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Chapter 1 compares two contemporary Argentine novels that deal with Nazism in allegorical ways. Patricio Pron’s El comienzo de la primavera establishes a dialogue between the German and Argentine post-dictatorship contexts. In doing so, Pron highlights the inevitable insufficiency of justice in relation to dictatorship crimes, or that which Brett Levinson calls ‘radical injustice’. The novel’s melancholic register and parallels between two distinct historical moments lend themselves to an examination with reference to Walter Benjamin’s theory of allegory. In Wakolda, Lucía Puenzo examines the activities of Josef Mengele in Argentina but, contrary to Pron, rejects parallels with events related to the dictatorship or post-dictatorship. Instead, she foregrounds the foundational reliance of the Argentine nation on forms of ‘immunization’ (Esposito) and ‘necropolitics’ (Mbembe): the exploitative labour of a racialized mass that are rhetorically and materially excluded from the benefits of being ‘Argentine’ in both the past and the present.
Chapter 9 focuses on transitional justice, the challenge of tackling past human rights violations, in contemporary Latin America. It shows that the record of Latin American countries varies considerably, but that, in the aggregate, the record of Latin America is largely a success story. The frequency with which past human rights violations have been addressed, and the steps taken through truth commissions and human rights trials, puts Latin America at the center of the global transitional justice movement. It also demonstrates, through a comparative analysis of six countries (Brazil and Mexico, El Salvador and Guatemala, Chile and Argentina), that several factors determine the response to past human rights violations. Democracies that are strong and channel citizen preferences succeed in confronting the challenge of transitional justice. Additionally, a strong record of transitional justice is associated with strong civil society organizations, generational change and new legal thinking about human rights law in the judiciary, and progressive developments in international law.
Las valoraciones de los ciudadanos sobre un tema están influidas por el frame que construyen los medios de comunicación. En Argentina, los diarios locales ocupan un lugar destacado en el menú de consumo de información y están con frecuencia en manos de empresarios asociados al poder político de turno. Nos preguntamos si la cobertura que hacen de las noticias económicas responde a algún patrón generalizable y, de existir variaciones, qué las explica. A partir del análisis de las portadas de veintidós diarios, publicadas durante la campaña electoral de 2017, mostramos que existe un sesgo pro gobierno en la cobertura de noticias económicas locales, que beneficia al oficialismo local. Dicho alineamiento se profundiza cuanto más concentrado se encuentra el poder en los jefes de gobierno locales y cuanto mayor es el carácter rentista de esas polities. A la vez, las noticias económicas nacionales tienen una probabilidad mayor de recibir un encuadre positivo cuando son publicadas por diarios que reciben pauta oficial nacional, cuando el mandatario local es copartidario del presidente y mientras más años lleva en el cargo. La pertenencia de los diarios a grupos mediáticos también afecta el encuadre de las noticias, aumentando el sesgo pro gobierno de las noticias locales pero disminuyéndolo en las noticias nacionales.
The Vulnerable marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus, the largest native cervid in South America, is declining throughout its range as a result of the conversion of wetlands and overhunting. Estimated densities in open wetlands of several types are 0.1–6.8 individuals per km2. We undertook the first unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) survey of the marsh deer to estimate the density of this species in a 113.6 km2 area under forestry management in the lower delta of the Paraná River, Argentina. During 6–8 August 2019, at a time of year when canopy cover is minimal, we surveyed marsh deer using Phantom 4 Pro UAVs along 94 transects totalling 127.8 km and 8.6 km2 (8.1% of the study area). The 5,506 photographs obtained were manually checked by us and by a group of 39 trained volunteers, following a standardized protocol. We detected a total of 58 marsh deer, giving an estimated density of 6.90 individuals per km2 (95% CI 5.26–8.54), which extrapolates to 559–908 individuals in our 113.6 km2 study area. As it has generally been assumed that marsh deer prefer open habitats, this relatively high estimate of density within a forestry plantation matrix is unexpected. We discuss the advantages of using UAVs to survey marsh deer and other related ungulates.
