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The TanDEM-X DEM is a valuable data source for estimating glacier mass balance. However, the accuracy of TanDEM-X elevation over glaciers can be affected by microwave penetration and phase decorrelation. To investigate the bias of TanDEM-X DEMs of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau, these DEMs were subtracted from SPOT-6 DEMs obtained around the same time at two study sites. The average bias over the studied glacier areas in West Kunlun (175.0 km2) was 2.106 ± 0.012 m in April 2014, and it was 1.523 ± 0.011 m in Geladandong (228.8 km2) in October 2013. By combining backscatter coefficients and interferometric coherence maps, we found surface decorrelation and baseline decorrelation can cause obvious bias in addition to microwave penetration. If the optical/laser data and winter TanDEM-X data were used as new and historic elevation sources for mass-balance measurements over an arbitrary observation period of 10 years, the glacier mass loss rates in West Kunlun and Geladandong would be potentially underestimated by 0.218 ± 0.016 and 0.158 ± 0.011 m w.e. a−1, respectively. The impact is therefore significant, and users should carefully treat the bias of TanDEM-X DEMs when retrieving a geodetic glacier mass balance.
This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Cryptorchidism represents one of the most common human congenital anomalies. In most cases, its etiology remains unclear and seems to be multifactorial. In the present study, a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for cryptorchidism was identified. Twin zygosity was confirmed by microsatellite genotyping. Whole exome sequencing and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) of DNA extract from leucocytes were performed to, respectively, evaluate their exomes and epigenomes. No differences in exome sequencing data were found between the twins after validation. MeDIP-Seq analysis detected 5,410 differentially hypermethylated genes and 2,383 differentially hypomethylated genes. Bioinformatic analysis showed that these genes belonged to several biological processes and signaling pathways, including regulation of actin cytoskeleton, which has been previously implicated in the etiology of cryptorchidism. The findings of the present study suggest that non-genetic factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of cryptorchidism.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
Tesla transformers are widely used in short pulse, repetition pulsed power generators. In this paper, a high repetitive rate intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) based on high coupling (~1) Tesla transformer, which consists of a primary charging system, coaxial pulse forming line (PFL) charged by Tesla transformer and gas spark switch is described, especially stressed on the high coupling Tesla transformer. By introducing magnetic core to enhance the coupling factor between the primary and secondary windings, the transformer is capable of producing high voltage pulse up to 1.4 MV in approximately 45 µs. A coaxial pulse forming line is closely attached to the transformer that the outer and inner magnetic cores are parts of the PFL's outer and inner conductors respectively. In addition, the parameters of the Tesla transformer and PFL are calculated, including the dimension of the PFL and Tesla transformer. Some experiment results showed that the IEBA is capable of producing electron beams of 300–700 kV/7–13 kA at repetitive rate 100 Hz, with the pulse width 35 ns. The maximal energy efficiency of the Tesla transformer is 83%.
To identify the disease-causing gene for a large multi-generational Chinese family affected by familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM), genome-wide screening was carried out in a Chinese family with FHCM using micro-satellite markers, and linkage analysis was performed using the MLINK program. The disease locus was mapped to 1q32 in this family. Screening for a mutation in the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) gene was performed by a PCR and sequencing was done with an ABI Prism 3700 sequencer. A novel C→G transition located in the ninth exon of the cTnT gene, leading to a predicted amino acid residue change from Ile to Met at codon 90, was identified in all individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The results presented here strongly suggest that Ile90Met, a novel mutation in the cTnT gene, is causative agent of HCM in this family.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
HbUEP, an ubiquitin extension protein gene from latex of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) was cloned and sequenced using a differentially ethphon-induced expressed cDNA subtraction library. The cDNA had 771 bp nucleotides, comprising a 226 bp 3′ untranslated region (UTR), 77 bp 5′UTR and a 468 bp open reading frame encoding a 156 amino acid peptide. Southern blotting analysis showed that this gene was a low copy number gene in the H. brasiliensis genome. Within 24 h after application of ethphon, the gene was expressed weakly in both control and latex sampled at 6 h, and strongly in latex sampled at 12 h, showing that this gene expression could be regulated by ethphon. Ethphon could increase the latex yield in H. brasiliensis. It is suggested that the HbUEP gene may be involved in the regulation of ethphon-induced high latex yield in H. brasiliensis.
