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Chapter 7 differentiates processes of attitude formation and change, with special attention to the influence of prior attitudes on the decision to seek out a persuasive message and the ultimate impact of a message or behavioral intervention, particularly in combination with goals of action and inaction. The key elements of persuasive communications and interventions to change behavior include behavioral recommendations, persuasive arguments, the communicator, and affective feelings. Message actionability is discussed in the context to concept priming, numbers of recommendations including in a message or intervention, and other factors. These elements and the processes leading to behavior are discussed.
Chapter 1 presents the objectives of the book, which blends a traditional monograph with topics of contemporary interest and an analysis of attitude and behavior change in real and virtual contexts. Definitions and a overview of the theory are presented.
Chapter 8 describes how prior attitudes shape the processing of persuasive messages and behavioral interventions in fundamental ways. First, people select messages and interventions in ways that minimize their likely impact. They seek pro-violence messages when they already espouse pro-violence beliefs and healthy eating messages when they already follow healthy diets. These decisions, of course, decrease the probability of changing attitudes and behaviors that have negative social and health effects, which has led to my research on finding methods to decrease selective exposure biases. For example, because selective exposure is often tied to a low sense of one’s ability to self-defend if one’s attitudes or behaviors come under attack, reassuring an audience that they will only change if they want to is often sufficient to increase exposure to messages and enrollment in behavioral interventions. In addition, understanding attitude and behavior change requires understanding activation of prior attitudes and other information contained in the message. For example, easy-to-access prior attitudes generally decrease change in response to new information but may also increase change when they facilitate comparison with new information. Furthermore, when people who are called to report an attitude retrieve the initial basis for their attitude, the structure of that information in memory drives the degree of attitude change in that situation. Different sleeper effects illustrate such effects of the initial representations of the information contained in a persuasive message.
Chapter 3 concerns attitudes as well as attitude dimensions and structure, including ambivalence. Attitudes have both a memory component and a judgment component. This aspect is important because recognizing attitude change is not possible without recognizing that these two components are part of attitudes. The chapter also covers the relation between attitude relevant memories and evaluative judgments, my research on specific and general attitudes toward objects and behaviors, including actions and inactions, and the degree to which attitudes predict behavior, including a meta-meta-analysis of the attitude behavior relation.
Chapter 6 discusses how others can influence norms, beliefs, and attitudes. Normative influence implies fairly direct effects without recipients of the influence becoming persuaded of the merits of a point of view. In contrast, informational influence implies that beliefs and attitudes are formed by internalizing the social norm. Finally, other people provide behavioral opportunities, teach skills, and induce mimicry. The degree of influence of normative information, however, depends on characteristics of the person, including cultural collectivism, group identity, and linkage to existing social networks. These issues and the associated processes are discussed in the context of real life and online influence.
Chapter 9 discusses how messages designed with the intent of influencing behavior and behavioral interventions are successful when they influence factors in the person and the situation that ultimately make those programs actionable. Actionability is the probability that the message or intervention communicates or enables performance of behavioral recommendations . First, a message or behavioral intervention can stimulate the cognitive, motivational, or behavioral processes that ultimately make the individual perform the recommended behavior. Second, it can promote behavioral recommendations that fit within the world in which potential actors live. These factors and relevant data are discussed.
Chapter 2 discusses formation of beliefs and types of beliefs, including expectations, beliefs in antecedents and outcomes, beliefs about action and inaction, and the biases introduced by beliefs. The chapter also detaileds the effects of beliefs about objects and experiences, and later the effects of beliefs about the antecedents and consequences of behavior.
Chapter 4 covers behavior, intentions, and goals. It describes my view of intentionality, including subtle intention formation and the psychological representation of intention. Goals vary in terms of content, level of conscious involvement, and type of object. Goals are either general (to get tenure) or specific (publish a paper), focus on actions or inactions (effortful behavior vs. rest), and have either psychological endstates (i.e., behavioral, affective, and cognitive) or objective endstates (e.g., a financial or health outcome). Relevant data are discussed.
Chaapter 5 covers the impact of experience and past behavior on attitude and behavior change. In addition to experience, the influence of past behavior can be due to biased scanning, cognitive dissonance, and self-perception. Biased scanning entails forming attitudes on the basis of thoughts about specific information associated with the behavior. Cognitive dissonance entails a conflict between one’s attitude and one’s behavior and can lead to changing the attitude to resolve the inconsistency. Self-perception theory entails inferring one’s attitude from a past behavior that is salient at the time. These processes and supporting researach are described.
