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The resulting picture of mental causation, which is summarized in this chapter, has repercussions for debates about the nature of mind. If virtually all theories about the nature of mind can solve the problems of mental causation, then arguments from mental causation against certain theories become irrelevant in debates between reductive physicalists, non-reductive physicalists, and dualists. Questions about the nature of mind will have to be decided independently of the problems of mental causation.
This chapter, reviews burns management in children. The authors discuss the various types of burns in children and the impact on management. The authors review burn classification, penetration and assessment of body surface area affected as it relates to children. Discussion of the anesthetic considerations related to patients with severe burns is presented including, carbon monoxide and cyanide toxicities, fluid and temperature management, airway considerations and analgesic options
Chapter 1, ‘Medieval Ovids’, opens the discussion with perhaps the most prolific and the most devious author of autofiction in ancient literature: the poet Ovid. Ovid had no surviving ancient tradition of Lives, but his texts themselves provided an ideal ground for the creation of biofictional narratives. Encoding within them a life-story that deliberately teeters between fiction and reality, Ovid’s texts invited a life-centred reception that illustrates some of the essential dynamics of biofictional reading. With no ancient Life available to them, medieval writers willingly took up Ovid’s implicit invitation to produce biofictional supplements to his texts, telling and retelling stories about the poet’s imaginary lives: from the accessus or ‘introduction’ that typically prefaced texts of ancient authors, often inscribed as a paratext to the poet’s works in the manuscripts themselves, to the thirteenth-century pseudepigraphal De vetula, a 2400-line poem presented as Ovid’s autobiography from exile discovered in the poet’s recently excavated tomb. Seemingly situated on the margins of medieval culture, these experiments in life-writing show that biofictional engagement with Ovid functioned as a dynamic and creative site of reading texts and writing Lives in the period, foregrounding the case for biofiction as a mode of textual engagement in reception.
This chapter presents an extremely common pediatric surgical issue; foreign body aspiration. The authors review the types commonly ingested foreign bodies as well as the presenting signs and symptoms. The preoperative evaluation, anesthetic considerations and complications for foreign bodies in discussed.
A large proportion of older adults are affected by impaired glucose metabolism. Previous studies with fish protein have reported improved glucose regulation in healthy adults, but the evidence in older adults is limited. Therefore, we wanted to assess the effect of increasing doses of a cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) on postprandial glucose metabolism in older adults. The study was a double-blind cross-over trial. Participants received four different doses (10, 20, 30 or 40 mg/kg body weight (BW)) of CPH daily for 1 week with 1-week washout periods in between. The primary outcome was postprandial response in glucose metabolism, measured by samples of serum glucose and insulin in 20 min intervals for 120 min. The secondary outcome was postprandial response in plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Thirty-one subjects aged 60–78 years were included in the study. In a mixed-model statistical analysis, no differences in estimated maximum value of glucose, insulin or GLP-1 were observed when comparing the lowest dose of CPH (10 mg/kg BW) with the higher doses (20, 30 or 40 mg/kg BW). The estimated maximum value of glucose was on average 0·28 mmol/l lower when the participants were given 40 mg/kg BW CPH compared with 10 mg/kg BW (P = 0·13). The estimated maximum value of insulin was on average 5·14 mIU/l lower with 40 mg/kg BW of CPH compared with 10 mg/kg BW (P = 0·20). Our findings suggest that serum glucose and insulin levels tend to decrease with increasing amounts of CPH. Due to preliminary findings, the results require further investigation.
Given a stationary and isotropic Poisson hyperplane process and a convex body K in
, we consider the random polytope defined by the intersection of all closed half-spaces containing K that are bounded by hyperplanes of the process not intersecting K. We investigate how well the expected mean width of this random polytope approximates the mean width of K if the intensity of the hyperplane process tends to infinity.
This paper describes a modeling approach to compute the lumped parameter hydrodynamic derivative matrices of an underwater multi-hull vehicle. The vehicle, modeled as a multi-body underwater system and denoted as cluster, can be composed by heterogeneous bodies with known dynamic parameters, rigidly connected. The nonlinear dynamic equations of the cluster and its parameters are derived by means of a modular approach, based on the composition of single basic elements. The ultimate objective is to derive a mathematical description of the multi-hull system that captures its most significant dynamics allowing to design model-based motion controllers and navigation filters. The modular nature of the resulting model can be exploited, by example, when control reconfiguration is to be dealt with in the presence of (possibly multiple) failures. The numerical simulation of a hypothetical cluster is presented and discussed.
