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End-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) is a non-invasive method giving information about the perfusion, ventilation, and metabolic condition of patients. The correlation was studied here between the metabolic (pH, bicarbonate) values and EtCO2 during the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
A 23-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with the complaints of nausea, vomiting, and fever. The patient with a diagnosis of DKA was continuously monitored with EtCO2; EtCO2 was correlated with serum bicarbonate (HCO3; r = 0.96; P < .001) and pH (r = 0.93; P < .001).
Continuous EtCO2 monitoring should be considered by emergency physicians in the metabolic monitoring of the patients as it is an easy-to-use, non-invasive, and cost-effective method that provides instant and reliable information.
Land degradation is a global challenge that affects lives and livelihoods in many communities. Since 1950, about 65% of Africa's cropland, on which millions of people depend, has been affected by land degradation caused by mining, poor farming practices and illegal logging. One-quarter of the land area of Ethiopia is severely degraded. As part of interventions to restore ecosystem services, exclosures have been implemented in Ethiopia since the 1980s. But the lack of tools to support prioritization and more efficient targeting of areas for large-scale exclosure-based interventions remains a challenge. Within that perspective, the overarching objectives of the current study were: (i) to develop a Geographic Information System-based multicriteria decision-support tool that would help in the identification of suitable areas for exclosure initiatives; (ii) to provide spatially explicit information, aggregated by river basin and agroecology, on potential areas for exclosure interventions and (iii) to conduct ex-ante analysis of the potential of exclosure areas for improving ecosystem services in terms of increase in above-ground biomass (AGB) production and carbon storage. The results of this study demonstrated that as much as 10% of Ethiopia's land area is suitable for establishing exclosures. This amounts to 11 million hectares (ha) of land depending on the criteria used to define suitability for exclosure. Of this total, a significant proportion (0.5–0.6 million ha) is currently under agricultural land-use systems. In terms of propriety river basins, we found that the largest amount of suitable area for exclosures falls in the Abay (2.6 million ha) and Tekeze (2.2 million ha) river basins, which are hosts to water infrastructure such as hydropower dams and are threatened by siltation. Ex-ante analysis of ecosystem services indicated that about 418 million tons of carbon can be stored in the AGB through exclosure land use. Ethiopia has voluntarily committed to the Bonn Challenge to restore 15 million ha of degraded land by 2025. The decision-support tool developed by the current study and the information so generated go toward supporting the planning, implementation and monitoring of these kinds of local and regional initiatives.
Poly 4-mercaptophenyl methacrylate-carbon nano-onions ((PMPMA-CNOs = f-CNOs) were reinforced with polycaprolactone (PCL) to produce PCL/f-CNO nanocomposites using probe sonication. The physicochemical properties of nanocomposites were systematically studied to analyze cell viability and proliferation. In vitro cytotoxicity of PCL/f-CNO nanocomposites was measured with osteoblast cells, and improved cell viability was observed. The cytotoxicity of f-CNOs to osteoblasts was dose-dependent, and PCL/f-CNO (0.5 wt%) nanocomposites showed more than 90% of viability as compared to pristine PCL. Similarly, PCL/f-CNO (0.5 wt%) nanocomposites showed substantial enhancement in mechanical properties. The yield strength, tensile strength, Young modulus, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness were also upgraded at high content of f-CNOs (0.5 wt%). The concentration of f-CNOs considerably influenced the strengthening of PCL/f-CNO nanocomposites, which shows its degree of colloidal dispersion stability and extent of polymer wrapping within the PCL matrix. Nevertheless, these nontoxic PCL/f-CNO nanocomposites can be used as promising biomaterials for orthopedic applications.
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a global collective action problem but humanity lacks a global government. A global government would create a mandatory compliance mechanism because this is the only way to incentivize a successful global effort. For almost three years, national governments have instead tried to reach a voluntary agreement in which countries agree on a fair allocation of the emissions reduction and the burden of costs. This has predictably failed and will continue to fail. The only hope for success is if some leading countries take domestic actions and apply carbon tariffs on imports from high-emission countries. These leading countries should try to join forces in “climate clubs” which, as they grow in economic importance, would motivate more countries to join, eventually reaching a tipping point for the development of a global compliance mechanism.
Climate–sincere citizens are frustrated with three decades of global and national failures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so they are receptive to arguments that they can make a difference by various means, one of which is to make an offset payment to someone else to reduce emissions while they continue to cause emissions when, for example, flying in an airplane. Unfortunately, research shows that a significant percentage of so–called offsets do not reduce emissions from what they otherwise would have been. Instead, offset payments are made to someone for doing something they would have done without the payment. Climate-concerned citizens would have greater impact if they instead made their offset payments to help elect climate–sincere politicians and to make sure that these politicians implement policies that require ezveryone to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, not just the people who buy offsets.
