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Many people present to health services with concern about cognitive symptoms. In a significant proportion those symptoms are not the result of pathologically defined brain disease. In some they are part of a functional cognitive disorder (FCD). We assessed the frequency of cognitive lapses in a non-clinical sample in order to consider the utility of frequency of cognitive lapses in diagnosing cognitive disorders.
Healthy adults, who had never sought help for cognitive symptoms, completed a questionnaire, distributed via social media, about self-evaluation of cognitive function, frequency of cognitive lapses, and use of memory aids, including Schmitdke and Metternich’s functional memory disorder (FMD) inventory.
One hundred and twenty-four adults, aged 18–59 (median 23), most with further or higher education, responded. Thirty-one (25%) reported “fair” or “poor” memory. Forty-eight (39%) reported memory worse than 5 years ago, and 30 (24%) reported memory worse than others the same age. Participants endorsed a mean 13/18 specific cognitive lapses at least monthly. One hundred and eleven (89%) scored ≥4, the suggested cutoff for the FMD inventory.
Cognitive lapses described in FCDs are common in highly educated adults. The high frequency of lapses in this healthy population suggests self-reported frequency of lapses alone cannot discriminate FCDs from “normal” experiences. Further research is required to clarify the role of abnormal metacognition in FCD. Better understanding of the factors moderating subjective interpretation of cognitive failures will also aid development of better clinical risk-stratification methods in people concerned about future dementia.
Premature ejaculation (PE) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are prevalent sexual problems, with evidence to suggest variation across sexual orientation. Contributing factors have traditionally been divided into organic and psychological categories. While limited research has found support for the influence of metacognitive beliefs, these studies did not investigate potential differences in sexual orientation.
The current study aimed to investigate the differences in metacognitive beliefs in men with or without PE and/or ED and whether these varied according to sexual orientation.
A sample of 531 men was recruited (65 met criteria for PE only, 147 for ED, 83 with PE and ED, and 236 healthy controls). Within this sample, 188 men identified as heterosexual, 144 as bisexual, and 199 as homosexual. Participants completed a cross-sectional online survey consisting of psychometric measures.
Participants with PE and ED were significantly higher in cognitive confidence, thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger, and need to control thoughts than PE only, ED only, and healthy controls. Furthermore, the PE only group was significantly higher than healthy controls for cognitive confidence, with the ED significantly higher for thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger. There were no significant differences between differing sexual orientations for men with/or without PE and/or ED.
Congruent with previous research, metacognitive beliefs play a role in PE and/or ED, although this is not exclusive to sexual orientation. The findings highlight that assessment and intervention regarding metacognitive beliefs may be beneficial for men of all sexual orientations with PE and/or ED.
Research suggests that the metacognitive model is applicable to clinical child populations. However, few measures related to the model are available for younger age groups. A key concept of the model is the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), which encompasses the individual’s worry and rumination, maladaptive coping strategies, and metacognitive beliefs. While the CAS has been successfully measured in adults, this has not yet been attempted in children.
The aim of this study was to adapt a measure of the CAS for use with children and investigate the measure’s associations with anxiety, worry, depression and metacognitions.
Our study included 127 children with anxiety disorders aged 7–13 years. The adult measure of CAS was adapted for use with children and administered at pre- and post-treatment. We examined the correlations between variables and the ability of the CAS measure to explain variance in anxious symptomatology, as well as the measure’s sensitivity to treatment change.
The adapted measure, CAS-1C, displayed strong associations with overall anxiety, depression, worry and metacognitions. The CAS-1C explained an additional small amount of variance in anxiety and worry symptoms after accounting for metacognitions, which may be due to the measure also assessing thinking styles and coping strategies. Furthermore, the measure displayed sensitivity to treatment change.
The child measure of the CAS is a brief tool for collecting information on metacognitive beliefs and strategies that maintain psychopathology according to the metacognitive model, and it can be used to monitor treatment changes in these components.
Psychotherapy research aims to investigate predictors and moderators of treatment outcome, but there are few consistent findings. This study aimed to investigate cytokines in patients undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders and whether the level of cytokines moderated the treatment outcome. Thirty-seven patients with comorbid and treatment-resistant anxiety disorders were investigated using multilevel modelling. Serum cytokine levels were measured three times: pretreatment, in the middle of treatment, and at the end of treatment. Anxiety and metacognitions were measured weekly throughout treatment by self-report. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not change during therapy or were not related to the level of anxiety. Metacognitive beliefs predicted anxiety, but the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety was not moderated by cytokines. Limitations of the study include that the patients were not fasting at blood sampling, and we did not assess body mass index, which may affect cytokine levels. The lack of significance for cytokines as a predictor or moderator may be due to a lack of power for testing moderation hypotheses, a problem associated with many psychotherapy studies. Cytokines did not predict the outcome in the treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders in our sample. Furthermore, cytokines did not moderate the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety.
