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The Northern Territories Protectorate and its people were located on the economic and political margins of Britain's Gold Coast Crown Colony (now Ghana) throughout the colonial period. The article examines how the region's peripherality allowed the Gold Coast Tsetse Control Department to carry out an extensive campaign of bush clearing and resettlement along northern river valleys from the 1930s to 1950s, with little supervision by the Gold Coast Medical Department or northern officials. Intended to control human and animal sleeping sickness and to meet the economic preferences of the colony's central administration, this campaign had the effect of greatly increasing the exposure of northern communities to another disease, onchocerciasis, causing widespread blindness and contributing to a serious public health crisis in the early independence era.
The desire to maintain the sustainable development of humanity is widespread. In the present chapter, it is proposed that Alphabet’s capacity to shape this concern far outstrips that of most other organizations combined. Nevertheless, the megacorporation’s potential to sustain humanity’s development is not universally regarded as a net positive. In recognizing thus, the chapter posits that Alphabet’s current impact on our social futures should be conceived as simultaneously having a more authoritarian, and a more autonomous, element to it. Whilst the exact nature of Alphabet’s impact on our social futures remains to be seen, the chapter’s concluding summary emphasizes – in anticipation of the discussions that begin the book’s third and final part – that the megacorporation’s interest in sustaining our future existence is not just consistent with, but positively enabled by, the custodial role it plays with regards to our personal and social pasts.
Energy usage by an exponentially increasing human population has created environmental problems that are stressing several ecosystems on earth. The concept of eco-exergy (which is not equivalent to mechanical work) has been used to explain the relationship between energy use and the formation of complex organisms in ecosystems. The harmonious co-existence in ecosystems has inspired the notion of industrial ecology as a paradigm for the improvement of exergetic efficiencies and complete utilization of resources. The exergy-environment nexus and the implications of exergy analyses on sustainable development are critically examined in this chapter. Environmental exergonomics, exergoenvironmental analysis that includes eco-indicators, life-cycle exergy analysis, and sustainability indices are theoretical tools that use exergy and other thermodynamic variables to define the state of the environment and to recommend industrial practices that would alleviate the detrimental effects of energy use and would promote global environmental stewardship and sustainability.
There is no discipline called “Islamic environmental law”. While Islamic law is proclaimed as a source of the legal system in the constitutions of Muslim countries, it is generally not used for the purpose of nature conservation. However, we can find in Islamic law a theoretical and practical foundation for environmental law. All sources of Islamic law can be used for this purpose as they all have a potential ecological application. This chapter explores the sources of Islamic law in order to find avenues to Islamic environmental law and the Atrmospheric Waqf paradigm. In this regard, it analyzes two of the main important legal instruments that could be dedicated to the protection of natural resources and limit climate change impacts (Waqf and Hima).
In February of 1960, the most powerful cyclone in Mauritian history, Carol, made landfall. In its wake, the British colonial state embarked on a reconstruction effort that would reshape the island for decades to come. This study examines how Afro-descendant Creole Mauritians understood Carol at the moment of its landfall and produced social meaning in the reconstruction efforts that followed. It sheds light in particular on the construction of cités, ‘cyclone-proof’ housing estates meant to permanently shelter those left homeless, at a moment when questions of racial coexistence defined debates over the end of empire. It shows that the building of the cités and the prospect of home ownership they allowed would become important touchstones in contemporary Afro-Mauritian notions of belonging and permanence in a society structured by racial exclusion. In so doing, this essay emphasizes the importance of the natural world to narratives of diasporic community in the southwest Indian Ocean.
‘Dementia-friendly communities’ herald a shift toward the neighbourhood as a locus for the care and support of people with dementia, sparking growing interest in the geographies of dementia care and raising questions over the shifting spatial and social experience of the condition. Existing research claims that many people with dementia experience a ‘shrinking world’ whereby the boundaries to their social and physical worlds gradually constrict over time, leading to a loss of control and independence. This paper reports a five-year, international study that investigated the neighbourhood experience of people with dementia and those who care for and support them. We interrogate the notion of a shrinking world and in so doing highlight an absence of attention paid to the agency and actions of people with dementia themselves. The paper draws together a socio-relational and embodied-material approach to question the adequacy of the shrinking world concept as an explanatory framework and to challenge reliance within policy and practice upon notions of place as fixed or stable. We argue instead for the importance of foregrounding ‘lived place’ and attending to social practices and the networks in which such practices evolve. Our findings have implications for policy and practice, emphasising the need to bolster the agency of people living with dementia as a route to fostering accessible and inclusive neighbourhoods.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
Effects that the pandemic will have can scarcely be predicted yet. Many will doubtless pass once the disease has been tamed. Others are likely to become permanent. It seems unlikely that air travel will remain entirely as it was before. Or that work will not have been affected. Will cities recover? Many of the pandemic’s effects will probably be ambiguous. The environment will be helped by the decline of travel but hurt by the shift of travel to private means from public. Deficit financing by governments will have been increased, perhaps permanently. Our toleration of statutory intervention may have increased; indeed, many are disappointed by its lacks, while others decry its excesses. Zoonotic diseases will finally have become recognized as a serious threat to humanity.
