society rather than the society of manners for which she is still best known.
This chapter analyses the Pacific Alliance – an economic bloc formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru in 2011 – and its integrated stock exchange, the Mercado Integrado Latinoamericano. It contends that the Alliance has the potential to foster the transition toward a sustainable economy in Latin America, through a renewed system of corporate law and corporate governance. On the one hand, it asserts that Colombian Law 1901 of 2018, creating the Companies of Collective Benefit and Interest, initiated a healthy regulatory competition in corporate law among member states. On the other, it discusses alternatives to promote sustainable corporate practices through executive compensation, leveraging the legal convergence in corporate governance prompted by the integrated stock exchange. The Alliance’s economic strength and regional leadership further bolster its potential to bring about meaningful changes in the region.
The impact of compensable injury on moods was investigated in 106 individuals using the Visual Analog Mood Scales. Results indicated markedly negatively skewed distributions of ratings on being Sad, Energetic, Tired, Happy, or Tense. A contrasting pattern of positive and negative mood responses was evident. There were notable differences in mood conditions between different types of injuries: (a) anger and tiredness featured in brain injury; (b) sadness and tiredness characterized psychological injuries; and (c) most moods were moderate across musculoskeletal injuries with the possible exception of being energetic. The extent of psychological problems was related to mood levels.
Coalition forces have spent upwards of $50 million on condolence payments to Afghan and Iraqi civilians. These condolence payments were intended as an expression of sympathy rather than an admission of fault, and the programme itself has been criticised for the arbitrary, inconsistent, and low valuation of civilian lives. Rather than focus on the practical problems associated with condolence payments or normative arguments about whether belligerents ought to compensate those harmed, this article will trace the strategic imperatives that underpinned this programme and shaped its development. As coalition forces began to recognise the strategic costs of civilian casualties, they used a variety of tactics to mitigate the effects of civilian casualties on the success of military operations. This article will argue that condolence payments should not be seen as a humanitarian gesture designed to recognise and respond to the suffering of ordinary civilians, but will argue that condolence payments should be viewed as a weapons system aimed at securing specific military goals. As such, this article will argue that condolence payments continued to objectify and devalue the lives of Afghans and Iraqis by treating them as a means to an end rather than an end in themselves.
Psychologists’ adherence with evidence-based guidelines based on the biopsychosocial premise in the management of musculoskeletal injuries is influenced by the actions by General Practitioners (GPs), insurers, and injured patients’ actions. For data collection, we interviewed GPs (n = 6), insurers (n = 6), and injured people (n = 15) from the two personal injury compensation schemes in New South Wales. Thematic analysis yielded the following: GPs were reticent to access psychological services that represented a poor fit between their practice and treatment guidelines, insurers lacked trust in the validity of “secondary psychological injury” claims’. Injured peoples’ willingness to engage with treatment was impaired by a poor fit between the treatment guidelines and their experience of insurers’ and psychologists’ practices.
Chapter 6 discusses the determination of sex and mating type, considering both chromosomal or genetic systems of sex determination and those dependent on environmental factors such as temperature or interactions with conspecific individuals, to end with cases of maternal determination of sex and so-called mixed sex-determination systems. We devote only brief notes to sexual differentiation, to conclude with the mating types of fungi and protists.
This chapter covered financial tools beyond conventional insurance, to cover self-insurance, risk-sharing agreements, forms of deposits, and various types of compensation funds. The common element is that the capital either remains solely with the actor or remains closer to the actor, so they are less costly on capital budgets. Self-insurance meant to book a financial reserve to cover certain future risks. In the late 1970s, the term began to include the concept of ‘captives,’ wherein a company owns its own insurance agency and write its own policies. Risk-sharing agreements are contractual agreements between similarly placed firms to agree to pay-up in capital, based on a pre-agreed ratio, to cover any of the co-parties’ capital needs to cover emergencies and damages. Various forms of deposits and guarantees involve a third party holding the capital of the risky first party until a certain event or time period has been successfully reached; however, this type of structure can create substantial moral hazards. Compensation funds can be created in two basic manners, the first is to have the actor pay while undertaking the risky activity in some form, while the second is to have public funds cover the cost of the funds.
In schizophrenia, relative stability in the magnitude of cognitive deficits across age and illness duration is inconsistent with the evidence of accelerated deterioration in brain regions known to support these functions. These discrepant brain–cognition outcomes may be explained by variability in cognitive reserve (CR), which in neurological disorders has been shown to buffer against brain pathology and minimize its impact on cognitive or clinical indicators of illness.
Age-related change in fluid reasoning, working memory and frontal brain volume, area and thickness were mapped using regression analysis in 214 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 168 healthy controls. In patients, these changes were modelled as a function of CR.