Economists have a strong preference for a carbon tax because this is the most economically efficient climate policy. But a carbon tax is also the most politically difficult policy because it makes it easier for climate-insincere politicians to defeat climate-sincere politicians. Opponents of climate action find it quite easy to fool some percentage of voters that a carbon tax is punative to them, harmful to the economy, and ineffective anyway. Economists also feel that regulations will be highly inefficient, but this ignores emerging evidence about the cost of using flexible regulations for significant decarbonization. Examples are the low carbon fuel standard and the renewable portfolio standard. Economists need to work with policy science, sociology, and social psychology experts to provide useful information to climate–sincere politicians about the trade-offs between economic efficiency and poltiical acceptability.
B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among colorectal cancer patients remains unclear.
The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients (n=238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg.
We cross-sectionally analyzed associations between 12 B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and 10 inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesized that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers.
We observed that PLP was inversely associated with CRP (r=-0.33, plinear<0.0001), SAA (r=-0.23, plinear=0.003), IL-6 (r=-0.39, plinear <0.0001), IL-8 (r=-0.20, plinear=0.02) and TNFα (r=-0.12, plinear=0.045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r=-0.14), SAA (r=-0.14) and TNFα (r=-0.15) among colorectal cancer patients. Folate catabolite apABG was positively correlated with IL-6 (r= 0.27, plinear<0.0001) and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r= 0.21, plinear<0.0001), indicating higher folate utilization during inflammation.
Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among colorectal cancer patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for colorectal cancer patients.
Carbon pricing has been the most prominent climate change mitigation policy for the EU since the launch of its emissions trading system (ETS) in 2005. Since then, the context of international climate policy as well as of the socio-political and economical context of decarbonisation has changed considerably. The 2015 Paris Agreement engages virtually every country unlike its predecessor, while non-carbon pricing policies have led to rapid cost reductions in renewables, even if other sectors (particularly in energy-intensive industry) have not seen similar developments. This paper examines how the role of carbon pricing in the EU climate policy mix has evolved from its beginnings as a means to help achieve modest targets under the Kyoto Protocol, to a policy instrument increasingly augmented by a wider policy mix aimed at reaching no net emissions of greenhouse gases by mid-century.
China and the United States are the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases, making them pivotal players in global climate negotiations. Within the coming decade, however, India is set to become the most important counterpart to the United States, as it overtakes China as the country with the most at stake depending on the type of global burden-sharing agreements reached, thus becoming a member of the ‘Climate G2’. We create a hypothetical global carbon market based on modelling emissions reduction commitments across countries and regions relative to their marginal abatement costs. We then analyse net financial flows across a wide range of burden-sharing agreements, from pure ‘grandfathering’ based on current emissions to equal-per-capita allocation. Among the four largest players – the United States, the EU-27, China, and India – it is China that would currently be the largest net seller of emissions allowances in all but the grandfathered scenario. The United States would be the largest net buyer. However, India is poised to take China’s position by around 2030. That leaves the United States and India as the two major countries with most to gain and lose, depending on the type of climate deal reached.
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formic acid is a good strategy to address both environmental and energy issues. However, some drawbacks including low activity, selectivity, and stability of electrocatalysts must be overcome. We propose a method for tailoring Bi2O2CO3-coated carbon fiber electrodes with higher selectivity and stability for electrochemical CO2 reduction to formic acid. We evaluated the effect of Bi2O2CO3 and Nafion contents on the electrocatalysts performance for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR). All electrodes produced only HCOO− in the liquid phase with a maximum faradaic efficiency (FE) of 69%. The electrocatalysts were stable under 24 h of continuous CO2RR operation. The FE increased with the increasing electrolyte concentration and cation radius size, which indicates that the anion stabilization in solution is critical for adequate formate generation. The CO2RR mechanism was proposed with basis on the literature. The structural carbonate of Bi2O2CO3 acts as an intermediate species in the formate production from CO2.
The deficient disposition of the pruning waste, from grass (Poaceae), has been converted into a considerable environmental problem since it is discarded in common garbage dumps. As a result, gases and lixiviates are generated producing a negative impact on the environment. This project takes advantage of these residues to isolate their chloroplasts, with the aim of subsequently developing bioreactors that absorb CO2. The encapsulation of grass chloroplasts into silica monolith with a hierarchical texture, using high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) method was carried out. The isolated chloroplasts were analysed by UV-Vis spectroscopy to estimate the amount of chlorophylls a and b present in the grass. Moreover, the synthesized samples were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring their photosynthetic activity, having an activity up to at least 90 days.