Birthweight (BW) has been associated with anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness during growth and development of children. However, less is known about the mediation effect of those variables on the relationship between BW and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in children.
To analyse the mediation effect of anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness on the association between BW and BMR in children.
In total, 499 children (254 boys, 245 girls) aged 7–10 years were included. Anthropometry (weight, height, head, waist and hip circumferences), body composition (skinfolds thickness, body fat percentage), physical fitness (handgrip strength, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular explosive power, agility, running speed) and BMR were evaluated. The analyses were conducted by: single-mediator analysis (SMA) and multi-mediator analysis (MMA).
The SMA indicates height, head, waist and hip circumferences and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for boys and height, hip circumference and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for girls. In MMA for girls, there were significant indirect effects for height, hip circumference and handgrip strength, with 79.08% of percent mediation. For boys, the head and waist circumferences mediation had a significant indirect effect, with 83.37% of percent mediation.
The anthropometric variables associated with BW were body height, head, hip and waist circumferences for boys and body height and hip circumference for girls. The current study provides new evidence that height and handgrip strength during childhood mediated the relationship between BW and BMR.
Body size is an important life-history trait in eusocial insects which plays a key role in colony fitness. The division of labour, represented by caste polyethism, correlates with divergent morphological traits. Size polymorphism has been noted in the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata; however, little is known regarding the differences in the size distributions of workers performing foraging tasks. In the present study, task partitioning was observed in the foraging activities of S. geminata. Two subgroups among foraging workers of S. geminata were discovered using the Gaussian mixture model: a large worker group (head width ≥ 0.924 mm) and a small worker group (head width < 0.924 mm). The foraging worker population comprised two distinct groups – 25.64% were large workers and 74.36% were small workers. Larger workers delivered heavier seeds faster than smaller workers, but this difference became less apparent when lighter seeds were being carried. When large prey such as crickets was encountered during foraging, S. geminata partitioned their tasks into cutting and transportation. The large workers were observed to cut cricket prey into fragments with their longer mandibles, and the small workers then transported these fragments back to the nest. These results present evidence of task partitioning among tropical fire ants, with different tasks being performed by ants of different castes.
In recent years, the aviation industry has taken a leading role in the integration of composite structures to develop lighter and more fuel efficient aircraft. Among the leading concepts to achieve this goal is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. The focus of most PRSEUS studies has been on developing an hybrid wing body structure, with only a few discussing the application of PRSEUS to a tube-wing fuselage structure. Additionally, the majority of investigations for PRSEUS have focused on experimental validation of anticipated benefits rather than developing a methodology to capture the behavior of stitched structure analytically. This paper presents an overview of a numerical methodology capable of accurately describing PRSEUS’ construction and how it may be implemented in a barrel fuselage platform resorting to high-fidelity mesoscale modeling techniques. The methodology benefits from fresh user defined strategies developed in a commercially available finite element analysis environment. It further proposes a new approach for improving the ability to predict deformation in stitched composites, allowing for a better understanding of the intricate behavior and subtleties of stitched aerospace structures.
Human anthropometric traits, while significantly determined by genetic factors, are also affected by an individual’s early life environment. An adult’s body height is a valid indicator of their living conditions in childhood. Parental education has been shown to be one of the key covariates of individuals’ health and height, both in childhood and adulthood. Parental functional literacy has been demonstrated to be another important determinant of child health, but this has largely been overlooked in studies on height. The objective of this study was to analyse the associations between parents’ education, their functional literacy and their children’s adult body height. The study used data for 39,240 individuals from the 2016 wave of the nationally representative Life in Transition Survey (LITS) conducted in 34 countries in Southern and Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Using linear and Poisson models, regression adjustment treatment estimators and multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions, the study analysed the links between mother’s and father’s educational attainment, parental functional literacy, measured by the number of books in the childhood home, and children’s adult height. The models also included other individual and contextual covariates of height. The results demonstrated that mother’s educational attainment and parental functional literacy have independent associations with children’s adult body height. Sufficient literacy skills of the parent may have a positive effect on children’s growth even if parental education is low. These associations remained significant across time. The study also provides evidence of a widening of the height gap for men born in the period just before and after systemic transition in post-socialist societies, which may suggest an increase in social differences in early living standards.