Patients showed exaggerated age-related decline in brain structure, but not fluid reasoning compared to controls. In the patient group, no moderation of age-related brain structural change by CR was evident. However, age-related cognitive change was moderated by CR, such that only patients with low CR showed evidence of exaggerated fluid reasoning decline that paralleled the exaggerated age-related deterioration of underpinning brain structures seen in all patients.
In schizophrenia-spectrum illness, CR may negate ageing effects on fluid reasoning by buffering against pathologically exaggerated structural brain deterioration through some form of compensation. CR may represent an important modifier that could explain inconsistencies in brain structure – cognition outcomes in the extant literature.
In Georgia v. Russia (I) (Just Satisfaction), the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR or Court) ordered the Russian Federation to pay Georgia EUR 10 million as reparation for Russia's “coordinated policy of arresting, detaining and expelling Georgian nationals” in the autumn of 2006 (paras. 51, 80). In so doing, the Court reaffirmed its position from Cyprus v. Turkey (IV) (Just Satisfaction) that financial compensation for non-pecuniary damage can be awarded in interstate cases. Although Georgia v. Russia (I) (Just Satisfaction) marks the development of a new line of ECtHR jurisprudence, it is unlikely that the decision will effectively prevent further mass violations of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR or Convention) by the states parties or offer fair compensation to the victims of such violations.
On October 30, 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court, in an 11–2 decision, upheld the judgment of the lower court, which ordered New Nippon Steel Corporation, a Japanese company, to provide KRW 100 million (approximately USD 84,000) in compensation to each of the four plaintiffs, who were forced to work at Japanese steel mills during World War II. In an earlier 2012 decision, the Supreme Court remanded the case after holding that the claims were not precluded by the Agreement on the Settlement of Problems Concerning Property and Claims and the Economic Cooperation Between the Republic of Korea and Japan (Claims Agreement). The Supreme Court held that the Claims Agreement was not a result of negotiation about compensation for Japanese colonization, but rather was a political agreement the purpose of which was to resolve the financial and civil debt/credit relationship between Korea and Japan. On the final appeal, the Supreme Court concluded that plaintiffs’ claims were directly related to the illegality of Japan's colonial rule over the Korean Peninsula and that the rights of the victims of forced labor to make a compensation claim did not fall within the scope of the Claims Agreement.
In early development stages of complex systems, interacting subsystems (including components) are often designed simultaneously by distributed teams with limited information exchange. Distributed development becomes possible by assigning teams independent design goals expressed as quantitative requirements equipped with tolerances to provide flexibility for design: so-called solution-spaces are high-dimensional sets of permissible subsystem properties on which requirements on the system performance are satisfied. Edges of box-shaped solution spaces are permissible intervals serving as decoupled (mutually independent) requirements for subsystem design variables. Unfortunately, decoupling often leads to prohibitively small intervals. In so-called solution-compensation spaces, permissible intervals for early-decision variables are increased by a compensation mechanism using late-decision variables. This paper presents a multi-step development process where groups of design variables successively change role from early-decision to late-decision type in order to maximize flexibility. Applying this to a vehicle chassis design problem demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.
Technological advances as well as novel manufacturing and design paradigms, such as industry 4.0 and digitalization, offer new opportunities for innovative products. However, they also increase the product complexity and cause new challenges in the production process. Therefore, agile production approaches are crucial. Tolerance compensation provides more flexibility in the production process, as demands on dimensional accuracy of the components are reduced. As a result, tolerance compensation also offers the possibility of reducing production costs without compromising product quality. Nevertheless, tolerance compensation is often considered a reactive intervention to reduce the number of out-of-spec parts a posteriori instead of including it in the early stages of Geometrical Variations Management. The contribution tackles this issue by characterizing and categorizing different methods of tolerance compensation as well as providing design guidelines for the application of tolerance compensation methods. This enables design engineers to select a suitable tolerance compensation method for different applications.
Unlike previous research that has largely focused on the influence of national
institutions on human resource management practices in China, our study taps
into the role of sub-national institutions. We demonstrate, via a qualitative
configurational analysis, that foreign subsidiaries of multinational
corporations still adapt HQ compensation practice to the local context despite
low regulatory pressure and low mobility of skills at the sub-national level.