Chapter 3 explains the blending process – a thoughtful combination of F2 F and online component. This chapter delineates what the process entails and describes the BLL path. Readers will understand the crucial aspects of the pedagogical plan at the base of the blending process in order to guide a successful blending process. To this end, the chapter identifies and explains the essential organization of the blended path and differentiates between its two main types: input front-loading and input back-loading.
Recent studies in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have suggested that AD patients are not always able to rely on their feeling of familiarity to improve their memory decisions to the same extent as healthy participants. This underuse of familiarity in AD could result from a learned reinterpretation of fluency as a poor cue for memory that would prevent them to attribute a feeling of fluency to a previous encounter. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether AD patients could relearn the association between processing fluency and past exposure after being repeatedly exposed to situations where using this association improves the accuracy of their memory decisions.
Thirty-nine patients with probable AD were recruited and asked to complete several recognition tests. During these tests, participants were put either in a condition where the positive contingency between fluent processing and previous encounters with an item was systematically confirmed (intervention condition) or in a condition where there was no correlation between fluency and prior exposure (control condition). The efficacy of the intervention was evaluated at three time points (baseline, posttest, and 3-month follow-up).
Our results indicated that all AD patients do not benefit to the same extent from the training. Two variables appeared to influence the likelihood that participants increase and maintain their reliance on the fluency cues after the intervention: the ability to detect the fluency manipulation and the preservation of implicit metacognitive skills.
These findings indicate the importance of metacognition for inferential attribution processes in memory.
Self-regulated learning (SRL) involves a system of cyclically related, goal-directed skills and processes that students can use to overcome academic challenges and to optimize their success in school. Although there are many complex models of SRL, the purpose of this chapter is to distill key themes among prominent SRL theories and to provide practical guidelines for incorporating SRL principles into classroom instruction or direct service activities with students. In this chapter, we describe how students can be taught to engage in a cyclical process of SRL involving the use of metacognitive skills (i.e., setting goals, planning, and evaluating), strategic thinking and action, and adaptive motivational beliefs. The authors also illustrate how educators can support SRL skills by fostering a supportive learning environment encompassing five key principles (e.g., helping students set clear and relevant goals, talking in the language of strategies) and/or by implementing established school-based SRL intervention programs. The characteristics of a SRL intervention program, called the Self-Regulation Empowerment Program (SREP), concrete SRL case scenarios, and supplemental resources are also emphasized.
In neurological diseases, metacognitive judgements have been widely used in order to assess the degree of disease awareness. However, as yet little research of this type has focused on multiple sclerosis (MS).
We here focused on an investigation of item-by-item metacognitive predictions (using feeling-of-knowing judgements) in episodic and semantic memory and global metacognitive predictions in standard neuropsychological tests pertinent to MS (processing speed and verbal fluency). Twenty-seven relapsing–remitting MS (RR-MS) patients and 27 comparison participants took part.
We found that RR-MS patients were as accurate as the group of comparison participants on our episodic and semantic item-by-item judgements. However, for the global predictions, we found that the MS group initially overestimated their performance (ds = .64), but only on a task on which performance was also impaired (ds = .89; processing speed). We suggest that MS patients, under certain conditions, show inaccurate metacognitive knowledge. However, postdictions and item-by-item predictions indicate that online metacognitive processes are no different from participants without MS.
We conclude that there is no monitoring deficit in RR-MS and as such these patients should benefit from adaptive strategies and symptom education.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common in youths. However, our understanding of SAD in children is inferior to that of SAD in adolescents or adults, and it is unclear if known adult SAD maintenance mechanisms may also operate in children with SAD.
The paper sets out to investigate the specificity of positive automatic thoughts, social threat negative automatic thoughts, repetitive negative thinking, positive and negative metacognitions in predicting SAD symptoms and diagnoses in clinically anxious children.
We enrolled 122 clinically anxious children aged 7–13 years; of these, 33 had an SAD diagnosis.