In this book, Catherine E. Pratt explores how oil and wine became increasingly entangled in Greek culture, from the Late Bronze Age to the Archaic period. Using ceramic, architectural, and archaeobotanical data, she argues that Bronze Age exchange practices initiated a strong network of dependency between oil and wine production, and the people who produced, exchanged, and used them. After the palatial collapse, these prehistoric connections intensified during the Iron Age and evolved into the large-scale industries of the Classical period. Pratt argues that oil and wine in pre-Classical Greece should be considered 'cultural commodities', products that become indispensable for proper social and economic exchanges well beyond economic advantage. Offering a detailed diachronic account of the changing roles of surplus oil and wine in the economies of pre-classical Greek societies, her book contributes to a broader understanding of the complex interconnections between agriculture, commerce, and culture in the ancient Mediterranean.
Twenty-first-century poets, particularly queer Indigenous and queer of color poets, have taken particular interest in lyric, its excesses, and its transformative potential. Queer Indigenous and queer of color poets make clear that the relationships that make and sustain life are not merely those between human selves. The poems discussed retain the physicality associated with the lyric voice but reject its fantasy of a self-organizing, independent consciousness. They explore what might happen when the speaker's crystalline singularity is shattered – first, by a more accurate conception of the interdependence of living beings; and second, by historical and contemporary conditions of mass death. Tommy Pico’s Nature Poem makes astute use of the conventions of lyric poetry and its associated reading practices in order to invoke, if not inaugurate something different – poetry that disidentifies with the form of the person and that radically expands the tripartite relation of speaker, addressee, and audience that structures the American lyric tradition.
Poetry emerging under the sign of the Anthropocene must, like all cultural work, contend with the terminal horizon of climate change. New levels of social and environmental complexity open up the possibility for, and the necessity of, uncommon forms of solidarity, in resistance movements run through with insurmountable difference. Poetry that resonates with the chants of protests and, provoked by the indeterminate cloud architecture of digital networks, attempts to weave what cannot be woven, convokes these forms of solidarity while exposing the seams of difference. One important seam is a temporal difference between those for whom the Anthropocene harbors an imminent collective future and those for whom it names a long and already too present collective experience of oppression. In many respects, place rather than identity, site rather than form or figure, determine the trajectories of this writing. Discussing poetry by Juliana Spahr, Danez Smith, Stephen Collis, and Layli Long Soldier, this chapter sounds some of the key differences activating the uncommon solidarities of North American poetry in the emergent awareness of the Anthropocene.
This article concentrates on the interconnected past, present and future of telecommunications and the environment in the Arctic. It brings together discussions on the natural environment, sustainable development and connectivity in and through the Arctic and focuses on fixed-line infrastructure. This study builds on the theoretical literature on infrastructure, infrastructuring and pipeline ecologies and demonstrates how the peculiar features of the Arctic, such as coldness, snow and ice, ground frost and permafrost affect telecommunication lines, and how this infrastructure impacts the environment in which it is built. Similarly, the environmental conditions, paired with long distances, small populations and limited economic opportunities, affect the infrastructuring processes and the selection of technologies, as well as their spatial extent, quality and the speed of their expansion. While the construction of telecommunication lines supports the exploitation of natural resources in and beyond the different parts of the circumpolar North, it also plays a role in the observation and protection of the Arctic.
There is evidence from the development and humanitarian sectors that purposeful engagement of women can increase the impact of development. We conducted a literature review to examine whether this is also evident in conservation and natural resource management. The following themes emerged from our review: existing societal and cultural norms affect and generally limit how women can engage in conservation and natural resource management; women interact differently with the environment than men, so if they are excluded, their knowledge and perspectives on particular resources may not be considered in conservation actions; and there is often a lack of resources or dedicated effort by conservation or natural resource management programmes to understand and address the barriers that prevent women's engagement. Although there was evidence of a positive relationship between the engagement of women and environmental outcomes, some studies showed that positive conservation outcomes do not necessarily benefit women, and when women are not considered, conservation activities can perpetuate existing inequities. We conclude that although the importance of integrating gender into conservation is acknowledged in the literature, there is a need to examine how women can be meaningfully engaged in conservation. This must go beyond treating women as a homogenous group, to consider intersectionality including race, ethnicity, age, religion, poverty and disability. In addition, conservation and natural resource management institutions need to address the inclusion of women in their own staff and programmes.
