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Biometric recognition technologies have become more important in the modern society due to their convenience with the recent informatization and the dissemination of network services. Among such technologies, face recognition is one of the most convenient and practical because it enables authentication from a distance without requiring any authentication operations manually. As far as we know, face recognition is susceptible to the changes in the appearance of faces due to aging, the surrounding lighting, and posture. There were a number of technical challenges that need to be resolved. Recently, remarkable progress has been made thanks to the advent of deep learning methods. In this position paper, we provide an overview of face recognition technology and introduce its related applications, including face presentation attack detection, gaze estimation, person re-identification and image data mining. We also discuss the research challenges that still need to be addressed and resolved.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
The phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depression symptomatology has been mostly studied in Western samples. In this study, we conducted a genetically informed factor analysis to elucidate both the phenotypic and aetiological architectures of self-reported depression among a Japanese adult twin sample.
Depressive symptoms assessed by Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale were self-rated by 425 twin pairs (301 monozygotic and 124 dizygotic twin pairs) in a community sample in Japan.
An exploratory factor analysis extracted three symptom domains representing cognitive, affective and somatic symptomatology. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a bi-factor solution fitted better than the alternative solutions, implying that depression may be defined as a combination of a single general construct and three factors specific to each of the three symptom domains. A multivariate genetic analysis with the bi-factor solution showed that the general factor was substantially heritable (47%), and that only the affective symptom domain was significantly heritable (29%) among the three specific factors, their remaining variance being explained by non-shared environmental influences.
Depression symptomatology appears to be adequately captured by a substantially heritable general factor. The heritability of this factor (47%) in a Japanese adult sample is in line with commonly reported heritability estimates for depression. The three specific factors – cognitive, affective and somatic – are mostly explained by non-shared environmental factors, which include measurement error. The extent to which these specific factors are uniquely associated with correlates of depression when the general factor is accounted for should be investigated in future studies.
We report our systematic survey observations of protostellar sources with the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The purpose of our survey is to investigate formation mechanism of protoplanetary disks, precursors of planetary systems, out of ~1000 AU-scale protostellar envelopes surrounding the protostars. We found that in the early protostars (B335, NGC1333 IRAS 4B), the envelopes do not show significant rotating motions but infalling motions toward the central protostars. In more evolved protostars (L1527 IRS, L1448-mm, L1551 IRS 5), the envelopes are infalling and rotating with the conserved specific angular momenta (that is, vrot ∝ r−1). In most evolved sources (L1551 NE, TMC-1A, L1489 IRS) large-scale (≳100 AU) disks in Keplerian rotation or protoplanetary disks are evident. These results demonstrate a systematic evolutionary trend of envelope gas motions toward the disk formation.
Contributions of electronic (or ligand) and geometric (or ensemble) effects on the AuM bimetallic nano-catalyst were elucidated by using a simple aerobic oxidation of 1-phenylethanol to acetophenone on the basis of difference in the ionization energy values (Ei) between Au and M elements. The poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-protected Au60M40 bimetallic NPs (M = Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt and Ir) were prepared with a polyol reduction method, and stabilized onto the solid base hydrotalcite support affording the Au60M40-PVP/HT catalysts. The yields for acetophenone were observed as the following order; Au60Pd40-PVP/HT (>99%) >> Au60Ag40-PVP/HT (17.4%) > Au60Cu40-PVP/HT (13.8%) > Au60Pt40-PVP/HT (7.1%) > Au60Ir40-PVP/HT (5.5%), at 343 K for 6 h. Differences in the Ei between Au and M (EiAu-EiM) indicted that the yields over the Ag, Cu, Pt, and Ir incorporated Au catalysts were well-understood on the ligand effects theory, though geometric factors such as differences in nanostructure around Au atom in Au60M40 NPs on HT should be further considered as other contributed factors. The significant activity on Au60Pd40-PVP/HT was studied in terms of the electron density of Pd atoms. It was observed that the Pd 4d density was varied by the amount of Au loading. According to these observations combined with our previous studies, we suggest that the advantages in AuPd bimetallic catalyst are not only in the ligand effect serving negatively-charged Au but also the ensemble effect of neighbor Pd, and they synergistically contribute to the novel activity for aerobic alcohol oxidation over AuPd catalyst.