SAD symptoms correlated positively with social threat negative automatic thoughts, repetitive negative thinking, and negative metacognitions, and negatively with positive automatic thoughts. Linear regression indicated that, of these variables, only social threat negative automatic thoughts predicted social anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression indicated that social threat negative automatic thoughts, a higher number of diagnoses and negative metacognitive beliefs specifically predicted the presence of SAD diagnosis.
Our findings suggest that content-specific social threat negative automatic thoughts was the only variable that specifically distinguished both higher levels of social anxiety symptoms and diagnoses.
The term ‘metalinguistic’ is used to define the kind of ability whereby people for various purposes view language as an object. It is strongly associated with consciousness and touches on many aspects of literacy, multilingualism and language acquisition. Discussions in the research literature have generally been on specific aspects of metalinguistic knowledge: the time is ripe for a more fundamental reassessment focusing on how exactly metalinguistic ability is represented and processed on line, and how it fits in with other kinds of representation and processing. To this end, a particular theoretical perspective that takes into account contemporary research in cognitive science, the Modular Cognition Framework, will be applied with the aim of supporting further empirical investigations into this area of language ability and locating it within an integrated approach to cognition in general. Finally, the usefulness of metalinguistic knowledge will be briefly considered.
In Chapter 2: Prepare Yourself, you will prepare yourself for your journey by exploring self-reflective practice and the role of mindfulness. Self-reflection and mindfulness are important skills that are integral to learning. You are given the opportunity to engage in self-reflection throughout the workbook. In this chapter, you will also consider the impact of instructor presence on your adult learners.
Chapter 20 discusses the importance of good speaking skills and strategies, and its authors present the findings about what a good language teacher does to draw on pedagogical content knowledge for speaking instruction.
The present study explored the relationships between metacognition, perceived stress and negative emotion. A sample consisted of 150 high school teacher completed the following questionnaires: metacognitions questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), perceived stress scale (PSS), and negative affect (PANAS). The data were analyzed applying hierarchical regression analysis. Metacognition was found to be significantly related with both perceived stress and negative emotion. hierarchical regression analysis showed that metacognition moderates the relationship between perceived stress and negative emotion. The results supported this hypothesis. These preliminary results would seem to suggest that individual differences in metacognition are relevant to understanding the link between perceived stress and negative emotion.
Deficits in metacognition are one of the major causes of the difficulties experienced by individuals with schizophrenia. Studies have linked these deficits to symptom exacerbation and deterioration in psychosocial functioning. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the extensive existing literature regarding metacognitive deficits among persons with schizophrenia; a further aim was to assess the extent to which metacognitive abilities are linked to outcome measures of symptoms and psychosocial functioning.
We conducted a systematic literature search of studies examining the relationship between metacognitive abilities and outcome measures among people with schizophrenia. We then analyzed the data using a random-effects meta-analytic model with Cohen's d standardized mean effect size.
Heterogeneity analyses (k = 32, Cohen's d = −.12, 95% CI.−1.92 to 1.7) produced a significant Q-statistic (Q = 456.89) and a high amount of heterogeneity, as indicated by the I2 statistic (93.04%), suggesting that moderator analyses were appropriate. As hypothesized, measure type moderated the metacognitive deficit with homogenous effect for psychosocial functioning measures (Q = 9.81, I2 = 19.47%, d = .94. 95% CI .58 to 1.2) and symptoms (Q = 19.87, I2 = 0%, d = −1.07, 95% CI −1.18 to −.75). Further analysis found homogenous effects for MAS-A subscales as well as PANSS factors of symptoms.
Our meta-analysis results illustrated a significant association between metacognitive deficits and both symptomatic and psychosocial functioning measures. These links suggest that the associations between metacognitive abilities and symptomatic outcomes are different from those between metacognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning measures. Intriguing hypotheses are raised regarding the role that metacognitive abilities play in both symptoms and psychosocial functioning measures of people diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
The short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) is a brief multi-dimensional measure which explores the metacognitive processes and beliefs about worry and cognition that are central to the vulnerability and maintenance of emotional disorders.
The first aim of the study was to create and validate a French version of the MCQ-30 in a non-clinical and a clinical sample of depressed in-patients.
A French adaptation of the MCQ-30 was administered to a sample of 467 individuals from the general population and 73 hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients. Factor structure was assessed using a confirmatory factor analysis on the non-clinical group and a multi-trait–multi-method analysis on the psychiatric group. Criterion validity was explored by comparing the scores of the two samples. Measures of rumination, worry and depression were used to explore convergent validity.