This adaptation is facilitated by a decentralized structure in the multinational
corporation. Our study also shows that high regulatory pressure and high
portability of skills at the sub-national level alone are sufficient to induce
local adaptation of compensation practice. Our explanation points to the
significant role played by sub-national institutions in large and rapidly
changing emerging economies and contributes to research on local adaptation of
HRM practice in China. It offers an insight into forms of institutional agency
by political and economic actors at local levels of governance as they attempt
to influence the skills and human resources available for MNCs through
Current Motion Compensation (MOCO) methods using Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated systems have provided an important advance in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery, but most of these methods only work well over a short imaging period. With the development of high-resolution SAR that provides image gathering over long periods, the need for higher levels of INS/GPS performance than normally available is desired. The higher requirement of INS/GPS for SAR MOCO is two-fold: (1) the accurate knowledge of location information, and (2) the smoothness of relative change in navigation error. In this paper, we design an INS/GPS architecture with dual-filter correction to obtain accurate absolute velocity and position measurement information with smooth low relative error noise over a long image gathering period. Real SAR data experimental results show that the proposed method effectively improves the MOCO performance of INS/GPS with long SAR imaging periods, in which the SAR azimuth resolution reaches 1·45 m, which is very close to the design value of 1 m.
The most widespread – and arguably influential – concern regarding solar geoengineering has been that it would harmfully displace emissions abatement. Notably, there was a similar objection to adaptation, although one no longer hears it. Moral hazard and risk compensation offer imperfect analogies, and the empirical evidence for their magnitudes is mixed. Public opinion studies that ask people how they would respond to solar geoengineering consistently do not imply abatement displacement and often point toward the reverse, in which solar geoengineering increases support for abatement. The chapter identifies four genuine hazards regarding the relationships among the responses to climate change. Notably, all four are challenges to governance in general and are not limited to climate change policy. These imply some, albeit limited, policy options to reduce abatement displacement. Linkages between international abatement and solar geoengineering policies have some potential. I suggest that the abatement displacement concern is widespread for reasons largely unrelated to reducing climate change and its negative impacts, but instead is grounded in political coalitions and worldviews
Solar geoengineering holds the potential for both benefit and harm. Actors such as states could ask ex ante for assurances of compensation, possibly as a precondition for not opposing the activity, or demand ex post compensation for actual or claimed harm. Legal rules could indicate that those who conducted or approved an activity would be liable to pay damages. There could be a basis – at least in principle – in customary international law for state liability for transboundary harm caused by solar geoengineering that was contrary to international law. Although space-based solar geoengineering is presently prohibitively expensive, states would be strictly liable for harm arising from it. Compensation for other potential harm would face substantial political, institutional, and theoretical challenges, including what damages to compensate, the injurers’ and victims’ identities, and mechanisms and reasons for securing compensation. While recognizing states’ strong resistance to compensation, the chapter suggests an international compensation fund for harm from large-scale outdoor solar geoengineering research and offers initial thoughts regarding that from deployment.
This paper presents a history of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme as a struggle between two competing normative paradigms that justify the core reform of the replacement of civil actions for victims of personal injury with a comprehensive no-fault scheme. Under ‘community insurance’, the scheme represents the community taking moral and practical responsibility for members who are injured in accidents, while for ‘compulsory insurance’ the scheme is a specific form of compulsory accident insurance. Understanding the history of the scheme in this way helps explain both the persistence of the scheme and important changes made to it by different governments.
Objectives: Despite changes to brain integrity with aging, some functions like basic language processes remain remarkably preserved. One theory for the maintenance of function in light of age-related brain atrophy is the engagement of compensatory brain networks. This study examined age-related changes in the neural networks recruited for simple language comprehension. Methods: Sixty-five adults (native English-speaking, right-handed, and cognitively normal) aged 17–85 years underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reading paradigm and structural scanning. The fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis to derive brain networks associated with reading comprehension. Results: Two typical frontotemporal language networks were identified, and these networks remained relatively stable across the wide age range. In contrast, three attention-related networks showed increased activation with increasing age. Furthermore, the increased recruitment of a dorsal attention network was negatively correlated to gray matter thickness in temporal regions, whereas an anterior frontoparietal network was positively correlated to gray matter thickness in insular regions. Conclusions: We found evidence that older adults can exert increased effort and recruit additional attentional resources to maintain their reading abilities in light of increased cortical atrophy.
Laypeople are often deterred from undertaking altruistic acts, assuming that they face a risk of negligence liability should they injure others while helping. We argue that the laypeople's interpretation of the law does not correspond with the courts’ interpretation of negligence liability. Reviewing the case law, we demonstrate that the courts treat such cases with leniency in the spirit of the Compensation Act 2006, s 1 and the Social Action, Responsibility and Heroism Act (SARAH) 2015, s 2. Thus, the negligence liability rules do not offer a sufficient explanation for the widely-held opinion that acts of altruism may give rise to liability. We hypothesise that the public's perception of legal rules is determined by a number of well-known biases and is not founded in the law itself. In the light of those biases, we contend that the function of the Compensation Act 2006, s 1 and SARAH 2015 does not lie in the substance but in their value as potential signals to reassure laypeople.