The deployment of cleaner production technologies is supposed to be crucial to mitigate the effect of climate change. The diffusion of technology from developed to developing countries can be done through different channels. It can be a business decision such as firms' relocation, opening of a subsidiary or the adoption of technology by southern firms, or it may be decided at the government level. This paper investigates, in a two-country model (North and South), the relationship between the diffusion of mitigation technologies, firms' relocation and the environment. We assume that both countries implement a carbon tax and there are two kinds of production technology used: a relatively clean technology and a dirty one. This paper theoretically shows that the technology diffusion by technology adoption, public transfer or subsidiary creation induces a decrease in relocation, while technology diffusion via purchasing dirty southern firms may increase the number of relocated firms. The paper also demonstrates that technology diffusion may have perverse effects in the long run. Indeed, total emissions may increase with technology diffusion since southern firms become more competitive.
Electrochemical capacitors featuring a modified acetonitrile (AN) electrolyte and a binder-free, activated carbon fabric electrode material were assembled and tested at <−40 °C. The melting point of the electrolyte was depressed relative to the standard pure AN solvent through the use of a methyl formate cosolvent, to enable operation at temperatures lower than the rated limit of typical commercial cells (−40 °C). Based on earlier electrolyte formulation studies, a 1:1 ratio of methyl formate to AN (by volume) was selected, to maximize freezing point depression while maintaining a sufficient salt solubility. The salt spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate was used, based on its improved conductivity at low temperatures, relative to linear alkyl ammonium salts. The carbon fabric electrode supported a relatively high rate capability at temperatures as low as −65 °C with a modest increase in cell resistance at this reduced temperature. The capacitance was only weakly dependent on temperature, with a specific capacitance of ∼110 F/g.
Conversion of forest land into different land use types is the primary cause of degradation of land resources, which in turn alters nutrient and carbon cycles, land productivity and diversity of species. There is scarcity of information about land-use changes (LUC) and their effect on relationship of soil quality and species diversity at landscape level in the Vindhyan dry tropical region. We evaluated the impact of land-use changes on soil physicochemical quality and the influence of these qualities on species diversity and organic matter accumulation. We also established the relationship between soil quality indicators and species diversity parameters. To examine impact of LUC, we did a detailed field survey and analysed selected soil quality indicators by standard methods. We examined species diversity parameters and established the relationship between soil quality and species diversity. We found that there is a marked decline in soil porosity, water-holding capacity and soil moisture due to LUC. Conversion from forest land (FL) to savanna land (SL) resulted in soil organic carbon decreasing by ∼40–50%. The decrease was more pronounced in cultivated land (CL) and degraded land (DL) (65–70% and 83–85%, respectively). In the case of total N, maximum decrease in total N of 83–87% was noted in DL as compared with FL. The poor soil quality indicators in degraded and agricultural land can be explained by the interaction between the soil organic carbon and nitrogen loss with diversity loss. This study recommends that for management/restoration of land resources, planning strategies should consider the current landscape structure, with land-use planning.
Sources and implications of black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD) on two glaciers on the central Tibetan Plateau were estimated based on in situ measurements and modeling. The results indicated that BC and MD accounted for ~11 ± 1% and 4 ± 0% of the albedo reduction relative to clean snow, while the radiative forcing varied between 11 and 196 and 1–89 W m−2, respectively. Assessment of BC and MD contributions to the glacier melt can reach up 88 to 434 and 35 to 187 mm w.e., respectively, contributing ~9–23 and 4–10% of the total glacier melt. A footprint analysis indicated that BC and MD deposited on the glaciers originated mainly from the Middle East, Central Asia, North China and South Asia during the study period. Moreover, a potentially large fraction of BC may have originated from local and regional fossil fuel combustion. This study suggests that BC and MD will enhance glacier melt and provides a scientific basis for regional mitigation efforts.
In this chapter, we present the basics of the physics and phenomenology of FGKM-type stars. This review is based on recent developments in the observational and theoretical domains of stellar physics, including a variety of techniques – spectroscopy, interferometry, photometry and large-scale stellar surveys. We focus on the advances in radiative transfer modelling and spectroscopy of stars across the full metallicity range. To provide the reader with the essential supplementary information, we also give a brief qualitative account of the structure and evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars and of stellar nucleosynthesis. We also provide a brief overview of new models of stellar atmospheres and stellar spectra, with emphasis on non-LTE and hydrodynamics. Lastly, we discuss some of the relevant observational studies of stellar abundances in the context of stellar populations, evolution of metal-poor stars and Galactic archeology.