This chapter seeks to locate George IV’s fleeting visit to Edinburgh in what cultural historian Peter de Bolla has described as the domain of the scopic. It does so by focusing on the visual culture of the visit as witnessed in the production of images – both official and unofficial – by various artists, including David Wilkie, John Wilson Ewbank and William Home Lizars. This chapter argues that a multiplicity of visual experiences was proffered by the king’s visit to Edinburgh. Not only in the production of traditional art historical media like paintings, engravings and sculpture, but also in the ways in which the city itself in terms of its body politic, its architectural embellishments (‘the Athens of the North’) and its topographical landscape were described as being displayed to the kKing in a sequence of staged tableaux. He, in turn, is described as being revealed to the gawping gaze of his Scottish subjects.
We introduce coset progressions and Bohr sets, and show that the two notions are roughly equivalent up to Freiman homomorphism. To facilitate the proof of this we introduce lattices and convex bodies and their basic properties, and prove Minkowski’s second theorem from the geometry of numbers.
This chapter looks at the visual and material culture of Jacobitism focusing on a heterogeneous group of objects in the collections of the NMS, V&A and BM, that are defiantly Jacobite in their content and intent. These objects range across media, and across the artistic hierarchies of the so–called fine and decorative arts. There are one–off larger than life portraits of the Jacobite figure heads and their families painted by court artists in the cosmopolitan urban centres of Europe, which were then mass-produced as engravings and published as prints; objects with a distinctive cultural currency, like coins and medals, engraved glassware and embroidered textiles. There are items of dress and adornment, including fans, garters and snuffboxes, that formed part of a corporeal culture of display and concealment. Some of the objects are gendered; others are anamorphic and shape-shifting. Many objects carry inscribed textual mottoes, sometimes in Latin that quote directly from texts including Vergil’s Aeneid. Using the body as a synthesising thematic, the chapter aims to chart the associations of Jacobitism with Scotland though the use of cross–media images and objects, while at the same time, highlighting the possibilities of using such material as tools for historical enquiry.
Growth patterns are known to differ between breastfed and formula-fed infants, but little is known about the relative impact of maternal smoking in pregnancy vs. feeding mode on growth trajectory in infancy. We conducted a secondary analysis of a trial, the TIGGA trial involving 290 healthy infants, to examine whether smoking in pregnancy modified the association between feeding mode and body composition of infants. Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were estimated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Formula-fed infants (n=190) had a higher mean FFM at four months [mean difference (MD): 160g, 95% CI: 50.4, 269.5g, p<0.05)] and six months (MD: 179g, 95% CI: 41.5, 316.9g, p<0.05) compared with the breast-fed infants (n=100). Subgroup analysis of breastfed vs. formula-fed infants by maternal smoking status in pregnancy showed that there were no differences in the FM and FFM between the breastfed and formula-fed infants whose mothers did not smoke in pregnancy. Formula-fed infants whose mothers smoked in pregnancy were smaller at birth and had a lower FM% and higher FFM% at one month compared with infants of non-smoking mothers regardless of feeding mode, but the differences were not significant at other time points. Adequately powered prospective studies with longitudinal follow up, specifically designed to examine the relationship between maternal smoking in pregnancy, feeding mode and the body composition of infants, are warranted to better understand the relative impact of maternal smoking, feeding practice and the growth trajectory of infants.