Using a combination of computer model simulations and evidence derived from natural and textual archives, scholars have come to understand that climate change shaped the human history of North America from first settlement to the present. The advance and retreat of continent-straddling ice sheets during the Pleistocene sculpted its distinctive landscape, while the smaller oscillations of the relatively warm Medieval Climate Anomaly and the cooler Little Ice Age influenced the fate of its peoples. Since the nineteenth century, warming driven by human greenhouse gas emissions increased the likelihood of weather extremes that inspired political and social change across the United States. It is in this dynamic context that ideas of climate change found expression in American literary culture.
Habraken's Structure of the Ordinary (SOTO), Jacobs' view of cities, and Ostrom's Design Principles and Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework focus on essential elements and relationships for the effective governance of the environment. However, they have different perspectives about what is necessary for successful governance. This article compares and contrasts Habraken's, Jacobs', and Ostrom's views and applies them to Common Interest Developments (CIDs). Habraken, Jacobs, and Habraken discuss the importance of public territory. Habraken views public territory as relative: a territory in a built environment can be private relative to a larger, or higher level, territory, and public relative to an included, lower level, territory. Jacobs discusses the importance of connections and accommodating strangers without sacrificing safety. Ostrom views common-pool resources as goods whose use causes less to be available to others. For their part, CIDs represent a particular governance vehicle for defining what is public and private in large residential developments. For both Habraken and Ostrom, the transformation of the physical environment reflects agents' common values constrained by material, technical, cultural, and economic conditions. Rather than one mutual understanding, Jacobs wrote that balancing the commercial and the guardian values is crucial for society's health and survival.
Suicide in the US has increased in the last decade, across virtually every age and demographic group. Parallel increases have occurred in non-fatal self-harm as well. Research on suicide across the world has consistently demonstrated that suicide shares many properties with a communicable disease, including person-to-person transmission and point-source outbreaks. This essay illustrates the communicable nature of suicide through analogy to basic infectious disease principles, including evidence for transmission and vulnerability through the agent–host–environment triad. We describe how mathematical modeling, a suite of epidemiological methods, which the COVID-19 pandemic has brought into renewed focus, can and should be applied to suicide in order to understand the dynamics of transmission and to forecast emerging risk areas. We describe how new and innovative sources of data, including social media and search engine data, can be used to augment traditional suicide surveillance, as well as the opportunities and challenges for modeling suicide as a communicable disease process in an effort to guide clinical and public health suicide prevention efforts.
Young children have a natural affinity for the outdoors, and this can be enhanced to develop a sense of wonder for, and delight in, the outdoor environment. There are a range of settings in which nature play occurs including the child’s regular outdoor kindergarten setting and the recent movement towards establishing bush or nature kinders. Wilson (2018, p.12) describes nature play as ‘not just any type of outdoor play … [it] involves playing with nature, not just in nature’. Children’s behaviour is increasingly sedentary and they have become disconnected from the environment. There has, however, been a movement that has reacted to these problems. Children are now more globally aware of issues associated with the environment and sustainability. This chapter discusses a growing worldwide phenomenon where young children are taken into an outside environment (other than the school or early childhood centre) for play during formal learning time and looks at the science learning that can occur in this setting. Considering a range of outdoor settings, this chapter highlights the benefits of the outside environment for children’s development and science learning. It presents ways in which young children can be provided with meaningful outdoor experiences that enhance their science and environmental understandings. Affordances for science learning through play that embrace ‘bush’ or ‘beach’ kindergarten time are described. This chapter also discusses how early years educators can enhance children’s affinity with the environment through a variety of pedagogical approaches.
Caribbean eco-poetics takes the categorial imperative – the culmination of the long history of Western separation of human and nature in the Enlightenment/colonial mandate to categorize and systematize, to collect and enclose, to divide and conquer – as part of the violence of colonialism. Caribbean eco-poetics offers ways of articulating the endless transitions, the perpetual revolutions, and the inextricable imbrications of humans with not only nature, animals and things but also of all those with spirits, folk figures and divine forces that are endemic in the Caribbean. This essay examines how Caribbean eco-poetics return to the colonial archive to examine the naturalization of the categorial imperative and to recuperate its victims, reconfigure the garden and gardening as ways to reinhabit and reconfigure the categorial imperative, write worlds where indifferences of human, animal, spirit, genre are manifest, and include indifference to binary gender and heteronormativity.
This chapter focuses on colonial military ventures against frontier communities, which were widely deployed throughout the nineteenth century. It foregrounds previously overlooked debates between administrators and soldiers on dynamics of state and tribal violence in Baluchistan, the Naga Hills, and along the Punjab frontier. Despite environmental and social differences, in northeast and northwest alike, administrators frequently argued that violence could be a method of educating ostensibly refractory tribes, which could be punished legitimately as a corporate body. The colonial also often employed frontier inhabitants as agents of colonial violence, deriving an unstable form of power from the very methods it derided as barbaric. The chapter shows that this was just one of many tensions within colonial frontier violence. Many administrators viewed it as ineffective, believed that it threatened the moral basis of imperial rule, and advanced contrasting conceptions of an individualised tribal subject.