The Keio Twin Research Center has conducted two longitudinal twin cohort projects and has collected three independent and anonymous twin data sets for studies of phenotypes related to psychological, socio-economic, and mental health factors. The Keio Twin Study has examined adolescent and adult cohorts, with a total of over 2,400 pairs of twins and their parents. DNA samples are available for approximately 600 of these twin pairs. The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project has followed a total of 1,600 twin pairs from infancy to early childhood. The large-scale cross-sectional twin study (CROSS) has collected data from over 4,000 twin pairs, from 3 to 26 years of age, and from two high school twin cohorts containing a total of 1,000 pairs of twins. These data sets of anonymous twin studies have mainly targeted academic performance, attitude, and social environment. The present article introduces the research designs and major findings of our center, such as genetic structures of cognitive abilities, personality traits, and academic performances, developmental effects of genes and environment on attitude, socio-cognitive ability and parenting, genes x environment interaction on attitude and conduct problem, and statistical methodological challenges and so on. We discuss the challenges in conducting twin research in Japan.
We examined whether effortful control (EC), a temperament proposed by Rothbart and Bates (1998), has genetically coherent structure. A self- report measure of EC was administered to 450 Japanese twins (151 males and 299 females, ages 17 to 32 years) including 152 monozygotic and 73 dizygotic pairs. Univariate genetic analysis revealed that AE model fit best for the total EC as well as its subscales. The heritability estimate for total EC was 49%, and the estimates for subscales ranged between 32% and 45%. Multivariate genetic analysis revealed that the subscales of EC were genetically correlated to a high degree and environmentally correlated to a moderate degree. These results suggest that EC has substantial genetic basis and genetically coherent structure, supporting the validity of the construct. The implications to molecular genetic study and study of psychopathology were discussed.
The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) is a large-scale longitudinal study of 5 years based on 1619 pairs of infant twins reared together. The purpose of the study is to construct a population-based twin registry in Japan and to investigate human growth and development and twin themselves. It covers behavioral, neurological, physical and environmental variables measured by questionnaire, home visiting and brain imaging technology. The full registry contains over 47,000 multiple births collected from the Basic Resident Register, and the targeted population is 3070 probable twins of 0 to 2 years old. Preliminary analysis of the entry questionnaire data showed no serious sampling biases. Descriptive statistics of parental characteristics (parental age, gestation age, parity and placentation, maternal weight, parenting stress) and children's characteristics (body size at birth, 4 and 10 months of age, milk consumption, and sleeping and social behavior) and their correlations, genetic and environmental contributions and correlations are reported.
Effects of dietary protein restriction and ovariectomy on plasma concentrations and hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) were investigated in young female rats. Ovariectomy increased plasma IGF-I concentration in rats fed on either a 50 g casein/kg diet (protein-restricted diet) or a 200 g casein/kg diet (control diet), but it increased IGF-I mRNA in liver only in the rats fed on the control diet. On the other hand, by Western ligand blot analysis, we observed that ovariectomy increased plasma IGFBP-3 concentration, and decreased plasma IGFBP-4 concentration. Ovariectomy did not affect IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 mRNA in liver, but dietary protein restriction significantly increased them, which may correspond to their plasma concentrations. The present results show that ovarian hormones and dietary protein content affect the plasma concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4 and hepatic mRNA of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4 in different manners.
It has been reported that loss of ovarian oestrogen after menopause or by ovariectomy causes osteoporosis. In order to elucidate the effect of dietary protein restriction on bone metabolism after ovariectomy, we fed ovariectomized young female rats on a casein-based diet (50g/kg diet (protein restriction) or 200g/kg diet (control)) for 3 weeks and measured mRNA contents of bone-matrix proteins such as osteocalcin, osteopontin and α1 type I collagen, insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) in femur. Ovariectomy decreased the weight of fat-free dry bone and increased urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links significantly, although dietary protein restriction did not affect them. Neither ovariectomy nor protein restriction affected the content of mRNA of osteopontin and osteocalcin; however, ovariectomy increased and protein restriction extensively decreased the α1 type I collagen mRNA content in bone tissues. Ovariectomy increased IGF-I mRNA only in the rats fed on the control diet. Conversely, protein rest riction increased and ovariectomy decreased the IGF-II mRNA content in femur. Furthermore, the contents of IGFBP-2, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 mRNA increased, but the content of IGFBP-3 mRNA decreased in femur of the rats fed on the protein-restricted diet. In particular, ovariectomy decreased the IGFBP-2 mRNA content in the protein-restricted rats and the IGFBP-6 mRNA content in the rats fed on the control diet. These results clearly show that the mRNA for some of the proteins which have been shown to be involved in bone formation are regulated by both quantity of dietary proteins and ovarian hormones.
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