This book explains how actions and inactions arise and change in social contexts, including social media and face-to-face communication. Its multidisciplinary perspective covers research from psychology, communication, public health, business studies, and environmental sciences. The reader can use this cutting-edge approach to design and interpret effects of behavioral change interventions as well as replicate the materials and methods implemented to study them. The author provides an organized set of principles that take the reader from the formation of attitudes and goals, to the structure of action and inaction. It also reflects on how cognitive processes explain excesses of action while inaction persists elsewhere. This practical guide summarises the best practices persuasion and behavioral interventions to promote changes in health, consumer, and social behaviors.
Alexander the Great's victories over Darius III and his satraps between 334 and 323 BCE have been for very long interpreted as the reliable testimony of the intrinsic feebleness and internal fragility of the Achaemenid empire, which expanded from Central Asia to Aswan and from the Indus to the Mediterranean Sea, and lasted for more than two centuries (c.550–330). And yet, notwithstanding the exceptional cultural and political diversity of the countries and peoples under the empire’s rule, the central authorities exercised a permanent control upon lands and seas. The best way for understanding the originality of such an ancient empire is to rule out the usual tricky alternative centralization versus independence/autonomy. Cultural diversity and imperial power are not mutually exclusive. The main feebleness of such a political construction was that, in front of a powerful (Macedonian) invasion, the central power could not count on any imperial ideology which would be shared by all the cultural components of the empire.
While birth cohorts are shaped by underpinning life course frameworks, few if any report how they select them. This review aimed to (1) summarise publicly available frameworks relevant to planning and communicating large new early-life cohorts and (2) help select frameworks to guide and communicate Generation Victoria (GenV), a whole-of-state birth and parent cohort in planning in the state of Victoria, Australia. We identified potential frameworks from prior knowledge, networks and a pragmatic literature search in 2019. We considered for inclusion only frameworks with an existing visual graphic. We summarised each framework’s concept, then judged it on a seven-item matrix (Scope, Dimensions, Outcomes, Life course, Mechanisms, Multi-age, and Visual Clarity) to be of high, intermediate or low relevance to GenV. We presented and evaluated 14 life course frameworks across research and policy. Two, nine and three frameworks, respectively, were ranked as high, intermediate and low relevance to GenV, although none totally communicated its scope and intent. Shonkoff’s biodevelopmental framework was selected as GenV’s primary framework, adapted to include ongoing feedback loops through the life course and influence of an individual’s outcomes on the next generation. Because conceptual simplicity precluded the primary framework from capturing the wide range of relevant exposures, we selected the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s person-centred model as a secondary framework. This summary of existing life course frameworks may prove helpful to other cohorts in planning. Our transparent process and focus on visual communication are already assisting in explaining and selecting measures for GenV. The feasibility, comprehension and validity of these frameworks could be further tested at implementation.
Everything we do involves language. Assuming no prior knowledge, this book offers students a contemporary introduction to the study of language. Each thought-provoking chapter is accessible to readers from a variety of fields, and is helpfully organized across six parts: sound; structure and meaning; language typologies and change; language and social aspects; language acquisition; and language, cognition, and the brain. The book's companion website also offers three brief chapters on language and computers; animal communication; and dialectal varieties of English. The chapters feature illustrative tables, figures and maps, along with three types of pedagogical boxes (Linguistic Tidbits; Pause and Reflect; and Eyes on World Languages) that break up text, contextualize information, and provide colourful accents that give real data from languages across the globe. Key words are bolded and defined in a glossary at the end of the book, while end-of-chapter summaries and practice exercises reinforce the key points discussed.
The chapter adds to the discussion from chapter two by analyzing the roles of leaders and their ability to unleash the power of public service. The theoretical foundation for the role of leaders as visionaries and architects is examined and is complemented by a discussion of relevant empirical research. The chapter then follows two general paths to enhancing pubic service motivation through leadership. First, leaders should clearly articulate mission and vision, strengthening employee mission valence and helping them to achieve their aspirations. Further, leaders should develop leadership styles that inspire followers. Leadership styles should be authentic, but leaders can also develop their personal capacities to embrace optimal leadership strategies. Incorporating the principles of servant leadership by putting followers first and developing charisma are discussed as ways to build means-ends awareness. Leadership styles should be based around effective communication – communication that acknowledges the worth and collective efficacy of followers.