The climate crisis requires nations to achieve human well-being with low national levels of carbon emissions. Countries vary from one another dramatically in how effectively they convert resources into well-being, and some nations with low levels of emissions have relatively high objective and subjective well-being. We identify urgent research and policy agendas for four groups of countries with either low or high emissions and well-being indicators. Least studied are those with low well-being and high emissions. Understanding social and political barriers to switching from high-carbon to lower-carbon modes of production and consumption, and ways to overcome them, will be fundamental.
A perfluorinated ionic liquid, 1-(perfluorohexyl)-3-methylimidazolium iodide, was synthesized via microwave reaction and compared to a non-fluorinated analog. Typically, the synthesis of fluorinated ionic liquids involves long reaction times and multiple steps. We have demonstrated a shortened synthesis and a more straightforward procedure, by using a microwave reactor for the microwave-assisted synthesis of 1-(perfluorohexyl)-3-methylimidazolium iodide. The addition of fluorinated alkyl chains on imidazolium ionic liquid cations increases the molecular free volume of the ionic liquid which is beneficial for increasing CO2 physisorption. Computational and experimental data shows an increased CO2 solubility and capacity for fluorinated ionic liquids. The perfluoroalkyl functionalized ionic liquid is characterized using 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and DSC. By DSC, a crystallization onset is near -31 °C and while the onset of the melting point between -30 and -17 °C.
A new carbon isotope record for two high-latitude sedimentary successions that span the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary interval in the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada is presented. This study, combined with other published Arctic data, shows a large negative isotopic excursion of organic carbon (δ13Corg) of 4‰ (V-PDB) and to a minimum of −30.7‰ in the probable middle Volgian Stage. This is followed by a return to less negative values of c. −27‰. A smaller positive excursion in the Valanginian Stage of c. 2‰, reaching maximum values of −24.6‰, is related to the Weissert Event. The Volgian isotopic trends are consistent with other high-latitude records but do not appear in δ13Ccarb records of Tethyan Tithonian strata. In the absence of any obvious definitive cause for the depleted δ13Corg anomaly, we suggest several possible contributing factors. The Sverdrup Basin and other Arctic areas may have experienced compositional evolution away from open-marine δ13C values during the Volgian Age due to low global or large-scale regional sea levels, and later become effectively coupled to global oceans by Valanginian time when sea level rose. A geologically sudden increase in volcanism may have caused the large negative δ13Corg values seen in the Arctic Volgian records but the lack of precise geochronological age control for the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary precludes direct comparison with potentially coincident events, such as the Shatsky Rise. This study offers improved correlation constraints and a refined C-isotope curve for the Boreal region throughout latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous time.
In October 2017, the American Association of Blood Bankers (AABB; Bethesda, Maryland USA) approved a petition to allow low-titer group O whole blood as a standard product without the need for a waiver. Around that time, a few Texas, USA-based Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems incorporated whole blood into their ground ambulances. The purpose of this project was to describe the epidemiology of ground ambulance patients that received a prehospital whole blood transfusion. The secondary aim of this project was to report an accounting analysis of these ground ambulance prehospital whole blood programs.
The dataset came from the Harris County Emergency Service District 48 Fire Department (HCESD 48; Harris County, Texas USA) and San Antonio Fire Department (SAFD; San Antonio, Texas USA) whole blood Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) databases from September 2017 through December 2018. The primary outcome of this study was the prehospital transfusion indication. The secondary outcome was the projected cost per life saved during the first 10 years of the prehospital whole blood initiative.
Of 58 consecutive prehospital whole blood administrations, the team included all 58 cases. Hemorrhagic shock from a non-traumatic etiology accounted for 46.5% (95% CI, 34.3%-59.2%) of prehospital whole blood recipients. In the non-traumatic hemorrhagic shock cohort, gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the underlying etiology of hemorrhagic shock in 66.7% (95% CI, 47.8%-81.4%) of prehospital whole blood transfusion recipients. The projected average cost to save a life in Year 10 was US$5,136.51 for the combined cohort, US$4,512.69 for HCESD 48, and US$5,243.72 for SAFD EMS.
This retrospective analysis of ground ambulance patients that receive prehospital whole blood transfusion found that non-traumatic etiology accounted for 46.5% (95% CI, 34.3%-59.2%) of prehospital whole blood recipients. Additionally, the accounting analysis suggests that by Year 10 of a ground ambulance whole blood transfusion program, the average cost to save a life will be approximately US$5,136.51.