Desde formas y latitudes distintas, existen llamamientos a la globalización de la educación superior. Pero, ¿qué es lo que realmente se pide? Este artículo examina los programas de enseñanza de teoría y crítica literaria de Argentina, un país históricamente atravesado por el pensamiento europeo, con una sólida producción académica. Encontramos que los programas priorizan la producción nacional y una selección de obras internacionales, con inclinación hacia el pensamiento francés. Estos resultados se explican por la ecología institucional y la distribución intelectual del trabajo entre las instituciones más antiguas y prestigiosas que se centran en el ámbito nacional y las más recientes, con mayor inclinación internacional. También se explican por el peso de la traducción, que permite mayor acceso a materiales. Además, encontramos bibliografía realizada por fuera de América Latina, Europa y Estados Unidos, de académicos globalizados que dejaron sus países de origen para estudiar en Europa y Estados Unidos.
Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la colección del sitio Puente del Diablo (SSalLap20) ubicado en la cabecera del Valle Calchaquí (La Poma, Salta, Argentina). Mediante el estudio de los materiales, registros, libretas de campo y nuevos análisis, se caracterizan cuatro enterratorios, dos de inicios del Holoceno con modalidades funerarias no descritas previamente. Asimismo, se caracteriza el material lítico, faunístico y vegetal; en este último caso se reportan especies domesticadas, entre ellas una semilla de poroto fechada por AMS, siendo el registro directo más temprano del valle. Los enterratorios aportan no sólo al entendimiento de la funebria en los albores del Holoceno —práctica que cuenta con escasos registros en la región— sino también al fechado directo más temprano sobre restos humanos de la zona valliserrana del Noroeste argentino.
This chapter explores the trajectories of those activists who fail to develop attachment to their organizations. It argues that understanding disengagement from activism requires us to distinguish not simply between those who continue to participate and those who leave, but also separate individuals whose reasons for leaving are external (i.e., they face insurmountable obstacles to continued involvement), from people whose motives are internal (i.e., they do not find participation appealing enough). With that purpose, it introduces the distinction between potential dropouts (those who continue participating because they lack a better alternative), voluntary dropouts (those who choose to leave the movement for a more effective source of income), and reluctant dropouts (those who disengage forced by special circumstances). The chapter concludes by arguing that potential and voluntary dropouts have in common the fact that participation does not become an end in itself, while reluctant dropouts share with long-term participants “resistance to quitting”, a strong (but not infallible) inclination to overcome obstacles to participation.
This chapter analyzes the transformations in Argentinean society since the 1970s, describing how the symbolic and material repercussions of deindustrialization concentrated on vulnerable segments of the population. Neoliberal reforms not only undermined the means of sustenance for poor families but also dislocated much of the taken-for-granted attitudes and habits that organized life in working-class neighborhoods. Regardless of their specific experiences, respondents highlight that when jobs were plentiful life was difficult yet predictable. Residents of poor areas had a sense of what they needed to do in order to make a living, keep their relatives safe, and accumulate resources. Widespread joblessness, state neglect, and violence affected the set of agreed-upon expectations and meanings at the core of working-class culture, which allowed people to organize their daily lives and interact with each other with a degree of confidence.
This chapter presents the book’s framework and overall argument. It also describes the book's implications for the field of social movement studies and for the understanding of the consequences of neoliberal globalization. In addition, it includes a brief description of the case of study, an outline of the project’s methodology, and an overview of the chapters ahead.
This chapter focuses on the first way in which piquetero activists engage in working-class routines: reconstruction. It shows how older participants use their practices in the movement to reconstruct routines that once constituted an essential component of their personal identity, but that social changes have rendered impossible. In addition, the chapter elaborates on how this process varies for men and women: while the former engage in activities associated with blue-collar occupations, the latter reenact the type of household duties seen as the counterpart of factory work. Even though paid employment has always been common among working-class Argentinean women, many respondents still idealize the breadwinner/housewife family structure, and link some of the most pressing problems in their communities (crime, drugs, idleness) to the undermining of traditional gender roles.