Patient and public involvement in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is gaining increased interest among research and policy communities. Patients’ organizations represent an important link between individual patients and the health system. Social theories are increasingly being used to explain doctor–patient–system interactions, expanding understanding beyond the mere clinical perspective. In this sense, patient involvement in HTA can also be considered through the Habermas’s theory of communicative action. From a Habermasian perspective, HTA as part of the instrumental rationality contributes to an increased efficiency of resource use within the system; however, such rationalization threatens to colonize the lifeworld by making it “increasingly state administered with attenuated possibilities for communicative action as a result of the commercialization and rationalization in terms of immediate returns.” Using Habermasian system/lifeworld framework, this paper explores opportunities and obstacles to patient involvement in HTA, whereby trying to understand current and possible roles of patients’ organizations as a mediating force between HTA as a function of the system and the lifeworld represented by patients.
Machines, AIs, cyborgs, and systems arise as images of the posthuman within the discourses of posthumanism and transhumanism. From the side of technoscience, advances in cybernetics and systems theory have been the prime movers of the posthuman imaginary. AI and its elaboration in the cultural imaginary is particularly instructive with regard to transhumanist visions of transcendence. Where cybernetics spread across organic bodies, computational devices, and the social dynamics of communication, AI bypassed multiple cybernetic couplings to concentrate on the design, construction, and study of computational agencies. AI discourse ran alongside the development of SETI—the scientific program dedicated to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Both AI and SETI foreground how scientific modernity has entangled the matter of intelligence with the mediation of technology. The 2015 novel Aurora overcomes the AI imaginary as previously constituted by bringing ecological realism to the relations to machines, AIs, cyborgs, and systems.
The rise of multi-party processes in which people with quite different ties to a region, natural resource-related industry, or environmental issue work collaboratively to hammer out mutually acceptable agreements is arguably one of the biggest shifts in environmental management over the past twenty-five years. This chapter engages in some sensemaking around this diverse and evolving phenomenon in two ways. First, an approach to designing collaborative natural resource-related discourse with a particularly strong theoretical foundation (Collaborative Learning) is presented to illustrate how theory is manifest in practice. Second a recent best practices/common features list is examined through the perspectives of four social science theorists: Max Weber, Pierre Bourdieu, Niklas Luhmann, and Muzafer Sherif. The practical recommendations that emerge from this list is largely consistent with the larger social and communicative dynamics articulated by these theorists.
Human factors can be defined as the science of understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and how they can be adapted to improve performance and safety. Human factors issues were present in 40% of the cases of major complications in airway management in NAP4. Human factors issues can be considered in terms of ‘threats’ and ‘safeguards’. Threats increase the likelihood of the occurrence of an error that results in patient harm while safeguards help prevent this. Threats and safeguards in relation to human factors in airway management refer not only to ‘non-technical skills’ (e.g. situation awareness, teamwork) but also many other factors such as procedures, staffing and the physical environment in which airway management is conducted. Proper attention to human factors related issues contributes to both the prevention and effective management of airway emergencies and requires that these issues are considered as part of an integrated approach at the level of the individual, team, environment and organisation as part of routine airway care – not only when an emergency arises.
The aim of this paper is to further develop an existing data model for mass-gathering health outcomes.
Mass-gathering events (MGEs) occur frequently throughout the world. Having an understanding of the complexities of MGEs is important to determine required health resources. Environmental, psychosocial, and biomedical domains may be a logical starting point to determine how data are being collected and reported in the literature; however, it may be that other factors influencing health resources are not identified within these domains.
Based on an exhaustive literature synthesis, this paper is the final paper in a series that explores the collection of variables that impact biomedical presentations associated with attendance/participation in MGEs.
The authors propose further evolution of the Arbon model to include the addition of several domains, including: event environment; command, control, and communication (C3); public health; health promotion; and legacy when reporting the health outcomes of an event.
Including a variety of domains that contribute to an MGE allows for formal evaluation of the event, which in turn informs future knowledge and skill development for both the event management group and the wider community.