To identify Porcine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) 67N receptor in porcine kidney (PK) cell membranes, the S1 protein of HEV was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatograph. Polyclonal antibodies to HEV were prepared by immunizing rabbits by injecting the purified S1 protein four times. After SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), the PK cell membrane proteins were transferred on to nitrocellulose membrane. A virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) was performed using the recombinant S1 protein to identify the protein binding receptor, HEV-S1. The result showed that HEV-S1 protein bound to one band (about 90 kDa) in PK cell membranes. This result is very important for the study of the pathogenic mechanism of HEV.
Zr/Ti an Hf/Ti composite nitrate were developed as single-source precursors for deposition of multi-component metal oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed that ZrxTi1-xO2 and HfxTi1-xO2 films were successfully prepared by the CVD technique from these composite precursors. The Zr/Ti nitrate can be taken as a solid solution of the individual Zr and Ti nitrate, and the Zr/Ti molar ratio in as-deposited ZrxTi1-xO2 films is nicely consistent with that of the precursor. The Hf/Ti nitrate appears to be a mixture of the Zr and Ti nitrates and the composition of the as-deposited HfxTi1-xO2 films depends remarkably on the heating time of precursor. Both ZrxTi1-xO2 and HfxTi1-xO2 films exhibit trading-off properties between band gap and dielectric constant, which suggesting that ZrxTi1-xO2 and HfxTi1-xO2 can be the promising candidates for gate dielectric application to improve the scalability and reduce the leakage current of the next generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor (CMOS) devices.
Tests were conducted to highlight the effects of donor cell treatment (bovine G0- and non-G0 phase somatic cells refrigerated for 1–5 or 12–14 days at 4°C), fusion solution (with or without cytochalasin B) and age of the rabbit (young, 3–5-months old; or multiparous, 10–12 months old) as oocyte donor on the fusion and mortality rates of bovine–rabbit interspecies reconstructed eggs. Results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in fusion and mortality rates of eggs reconstructed with G0 cells or non-G0 cells as nuclear donor somatic cells. The same was also true when nuclear donor somatic cells (G0 cells or non-G0 cells) were treated at low temperature (4°C) for 1–5 or 12–14 days. The fusion rate of reconstructed eggs did not change significantly (P>0.05) when adding cytochalasin B into the fusion solution, but the mortality rate increased significantly (P<0.05). No significant effect (P>0.05) was found in fusion rate of the eggs reconstructed with young rabbits' and multiparous rabbits' oocytes as recipient, but the mortality rate decreased significantly (P<0.01) for young rabbit oocytes compared with multiparous rabbit ones.
SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) films were prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates at 750 °C in oxygen by the metalorganic decomposition method. SBT film capacitors were postannealed in Ar (N2) at 350–750 °C and then reannealed in O2 at 750 °C. Effects of annealing atmosphere on the structure, morphology, and ferroelectric properties have been investigated systematically. The composition analyses indicate Ar- or N2-annealing at 750 °C leads to Bi evaporation and oxygen loss. Above 550 °C 100% Ar or N2 postannealing, the remnant polarization decreases and the coercive field increases significantly. The subsequent O2 recovery can hardly rejuvenate the electrical properties. The result is different from that with the effective O2 recovery in forming gas processing (annealing in an atmosphere containing 5% hydrogen). The possible origin and mechanism is discussed and proposed.
We prove a general identity between power series and use this identity to give proofs of a number of identities proposed by M.D. Hirschhorn. We also use the identity to give proofs of a well-known result of Jacobi, the quintuple-product identity and Winquist's identity.
The thermal stability of thin CoSi2 films formed from four layered structures: Co/Si, TiN/Co/Si, Co/Ti/Si and TiN/Co/Ti/Si has been studied using four-point-probe (FPP), TEM and RBS/channeling. It is found that thermal instability can be influenced by the polycrystalline structure in CoSi2. Growing epitaxial CoSi2 film on Si (100) using TiN capping and Ti interfacial layers can improve the thermal stability of thin CoSi2 film.
A new method of epitaxial growth of CoSi2 film on Si substrate by ternary solid state interaction is investigated. XRD, RBS and TEM show that single-crystalline CoSi2 can be formed on both Si (111) and (100) substrates by using Co/Ti/Si or TiN/Co/Ti/Si multilayer. The evolution of multilayer structure and its resistivity is studied and epitaxy mechanism is discussed. Experimental results indicate strong affinity between Co and Si. During the ternary interaction the epitaxial CoSi2 can be grown directly on Si and its growth may behave as a diffusion controlled process. The thickness of Ti layer and the annealing procedure have important effect on CoSi2 epitaxial growth.
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