The conclusion summarizes the book’s findings and discusses its implications. It begins by outlining the overarching lesson from the book (the importance of everyday experiences and concrete motivations for political participation). It then develops this general point into four specific principles applicable to research on other instances of social mobilization. First, habits may be as important for long-term participation as the alignment between personal beliefs and organizational ideologies. Second, activists’ experiences inside and outside of a social movement should be assigned the same explanatory value. Third, social movement scholars must expand their toolkits by borrowing concepts from outside their specific field. Finally, both divergence and conformity with tradition can promote activism. The chapter closes by showing how studying cases like the piqueteros can generate insight about current challenges to democracy in Latin America and the World. Analyzing the complexity of grassroots experiences in the Global South has the potential to challenge established ideas about civic engagement and political participation.
This chapter explores the history of the unemployed workers' movement, analyzing the trajectory of piquetero organizations as part of a broader wave of contention in Latin America. The chapter shows how these organizations developed as networks of neighborhood groups coordinated by a central leadership, with extensive connections to preexisting instances of community life. Organizers were able to draw on established cultural and political traditions at the local level to develop an effective repertoire of contention, which in turn helped their groups become efficient problem-solvers. The chapter then explores how over the last two decades these groups succeeded in accumulating resources and developing cores of committed members, leading to an enduring presence in Argentina’s popular politics. The chapter ends by arguing that individual-level dynamics such as the engagement in practices associated with working-class life played a crucial role in the enduring influence of piquetero networks, by helping them recruit and, most importantly, retain participants.
This chapter describes the second way in which participants in the piquetero movement partake in working-class routines: development. For many activists who came of age since the 1990s, participation in a piquetero organization provides the chance to develop a lifestyle that they were raised to see as honorable, but that socioeconomic transformations have made increasingly unfeasible. In a context with limited opportunities for personal growth, the movement offers a working class ethos, plus the resources and training to exercise it. The chapter also shows how the expectations inculcated to young members reflect the ideal of a proletarian family with a gendered division of labor. Boys tend to enroll in infrastructure projects, while girls are far more likely to choose programs associated with household chores. In addition, even though all young members are compelled to have discipline at work and self-restraint at home, the actual meaning of these ideals is gender-specific. For men, being a responsible worker is associated with manual labor and public life, while for women expectations are framed in terms of modesty, domesticity, and motherhood.
This chapter analyzes the third mechanism for participation in working-class routines: protection. The expansion of unemployment undermined the material conditions for a number of established routines in working-class neighborhoods: Community spaces decayed, drug use became rampant, and interpersonal violence skyrocketed. Hence, wholesome habits associated with communal life (such as spending time in common spaces and sharing resources with neighbors) are perceived to be endangered. In this context of individual and collective deprivation, organizations become oases of socialization where interpersonal trust and altruism is still possible. The chapter concludes by showing how, just like reconstruction and development, protection of routines is a gendered process. It outlines this effect by describing the role of two typical shared tasks within piquetero groups: the male-dominated “security teams” in charge of self-defense; and the “milk cups”, soup kitchens for minors that are almost entirely run by women.
Based on multi-year ethnographic fieldwork on the Unemployed Workers' Movement in Argentina (also known as the piqueteros), Proletarian Lives provides a case study of how workers affected by job loss protect their traditional forms of life by engaging in progressive grassroots mobilization. Using life-history interviews and participant observation, the book analyzes why some activists develop a strong attachment to the movement despite initial reluctance and frequent ideological differences. Marcos Pérez argues that a key appeal of participation is the opportunity to engage in age and gender-specific practices associated with a respectable blue-collar lifestyle threatened by long-term socioeconomic decline. Through their daily involvement in the movement, older participants reconstruct the routines they associate with a golden past in which factory jobs were plentiful, younger activists develop the kind of habits they were raised to see as valuable, and all members protect communal activities undermined by the expansion of poverty and violence.