Shearing during the latter half of pregnancy is a common practice to improve flock health and productivity. Previous studies have demonstrated that shearing pregnant ewes at mid or late pregnancy is associated with an increase in lamb birth weight. In the present study, we used singleton Polypay × Dorset pregnant sheep, to investigate the potential roles of placental function and changes in maternal metabolism in underlying this increased birth weight response. Two groups were randomly established and blocked at enrollment by animal BW, body condition score and subcutaneous adipose tissue depth. The groups were shorn (SH; n = 18) or not (C; n = 20) at gestational day (GD) 107 ± 1 (mean ± SEM). Weekly maternal plasma samples were collected between shearing and birth, but only six samples were assayed for progesterone, pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG1), glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). At birth, sex, birth weight, and newborn body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Maternal BW during mid- to late-pregnancy was similar between groups. Shearing resulted in increased lamb birth weight and BMI (P < 0.05) regardless of fetal sex but did not affect the maternal concentration of PAG1 or progesterone from GDs 100 to 142. After shearing (GD100) and up to lambing, shorn females had higher circulating glucose concentrations (P < 0.05), but not NEFA, compared to the control group. Maternal circulating PAG1, progesterone, glucose or NEFA concentration across pregnancy did not differ according to lamb sex. Across pregnancy, birth weight was positively associated with PAG1 (P < 0.001), but not with progesterone concentrations. In conclusion, weight and BMI at birth were higher in both sexes upon shearing in singleton pregnancies. Despite PAG1 being associated with birth weight, late-pregnancy shearing did not alter the placental endocrine response. Whether other placental factors are altered upon shearing and may influence the increase in birth weight and BMI remain to be investigated.
Parasite distribution among hosts is a fundamental aspect of host–parasite interactions. Aggregated parasite distributions within and across host species are commonly reported and potentially influenced by many factors, whether host or parasite specific, or related to host–parasite encounter and compatibility. Yet, the respective role of each in observed parasite distributions are often unclear. Here, we documented the distribution of the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis sensu lato (s.l.) in two replicate fish host populations. Aggregated distributions were observed in both populations, within and across fish host species. We found a positive abundance–prevalence relationship across fish species, suggesting that resource availability (fish host biomass density) was the main driver of P. laevis s.l. distribution. This was supported by further positive associations between mean parasite load and fish biomass density. We found little evidence for intensity-dependent regulation within host (i.e. intra-host competition among co-infecting parasites). Furthermore, P. laevis s.l. infection had no detectable effect on fish condition indices, except on the body condition of female barbel (Barbus barbus). Therefore, P. laevis s.l. tended to accumulate with size/age within fish species, and with fish biomass density among fish species, with apparently negligible limitations due to intra-host intensity-dependent regulation of parasite, or to parasite-induced morbidity in fish. The relative availability of final hosts for trophic transmission thus appears to be the main driver of P. laevis s.l. distribution among fish.
Although the whip is a common tool that has been used for thousands of years, there have been very few studies on its dynamic behavior. With the advance of modern technology, designing and building softbody robot whips has become feasible. This paper presents a study on the modeling and experimental testing of a robot whip. The robot whip is modeled using a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM). The PRBM consists of a number of pseudo-rigid-links and pseudo-revolute-joints just like a multi-linkage pendulum. Because of its large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) and inherited underactuation, the robot whip exhibits prominent transient chaotic behavior. In particular, depending on the initial driving force, the chaos may start sooner or later, but will die down because of the gravity and air damping. The dynamic model is validated by experiments. It is interesting to note that with the same amount of force, the robot whip can generate a velocity more than 3 times and an acceleration up to 43 times faster than that of its rigid counterpart. This gives the robot whip some potential applications, such as whipping, wrapping and grabbing. This study also helps to develop other soft-body robots that involve nonlinear dynamics.
This paper argues that analyses of the gendered character of welfare states should be broadened to include women’s share of board and executive roles, as well as the affirmative-action policies (e.g. gender boardroom quotas) that help to overcome the gender stereotypes (e.g. women are ‘nice’, men are ‘assertive’) and opaque selection procedures at the root of this. Such indicators may seem beyond the remit of social policy analysis, which is concerned foremost with the analysis of ‘social risk’. However, drawing on evidence from across multiple disciplines, this paper argues that achieving a ‘critical mass’ of women in board and executive positions can bring women’s issues onto companies’ agendas and lead to the adoption of female-friendly practices, policies, and cultures at the firm level. Crucially, these practices, policies, and cultures can help to reduce the incidence of gendered social risks (employment/care conflicts, economic dependence on a partner) and sexual harassment among women at lower levels of the labour market. Thus, the paper highlights another dimension to the social-regulatory function of welfare states which has to date been overlooked, namely legislative requirements on companies to achieve gender diversity in their leadership structures.