Confirmatory factor analysis in the non-clinical sample indicated that the French version of the MCQ-30 has the same factor structure as the MCQ-30’s original five-factor solution. In the clinical sample, the multi-trait–multi-method analysis revealed discrepancies with the original factor structure, and the MCQ-30 and its subscales were less reliable. Our results provide evidence of a convergent validity. The MCQ-30 scores were also able to discriminate between psychiatric and non-clinical samples.
Our results show that the French version of the MCQ-30 is a valid instrument for measuring metacognitive beliefs in non-clinical population. Further research is needed to support its use among depressed in-patients.
Everyone will likely acknowledge that attitudes such as curiosity and interest are vitally important for learning, and that young children ask so many questions because they are intensely curious and interested in the world around them. But the nature of these questioning attitudes themselves is poorly understood. Indeed, many have a mistaken view of them – or so I will claim. In consequence, many are led to give mistaken accounts of the cognitive processes that underlie children’s asking and answering of questions, too. This matters, both for our understanding of childhood development generally and for designing interventions that are intended to help children learn. This chapter has two main goals. One is to offer a fresh set of conceptual resources for those wanting to understand childhood development – specifically, the likely existence from infancy of a set of first–order, non–metacognitive, questioning attitudes. The second is to suggest that the early question–asking and question–answering behavior of infants and toddlers is best understood as expressive of such attitudes, rather than providing evidence of early metacognition.
This chapter examines how critical thinking and a dual-process theory of thinking are related to endorsement of unsubstantiated knowledge claims. Rejecting unsubstantiated claims, such as psychological misconceptions and pseudoscience, is associated with being more inclined and better able to think critically. In dual-process theory terms, people who endorse more unsubstantiated claims tend to rely more on intuitive thinking and less on rational-analytic thinking. Helping people to resist making a rapid, intuitive response to unsubstantiated claims and instead to take a slower, more rational, critical thinking approach can help them reject such claims.
Because anyone can publish their thoughts on the Internet without professional gatekeeping, readers routinely encounter misinformation. Unfortunately, people appear to forego critical thinking when reading online. On the one hand, readers appear to prioritize inaccurate information that allows them to preserve their pre-existing misconceptions. On the other hand, readers with accurate pre-existing understandings are also prone to acquiring new misinformation they encounter on the Internet. Critical thinking can help people overcome pre-existing misconceptions through a comparison process with accurate conceptions, as can critically evaluating website credibility based on available source features. Critical thinking can also help people avoid or quickly discard novel misinformation they encounter through an evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information sources. Digital technologies can play a major role in training students how to avoid, detect, and handle misinformation on the web, although they may require long periods of instruction to maximize learning.
Cumulative technological culture (CTC) refers to the increase in the efficiency and complexity of tools and techniques in human populations over generations. A fascinating question is to understand the cognitive origins of this phenomenon. Because CTC is definitely a social phenomenon, most accounts have suggested a series of cognitive mechanisms oriented toward the social dimension (e.g., teaching, imitation, theory of mind, and metacognition), thereby minimizing the technical dimension and the potential influence of non-social, cognitive skills. What if we have failed to see the elephant in the room? What if social cognitive mechanisms were only catalyzing factors and not the sufficient and necessary conditions for the emergence of CTC? In this article, we offer an alternative, unified cognitive approach to this phenomenon by assuming that CTC originates in non-social cognitive skills, namely technical-reasoning skills which enable humans to develop the technical potential necessary to constantly acquire and improve technical information. This leads us to discuss how theory of mind and metacognition, in concert with technical reasoning, can help boost CTC. The cognitive approach developed here opens up promising new avenues for reinterpreting classical issues (e.g., innovation, emulation vs. imitation, social vs. asocial learning, cooperation, teaching, and overimitation) in a field that has so far been largely dominated by other disciplines, such as evolutionary biology, mathematics, anthropology, archeology, economics, and philosophy.
Academic interest in the concept of insight in psychosis has increased markedly over the past 30 years, prompting this selective appraisal of the current state of the art. Considerable progress has been made in terms of measurement and confirming a number of clinical associations. More recently, the relationship between insight and involuntary treatment has been scrutinised more closely alongside the link between decision-making capacity and insight. Advances in the clinical and cognitive neurosciences have influenced conceptual development, particularly the field of ‘metacognition’. New therapies, including those that are psychologically and neurophysiologically based, are being tested as ways to enhance insight.