Democracy in America focuses mainly on the history of the United State and the prospects for Anglo-American democracy. However, it is important to remember that Tocqueville’s celebrated thoughts on the unique qualities of American democracy did not go unnoticed by Spanish American thinkers in the nineteenth century. Like Tocqueville’s France, Latin American nations struggled with similar questions of how to secure the institutional and cultural prerequisites for self-government. As José Antonio Aguilar Rivera reveals in this chapter, there is an important tradition of reading and applying the lessons of Democracy in America in the “other America.” Latin American countries sought to emulate the United States’ success with constitutionalism and representative government, and leading political thinkers turned to Tocqueville for guidance. Despite widespread interest in Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, and Chile, however, these applications of Democracy in America diverged widely from one national context to another. Aguilar Rivera shows how interpreters drew on different arguments, often selectively ignoring others, depending on the unique circumstances and political debates of each country.
Devaluations were traditionally considered to be expansionary in the short run and have no real long-run effects. Alternatively, some observers in developing countries found that devaluations were contractionary on impact, and that they might foster long-term growth. Using Argentina as a case study, which is convenient due to its long series availability and its subsequent switches in exchange rate regimes, four structural shocks are identified in line with the traditional and alternative views. It is found that devaluations were mostly contractionary, and that real long-run effects were only possible when inflation was either low or moderate. In light of the estimates, a historical revision of Argentinean devaluation episodes from 1854 to 2018 has been carried out.
This paper examines the tension between law's opportunity to deliver social transformation and the normative limitations that shape its effectiveness as a tool of social struggle. The role of law's normative limitations on legal mobilisation strategies, or the effect of entrenched social interests on permissible legal claims, has not been properly conceptualised in legal mobilisation scholarship. In response, this paper presents a conceptual framework that comprehends the opportunity and limitation of legal mobilisation as caught in the tension between the interpretive opportunity to redetermine legal meaning and the normative deficit inherent to this task. By re-engaging with the theoretical underpinnings of legal mobilisation, we will evaluate the potential for certain types of social transformation using law and revisit the rationale for strategic legal action. We will bring together our conceptual treatment of legal mobilisation with a sobering analysis of the Argentinian factory recuperation movement's mobilisation of legal demands. The movement's relative success in confronting the legal system's commitment to private property rights and winning protections for worker co-operatives presents an opportunity to learn about the effective potential of legal strategy and the extent to which it can be used to confront the normative commitments of a legal system.
The 1994 Argentine constitutional reforms introduced a plethora of economic, social and cultural rights to the text of the constitution, along with innovative procedural devices for vindicating those rights. More than two decades later, we have a wealth of experience with judicial interpretation and enforcement of these rights, and civil society use of the rights to pursue complex policy goals. This chapter explores that experience and describes the ways in which certain rights – such as the right to health, housing and a healthy environment – have been enforced through judicial orders. It focuses especially on the various ways in which courts have addressed the difficult task of designing, implementing and monitoring solutions to alleged violations of rights, when those violations have complex social and economic roots and any solutions consequently require extensive and long-term state involvement.
Gigantobilharzia Odhner, 1910 (Schistosomatidae) includes species that parasitize several orders of birds and families of gastropods from both freshwater and marine environments worldwide. Due to their delicate bodies, most of the species descriptions are incomplete, and lumped in the genus Gigantobilharzia, in some cases despite major morphological variability. Only three of those species have molecular sequence data but then lack a robust morphological description, making species differentiation very difficult. For this reason, several authors consider that many of the species of Gigantobilharzia should be reassigned to new genera. The aim of this paper is to describe two new genera and two new species of schistosomes using morphological and molecular characterization. We described Marinabilharzia patagonense n. g., n. sp. parasitizing Larus dominicanus from north Patagonian coast, and Riverabilharzia ensenadense n. g., n. sp. parasitizing L. dominicanus, Chroicocephalus maculipennis and Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus from freshwater Río de La Plata, in South America, Argentina. We then analysed and discussed the combinations of characters defining species of Gigantobilharzia and, based on that and on the available molecular data, we propose at least four possible new genera.